Vesiculobullous Skin Diseases

  • Robert E. Jordon
  • Thomas T. Provost
Part of the Comprehensive Immunology book series (COMIMUN, volume 7)


Pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, cicatricial pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, and chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood compose the nonhereditary vesiculobullous skin diseases in man. All of these disease processes have had specific immunopathological findings. In the present chapter, we wish to review the salient observations to date which suggest that the above-mentioned diseases are indeed immunological diseases.


Bullous Pemphigoid Erythema Multiforme Dermatitis Herpetiformis Blister Fluid Normal Human Skin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackerman, A. B., Pennys, N. S., and Clark, W. H., 1971, Erythema multiforme exudativum: Distinctive pathologic process, Br. J. Dermatol. 84: 554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, A. R., Chu, T. M., and Provost, T. T., 1977a, Bullous pemphigoid: Clinical and serological evaluation for associate malignancy, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed, A. R., Cohen, E., Blumenson, L., and Provost, T. T., 1977b, HLA in bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed, A. R., Maize, J., and Provost, T. T., 1977c, Bulbous pemphigoid: Clinical and immunologic follow-up after successful therapy, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Albin, R. J., Milgrom, F., Kano, K., Beutner, E. H., and Rapaport, F., 1969, Pemphigus-like antibodies in patients with skin burns, Vox Sang. 16: 73.Google Scholar
  6. Arbesman, C. E., Wypych, J. I., Reisman, R. E., and Beutner, E. H., 1974, IgE levels in sera of patients with pemphigus or bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 110: 378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baba, T., Sonozaki, H., Seki, K., Uchiyama, M., Iksawa, Y., and Torisu, M., 1976, An eosinophil chemotactic factor present in blister fluids of bullous pemphigoid patients, J. Immunol. 116: 112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bean, S. F., 1974, Cicatricial pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 110: 552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bean, S. F., and Jordon, R. E., 1974, Chronic nonhereditary blistering disease in children, Arch. Dermatol. 110: 941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beutner, E. H., and Jordon, R. E., 1964, Demonstration of skin antibodies in sera of pemphigus vulgaris patients by indirect immunofluorescent staining, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 117: 505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beutner, E. H., Lever, W. F., Witebsky, E., Jordon, R. E., and Chertock, B., 1965, Autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris: Response to an intercellular substance of epidermis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 192: 682.Google Scholar
  12. Beutner, E. H., Chorzelski, T. P., Hale, W. L., and Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I., 1968, Autoimmunity in concurrent myasthenia gravis and pemphigus erythematosus, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 203: 845.Google Scholar
  13. Beutner, E. H., Chorzelski, T. P., and Jordon, R. E., 1970, Autosensitization in Pemphigus and Bulbous Pemphigoid (monograph), 194 pp., Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  14. Bushkell, L. L., Jordon, R. E., and Goltz, R. W., 1974, Herpés gestationis. New immunological findings, Arch. Dermatol. 110: 65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carruthers, J. A., Black, M. M., and Ramnarain, N., 1977, Immunological studies in herpes gestationia, Br. J. Dermatol. 96: 35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chorzelski, T. P., von Weiss, J. V., and Lever, W. F., 1966, Clinical significance of autoantibodies in pemphigus, Arch. Dermatol. 93: 570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chorzelski, T. P., Jablonska, S., and Blaszczyk, M., 1968a, Immunopathological investigations in the Senear-Usher syndrome (coexistence of pemphigus and lupus erythematosus), Br. J. Dermatol. 80: 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chorzelski, T. P., Jablonska, S., Blaszczyk, M., and Jarzabek, M., 1968b, Autoantibodies in pemphigoid, Dermatologica 136: 325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chorzelski, T. P., Maciejowski, E., Jablonska, S., De-Mento, F. J., Grover, R. W., Holubar, K. and Beutner, E. H., 1974, Coexistence of pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 109: 849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chorzelski, T. P., Jablonska, S., Beutner, E. H., Maciejowska, E., and Jarzabek-Chorzelska, M., 1976, Herpes gestationis with identical lesions in the newborn, Arch. Dermatol. 112: 1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cormane, R. H., and Giannetti, A., 1971, IgD in various dermatosis. Immunofluorescent studies, Br. J. Dermatol. 