Welding with High Power Lasers

  • E. M. Breinan
  • C. M. Banas
Part of the Sagamore Army Materials Research Conference Proceedings book series (SAMC, volume 25)


Lasers date back to 1960(1) which earmarked the initial operation of a ruby laser. For the following years, average laser output power remained low and, as a result, the development of materials processing applications progressed slowly. An important commercial application evolved in 1965(2) when the Western Electric Company adapted a pulsed system for production drilling of diamond wire drawing dies. In this application the processing time for drilling of a die was reduced from 24 hours for conventional techniques to less than one hour with lasers. A variety of commercial drilling applications have since been developed; one of the most successful being laser drilling of cooling passages in gas turbine parts (2,3). The success of these initial production applications hinged on the laser’s ability to accurately deliver a precisely controlled amount of energy to a highly localized region of a workpiece.


Base Metal Fusion Zone Welding Speed Laser Weld High Power Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Maiman, T. H.: Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby Masers. Nature, Vol. 187, 1960, p. 493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Charschan, S. S. Editor: Lasers in Industry. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ready, J. F.: Effects of High Power Laser Radiation. Academic Press, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geusic, J. E., et al.: Laser Oscillations in Nd-Doped Yttrium Aluminum, Yttrium Gallium, and Gadolinium Garnets, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 4, 1964, p. 182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Patel, C. K. N,: Continuous-Wave Laser Action on Vibrational-Rotational Transitions of CO2. Physical Review, Vol. 136, 1964, p. A1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Patel, C. K. N., P. K. Tien and J. H. McFee: CW, High-Power CO2-N2He Laser. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 7, No. 11, Dec. 1965, pp. 290–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harrigan, F. A., R. I. Rudko and D. T. Wilson: High-Power Gas Laser Research. Raytheon Report S-1037 on Contract DAAH01–67-C1589, Jan. 10, 1968.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown, C. O.: High Power, CO2, Electric Discharge Mixing Laser. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 17, No. 9, Nov. 1970, pp. 388–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davis, J. W. and C. O. Brown: Electric Discharge Convection Lasers. Paper 72–722 presented at the AIAA 5th Flux and Plasma Dynamics Conference, Boston, MA, June 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alwang, W. G., L. A. Cavanaugh, and E. Sammartino: Continuous Butt Welding Using a Carbon-Dioxide Laser. Welding Research Supplement, Mar. 1969, pp. 1105–1155.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Banas, C. M.: The Role of the Laser in Materials Processing. Presented at the Canadian Welding and Materials Technology Conference, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 29 – Oct. 1, 1969.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    CO2 Laser Welding Joins the Parade: Welding Engineer, Aug. 1970, pp. 42–44.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, C. O. and C. M. Banas: Deep-Penetration Laser Welding. Paper presented at the AWS 52nd Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, April 26–29, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tong, H. and W. H. Giedt: Depth of Penetration During Electron Beam Welding. ASME Paper No. 70-WA/HT-2.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burwell, W. G.: Review of High Power Laser Technology. Presented at the 3rd R.P.I. Workshop on Laser Interactions and Related Plasma Phenomena, Troy, NY, Aug. 13–17, 1973.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Locke, E. V., E. D. Hoag and R. A. Hella: Deep-Penetration Welding with High Power, CO2 Lasers. IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE-8, No. 2, Feb. 1972.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Banas, C. M.: Laser Welding Developments. Proceedings of the CEGB International Conference on Welding Research Related to Power Plant, Southampton, England, Sept. 17–21, 1972.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ball, W. C, and C. M. Banas: Welding with a High-Power, CO2 Laser, SAE Paper No. 740863, Oct. 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Breinan, E. M. and C. M. Banas: Preliminary Evaluation of Laser Welding of X-80 Arctic Pipeline Steel. WRC Bulletin No. 201, Dec. 1974.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Breinan, E. M. and C. M. Banas: Fusion Zone Purification During Welding with High Power CO2 Lasers, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium of the Japan Welding Society, Osaka, Japan, Aug. 25–29, 1975.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Breinan, E. M., C. M. Banas, G. P. McCarthy and B. A. Jacob: Evaluation of Basic Laser Welding Capabilities, Technical Report R77–911989–10, Contract N00014–74-C-0423, United Technologies Research Center, E. Hartford, Conn., March 1977.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Breinan, E. M. and C. M. Banas: Fatigue of Laser-Welded Titanium 6A1–4V Alloy, Report No. R75–412260–1, United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT, July 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baardsen, E. L., D. J. Schmatz and R. E. Bisaro: High Speed Welding of Sheet Steel with a CO2 Laser, Welding Journal, April 1973.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Webster, J. W.: Welding at High Speed with the CO2 Laser, Metal Process, Nov. 1970.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Meier, J. W.: High Power Density Electron Beam Welding of Several Materials. Paper presented at the Second International Vacuum Congress, Washington, D.C., Oct. 10–16, 1961.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meier, J. W.: Recent Developments in Non-vacuum Electron Beam Welding. Paper presented at the International Conference on Electron and Ion Beam Science and Technology, Toronto, Canada, May 6, 1974.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hablanian, M. H.: A Correlation of Welding Variables. Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Electron Beam Technology, 1963.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Breinan, E. M. and C. M. Banas: Evaluation of Basic Laser Welding Capabilities, Technical Report R76–911989–4, Contract N00014–74-C-0423, United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Conn., Nov. 1975.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Swifthook, D. and A. E. F. Gick: Penetration Welding with the Laser, AWS Journal, Nov. 1973.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Banas, C. M. and G. T. Peters: Study of the Feasibility of Laser Welding in Merchant Ship Construction. Final Report to Bethlehem Steel Corp. in support of Contract 2–36214-U.S. Department of Commerce, Aug. 1974.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yessick, M. and D. J. Schmatz: Laser Processing in the Automotive Industry. SME Paper MR74–962, 1974.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Banas, C. M., D. M. Royster, D. Rutz, and D. Anderson: Comparison of Electron Beam, Laser Beam, and Plasma-Arc Welding of Ti-6A1–4V. Presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Welding Society, Cleveland, Ohio, Apr. 21–25, 1975.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Adams, M. J.: CO2 Laser Welding of Aero Engine Materials. Report No. 3335/3/73, British Welding Institute, Cambridge, England, 1973.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hill, D. C., and D. E. Passoja, “Understanding the Role of Inclusions and Microstructure in Ductile Fracture,” Welding Research Supplement to the Welding Journal, Nov. 1974, pp. 4815–4855.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seaman, F. D., “Welding with a Multikilowatt CO2 Laser,” SME Paper No. MR74–957.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. M. Breinan
    • 1
  • C. M. Banas
    • 1
  1. 1.United Technologies Research CenterEast HartfordUSA

Personalised recommendations