84: 523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cram, D. L., and Fukuyama, K., 1972, Immunochemistry of ultraviolet-induced pemphigus and pemphigoid lesions, Arch. Dermatol. 106: 819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cram, D. L., Griffith, M. R., and Fukuyama, K., 1974, Pemphigus-like antibodies in cicatricial pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 109: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dantzig, P., 1973, Circulating antibodies in cicatricial pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 108: 264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Deng, J. S., Beutner, E. H., Shu, S., and Chorzelski, T. P., 1977, Pemphigus antibody action on skin explants, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Diaz, L. A., Calvanico, N. J., Tomasi, T. B., Jr., and Jordon, R. E., 1977, Bullous pemphigoid antigen: Isolation from normal human skin, J. Immunol. 118: 455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Diaz-Perez, J. L., and Jordon, R. E., 1976, The complement system in bullous pemphigoid. IV. Chemotactic activity in blister fluid, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 5: 360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dobmeier, L. J., Sams, W. M., Jr., and Beutner, E. H., 1977, Intercellular antibodies in a patient without clinical pemphigus, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 177: 218.Google Scholar
  29. Esterly, N. B., Furey, N. L., Kirschner, B. S., Kretschmer, R. R., and Septon, R. M., 1977, Chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Farb, R. M., Dykes, R., and Lazarus, G. S., 1978, Anti-epidermal cell surface pemphigus antibody detaches viable epidermal cells from culture plates by activation of proteinase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fearon, D. T., and Austen, K. F., 1975, Properdin binding in C3b and stabilization of the C3b-dependent C3 convertase, J. Exp. Med. 142: 856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Feltner, M. J., Fukuyama, K., Moshell, A., and Klaus, M. V., 1973, Intercellular antibodies in blood and epidermis: A histochemical study of IgG immunoglobulins in patients with late reactions to penicillins and their comparison with similar antibodies in patients with pemphigus vulgaris, Br. J. Dermatol. 89: 115.Google Scholar
  33. Gordon, II., 1967, Herpes gestationis and the “pill,” Br. Med. J. 1: 52.Google Scholar
  34. Griffith, M. R., Fukuyama, K., Tuffanelli, D., and Silverman, S., 1974, Immunofluorescent studies in mucous membrane pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 109: 195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Grob, P. J., Inderbitzen, T. M., 1967, Pemphigus antigen and blood group substances A and B, J. Invest. Dermatol. 49: 285.Google Scholar
  36. Hardy, K. M., Perry, H. O., Pingree, G. C., and Kirby, T. J., 1971, Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 104: 467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hashimoto, K., and Lever, W. F., 1967, An electron microscopic study of pemphigus vulgaris of the mouth and the skin with special reference to the intercellular cement, J. Invest. Dermatol. 48: 540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hashimoto, K., Miki, Y., Nakata, S., and Matsuyama, M., 1977, HLA-A10 in pemphigus among Japanese, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Heine, K. G., Kumar, A., and Jordon, R. E., 1977, Pemphigus-like antibodies in bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hertz, K. C., Katz, S. I., Maize, J., and Ackerman, A. B., 1976, Herpes gestationis. A clinical pathologic study, Arch. Dermatol. 112: 1543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Holubar, K., Hönigsmann, H., and Wolff, K., 1973, Cicatricial pemphigoid immunofluorescent investigations, Arch. Dermatol. 108: 50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Holubar, K., Wolff, K., Konrad, K., and Beutner, E. H., 1975, Ultrastructure localization of immunoglobuline in bullous pemphigoid skin, J. Invest. Dermatol. 64: 220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Honeyman, J. F., Honeyman, A., Lobitz, W. C., and Storrs, F. J., 1972, The engima of bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis, Arch. Dermatol. 106: 22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hönigsmann, H., Stingl, G., Holubar, K., and Wolff, K., 1976, Herpes gestationis: Fine structural pattern of immunoglobulin deposits in the skin in vivo, J. Invest. Dermatol. 66: 389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jablonska, S., Chorzelski, T. P., Beutner, E. H., Maciejowska, E., and Rzesa, G., 1975, Immunologic phenomena in herpes gestationis, Arch. Dermatol. Forsch 252: 267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jablonska, S., Chorzelski, T. P., Beutner, E. H., Maciejowska, E., and Rzesa, G., 1976, Dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid. Intermediate and mixed forms, Arch. Dermatol. 112: 45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jordon, R. E., 1976, Complement activation in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid, J. Invest. Dermatol. 67: 366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jordon, R. E., and McDuffie, F. C., 1976, Serum and blister fluid anticomplementary activity in pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Sucrose density gradient studies, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 151: 594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jordon, R. E., Beutner, E. H., Witebsky, E., Blumental, G., Hale, W. L., and Lever, W. F., 1967, Basement zone antibodies in bullous pemphigoid, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 200: 751.Google Scholar
  50. Jordon, R. E., Sams, W. M., Jr., and Beutner, E. H., 1969, Complement immunofluorescent staining in bullous pemphigoid, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 74: 548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jordon, R. E., Bean, S. F., Triftshauser, C. T., and Winkelmann, R. K., 1970, Childhood bullous dermatitis herpetiformis: Negative immunofluorescent tests, Arch. Dermatol. 101: 629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jordon, R. E., Sams, W. M., Jr., Diaz, G., and Beutner, E. H., 1971a, Negative complement immunofluorescence in pemphigus, J. Invest. Dermatol. 57: 407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jordon, R. E., Triftshauser, C. T., and Schroeter, A. L., 1971b, Direct immunofluorescent studies of pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 103: 486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jordon, R. E., Day, N. K., Luckasen, J. R., and Good, R. A., 1973a, Complement activation in pemphigus vulgaris blister fluid, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 15: 53.Google Scholar
  55. Jordon, R. E., Day, N. K., Sams, W. M., Jr., and Good, R. A., 1973b, The complement system in bullous pemphigoid. I. Complement and component levels in sera and blister fluids, J. Clin. Invest. 52: 1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jordon, R. E., Schroeter, A. L., Rogers, R. S., III, and Perry, H. O., 1974, Classical and alternate pathway activation of complement in pemphigus vulgaris lesions, J. Invest. Dermatol. 63: 256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jordon. R. E., Norby, J. M., and Milstein, H., 1975a, The complement system in bullous pemphigoid. III. Fixation of Clq and C4 by pemphigoid antibody, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 86: 733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jordon, R. E., Schroeter, A. L., Good, R. A., and Day, N. K., 19756, The complement system in bullous pemphigoid. II. Immunofluorescent evidence for both classical and alternate pathway activation, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 3: 307.Google Scholar
  59. Jordon, R. E., Heine, K. G., Tappeiner, G., Bushkell, L. L., and Provost, T. T., 1976, The immunopathology of herpes gestationis: Immunofluorescence studies and characterization of “HG factor,” J. Clin. Invest. 57: 1426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jordon, R. E., Nordby-McFarland, J. M., and Tappeiner, G., 1978, The complement system in bullous pemphigoid. V. In vitro fixation of properdin by pemphigoid antibody, J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 1: 59.Google Scholar
  61. Katz, A., Minta, J. O., Toole, J. W. P., and Medwidsky, W., 1977, Immunopathologic study of herpes gestationis in mother and infant, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Katz, S. I., Dahl, M. V., Penneys, N., Trapani, R. J., and Rogentine N., 1973, HLA antigens in pemphigus, Arch. Dermatol. 8: 53.Google Scholar
  63. Katz, S. I., Hertz, K. C., and Yaoita, H., 1976, Herpes gestationis: Immunopathology and characterization of the HG factor, J. Clin. Invest. 57: 1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kazmierowski, J. A., and Wuepper, K. D., 1977, Erythema multiforme: Immune complex vasculitis of the superficial cutaneous microvasculature, Clin. Res. 25: 282 (abstract).Google Scholar
  65. Kim, R., and Winkelmann, R. A., 1961, Dermatitis herpetiformis in children. Relationship to bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 83: 895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kocsis, M., Eeg, T. L., Husby, G., and Rajka, G., 1975, Immunofluorescent studies in herpes gestationis, Acta Derm. Venereol. 55: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kolodny, R. E., 1969, Herpes gestationis, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 104: 39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Krain, L. S., 1974, The association of pemphigus with thymoma or malignancy: A critical review, Br. J. Dermatol. 90: 397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Krain, L. S., Terasaki, P. I., Newcomer, V. D., and Mickey, M. R., 1973, Increased frequency of HL-AI0 in pemphigus vulgaris, Arch. Dermatol. 108: 203.Google Scholar
  70. Lever, W. F., 1965, Pemphigus and Pemphigoid (monograph), 266 pp., Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  71. Lever, W. F., and Hashimoto, K., 1969, The etiology and treatment of pemphigus and pemphigoid, J. Invest. Dermatol. 53: 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lever, W. F., and Schaumburg-Lever, G., 1977, Immunosuppressants and prednisone in pemphigus vulgaris, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lynch, F. W., and Albrecht, R. J., 1966, Hormonal factors in herpes gestationis, Arch. Dermatol. 93: 446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mackie,R. M., 1977, Pemphigus, chronic mucocutaneous and candidiasis, thymoma and T cell deficiency, in: Proceedings of the International Congress on Dermatology,Mexico City, Mexico.Google Scholar
  75. Maize, J. C., Dobson, R. L., and Provost, T. T., 1975, Pemphigus and myasthenia gravis, Arch. Dermatol. 111: 1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Meurer, M., MilIns, J. L., Rogers, R. S., III, and Jordon, R. E., 1977, Oral pemphigus vulgaris, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Michel, B., Bean, S. F., Chorzelski, T., and Fedele, C. F., 1977, Cicatricial pemphigoid of Brunsting-Perry: Immunofluorescent studies, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell, D. M., 1966, Herpes gestationis and the “pill,” Br. Med. J. 2: 1324 (letter to theeditor).Google Scholar
  79. Miyagawa, S., and Sakamoto, K., 1977, Characterization of cryoprecipitates in pemphigus: Demonstration of pemphigus antibody activity in cryoprecipitates using the immunofluorescent technique, J. Invest. Dermatol. 69: 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nydegger, U. E., Lambert, P. H., Gerber, H., and Meischer, P. A., 1974, Circulating immune complexes in the serum in systemic lupus erythematosus and in carriers of hepatitis B antigen: Quantitation by binding to radiolabeled Clq, J. Clin. Invest. 54: 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. O’Loughlin, S., Goldman, G. C., and Provost, T. T., 1978, Fate of pemphigus antibody following successful therapy, Arch. Dermatol. 114: 1769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Peck, S. M., Osserman, K. E., and Rule, A. H., 1972, Intercellular antibodies: Presence of a trichophyton rubrum infection, J. Invest. Dermatol. 58: 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Person, J. R., Rogers, R. S., III, and Perry, H. O., 1976, Localized pemphigoid, Br. J. Dermatol. 95: 531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Person, J. R., Rogers, R. S., III, and Jordon, R. E., 1977, Cicatricial pemphigoid with circulating antibasement membrane antibodies, Dermatologica 154: 90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pierard, J., Thilry, M., and Kent, A., 1969, Histologic et ultrastructure de l’herpes gestationis, Arch. Belg. Dermatol. Syphiligr. 25: 321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Provost, T. T., and Tomasi, T. B., Jr., 1973, Evidence for complement activation via the alternate pathway in skin diseases. I. Herpes gestationis, systemic lupus erythematosus and bullous pemphigoid, J. Clin. Invest. 52: 1779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Provost, T. T., and Tomasi, T. B., Jr., 1974, Immunopathology of bullous pemphigoid basement membrane deposition of IgE alternate pathway components in fibrin, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 18: 193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Provost, T. T., Yaoita, H., and Katz, S. E., 1978, Herpes gestationis, in: Immunopathology of the Skin (E. H. Beutner ed.), Chap. 12, pp. 273–282, Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Prystowsky, S., and Gilliam, J. N., 1976, Benign chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood: Linear IgA and C3 deposition on the basement membrane, Arch. Dermatol. 112: 837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rogers, R. S., III, Perry, H. O., Bean, S. F., and Jordon, R. E., 1977, Immunopathology of cicatricial pemphigoid. Studies of complement deposition, J. Invest. Dermatol. 68: 39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Safai, B., Good, R. A., and Day, N. K., 1977, Erythema multiforme: Report of two cases and speculation of immune mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 7: 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sams, W. M., Jr., and Gleich, G. J., 1971, Failure to transfer bullous pemphigoid with serum from patients, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 136: 1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sams, W. M., Jr., and Jordon, R. E., 1971, Correlation of pemphigoid and pemphigus antibody titers with activity of disease, Br. J. Dermatol. 84: 7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sams, W. M., Jr., and Schur, P. H., 1973, Studies of the antibodies in pemphigoid and pemphigus, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 82: 249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schaumberg-Lever, G., Orfanos, C. E., and Lever, W. F., 1972, Electron mitroscopic study of bullous pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 106: 662.Google Scholar
  96. Schaumberg-Lever, G., Saffold, O. E., Orfanos, C. E., and Lever, W. F., 1973, Herpes gestationis: Histology and ultrastructure, Arch. Dermatol. 107: 888.Google Scholar
  97. Schaumberg-Lever, G., Rule, A., Schmidt-Ulrigh, B., and Lever, W. F., 1975, Ultrastructure localization of in vivo bound immunoglobulins in bullous pemphigoid, J. Invest. Dermatol. 64: 47.Google Scholar
  98. Schlitz, J. R., and Michel, B., 1976, Production of epidermal acantholysis in normal human skin in vitro by the IgG fraction from pemphigus serum, J. Invest. Dermatol. 67: 254.Google Scholar
  99. Schmidt, Ulrich, B., Rule, A., Schaumberg-Lever, G., and Leblac, C., 1975, Ultrastructural localization of in vivo bound complement in bullous pemphigoid, J. Invest. Dermatol. 65: 217.Google Scholar
  100. Schreiber, R. D., Medicus, R. F., Gotze, O., and Müller-Eberhard, H. J., 1976, Properdin and nephritic factor dependent C3 convertases: Requirement of native C3 for enzyme formation and the function of bound C3b as properdin receptor, J. Exp. Med. 142: 760.Google Scholar
  101. Shelley, W. F., 1967, Herpes simplex virus as a cause of erythema multiforme, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 201:153. Shklar, G., and McCarthy, P. L., 1971, Oral lesions of mucous membrane pemphigoid. A study of 85 cases, Arch. Otolaryngol. 93: 354.Google Scholar
  102. Sneddon, I. B., and Church, R., 1955, Diagnosis and treatment of pemphigoid. Report of 22 cases, Br. Med. J. 2: 1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sobel, A. T., Bokisch, V. A., and Müller-Eberhard, H. J., 1975, C1q deviation test for the detection of immune complexes, aggregate of IgG, and bacterial products in human serum, J. Exp. Med. 142: 139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stevenson, C. J., 1960, Treatment in bullous diseases with corticosteroid drugs and corticotrophin, Br. J. Dermatol. 72: 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Stone, S. P., and Schroeter, A. L., 1975, Bullous pemphigoid and associated malignancy neoplasms, Arch. Dermatol. 111: 991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Szulman, A. E., 1960, The histological distribution of blood group substances A and B in man, J. Exp. Med. 111: 785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tagami, H., and Imamura, S., 1974, Benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, Arch. Dermatol. 109: 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tappeiner, G., Heine, K. G., Kahl, J. C., and Jordon, R. E., 1977, Clq binding substances in pemphigus and bulbous pemphigoid: Detection with a 1911 CIq binding assay, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 28: 40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. van Joost, T., Cormane, R. H., and Pondman, K. W., 1972, Direct immunofluorescent study of the skin on the occurrence of complement in pemphigus, Br. J. Dermatol. 87: 466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Voelter, W. W., Newell, G. B., Schwartz, S. L., Bean, S. F., and Mullins, J. F., 1973, Familial occurrence of pemphigus foliaceous, Arch. Dermatol. 108: 93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Waldorf, D. S., Smith, C. W., and Strauss, A. J. L., 1966, Immunofluorescent studies in pemphigus vulgaris: Confirmatory observations and evaluation of technical considerations, Arch. Dermatol. 93: 28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wintrobe, B. U., Soter, N. A., Mihm, M. C., Jr., Goetzel, E. J.,and Austen, K. F., 1977, Functional and morphologic evidence of mast cell involvement in bullous pemphigoid, Clin. Res. 25:2 A (abstract).Google Scholar
  113. Wolff, K., and Schreiner, E., 1971, Ultrastructural localization of pemphigus autoantibodies within the epidermis, Nature (London) 229: 59.Google Scholar
  114. Wood, G. W., Beutner, E. H., and Chorzelski, T. P., 1972, Studies in immunodermatology. II. Production of pemphigus-like lesions by intradermal injections of monkeys with Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus sera, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 42: 556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Yaoita, H., and Katz, S. I., 1976, Immunoelectronmicroscopic localization of IgA in skin of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, J. Invest. Dermatol. 67: 502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Yaoita, H., Gullino, M., and Katz, S. I., 1976, Herpes gestationis. Ultrastructure and ultrastructural localization of in vivo bound complement, J. Invest. Dermatol. 66: 383.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Jordon
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Thomas T. Provost
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Research ServiceVeterans Administration CenterWood (Milwaukee)USA
  2. 2.Dermatology Section, Department of MedicineThe Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations