Advertisement

Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis, and Phototoxic Dermatitis

  • Rudolf L. Baer
  • David R. Bickers
Part of the Comprehensive Immunology book series (COMIMUN, volume 7)

Abstract

Allergic eczematous contact dermatitis (ACD) is a disease of great clinical, scientific, and historical interest. This is in part due to the very characteristic changes in the epidermis and dermis evoked by this perhaps most uniquely “cutaneous” immunological response. Its historical interest derives from the fact that some of the first recognized cardinal clinical features of immune responses in man can be traced to ACD. These include the clear-cut relationship between clinical exposure to the allergen and the resultant predictable clinical and histological changes, the reproduction of the disease by deliberate exposure to the allergen, and the development of the patch test as a clinically useful tool.

Keywords

Migration Inhibitory Factor Contact Dermatitis Allergic Contact Dermatitis Cutaneous Contact Contact Allergy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, A. C., Magnus, I. A., and Young, M. R., 1966, Role of lysosomes and of cell membranes in photosensitization, Nature 209: 874–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, R. L., 1964, Allergic eczematous sensitization in man, 1936 and 1964, J. Invest. Dermatol. 43: 223–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer, R. L., and Rosenthal, S. A., 1972, Induction of cross-tolerance for contact sensitivity by a non-immunogenic chemical. Feeding dichloronitrobenzene induced tolerance to dinitrochlorobenzene. J. Immunol. 108: 706–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer, R. L., and Sulzberger, M. D., 1952, Attempts at passive transfer of allergic eczematous sensitivity in man, J. Invest. Dermatol. 18: 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, R. L., Rosenthal, S. A., and Sims, C. F., 1957, The allergic eczema-like reaction and the primary irritant reaction: A histologic comparison of their evolution in the acanthotic skin of guinea pigs, Arch. Dermatol. 76: 549–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandriss, M. W., 1968, Attempt to transfer contact hypersensitivity in man with dialysates of peripheral leucocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 47: 2152–2157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burry, J. M. 1967, Photoallergies to Fentichlor and Multifungin, Arch. Dermatol. 95: 287–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chase, M. W., 1945, The cellular transfer of cutaneous hypersensitivity to tuberculin, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 59: 134–135.Google Scholar
  9. Christensen, O. B., and Moller, H., 1975, External and internal exposure to the antigen in the hand eczema of nickel allergy, Contact Dermatitis 1: 136–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cole, R. S., 1970, Light-induced cross linking of DNA in the presence of a furocoumarin (psoralen), Biochim. Biophys. Acta 217: 30–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cormane, R. H., Husz, S., and Hamerlinck, F., 1974, Immunoglobulin-and complement-bearing lymphocytes in allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (eczema), Br. J. Dermatol. 90: 597–6604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coxon, J. A., Jenkins, F. P., and Welti, D., 1965, The effect of light on halogenated salicylanilide ions, Photochem. Photobiol. 4: 713–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeHurtado, 1., and Osier, A. G., 1975, Serum antibody production—An invariable consequence of sensitization with DNCB, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 149: 628–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dvorak, H. F., Dvorak, A. M., Simpson, B. A., Richer-son, H. B., Leskowitz, S., and Karnovsky, M. J., 1970, Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity. II. A light and electron microscopic description, J. Exp. Med. 132: 558–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dvorak, H. F., Simpson, B. A., Bast, R. C., Jr., and Leskowitz, S., 1971, Cutaneous basophile hypersensitivity. III. Participation of the basophil in hypersensitivity to antigen-antibody complexes, delayed hypersensitivity and contact allergy. Passive transfer, J. Immunol. 107: 138–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dvorak, H. F., Mihm, C. M., Jr., and Dvorak, A. M., 1976, Morphology of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in man, J. Invest. Dermatol. 67: 391–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisen, H. N., Orris, L., and Belman, S., 1952, Elicitation of delayed allergic skin reactions with haptens, J. Exp. Med. 95: 473–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Epstein, S., 1939, Photoallergy and primary photosensi- tivity to sulfanilamide, J. Invest. Dermatol. 2: 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Epstein, S., 1960, Allergic photo-contact dermatitis from promethazine (Phenergan), Arch. Dermatol. 81: 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Epstein, S., 1966, Simplified photopatch testing, Arch. Dermatol. 93: 216–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein, W. L., and Kligman, A. M., 1957, Transfer of allergic contact-type delayed sensitivity in man, J. Invest. Dermatol. 28: 291–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Epstein, W. L., Baer, H., Dawson, C. R., and Khuraw, R. G., 1974, Poison oak hyposensitization, Arch. Dermatol. 109: 356–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fisher, A. A., 1952, Some immunologic phenomena in treatment of and patch testing for ragweed oil dermatitis, J. Invest. Dermatol. 19: 217–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Forsbeck, M., Skog, E., and Ytterborn, K. H., 1971, Allergic diseases among relatives of patients with allergic contact dermatitis, Acta Derm. Venereol. 51: 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Frey, J. R., and Wenk, P., 1958, Experimental studies on the pathogenesis of contact eczema in the guinea pig, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 11: 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Geczy, A. F., and Baumgarten, A., 1970, Lymphocyte transformation in contact sensitivity, Immunology 19: 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Goeckerman, W. H., 1931, Treatment of psoriasis. Continued observations on the use of crude coal tar and ultraviolet light, Arch. Dermatol. 24: 446–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harber, L. C., Harris, H., and Baer, R. L., 1966a, Structural features of photoallergy to salicylanilides and related compounds, J. Invest. Dermatol. 46: 303–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Harber, L. C., Harris, H., and Baer, R. L., 1966, Photoallergic contact dermatitis to halogenated salicylanilides and related compounds, Arch. Dermatol. 94: 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haxthausen, H., 1943, Allergic dermatitis: Studies in identical twins, Acta Derm. Venereol. 23: 438–457.Google Scholar
  31. Haxthausen, H., 1947, Studies on the role of lymphocytes as “transmitters” of hypersensitiveness in allergic eczema, Acta Derm. Venereol. 27: 275–286.Google Scholar
  32. Herman, P. S., and Sams, W. M., 1971, Requirement for carrier protein in salicylanilide sensitivity. The migration-inhibition test in contact photoallergy, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 77: 572–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hinrichs, D. J., and Gibbins, H. L., 1975, The in vitro detection of antigen sensitivity in contact dermatitis by lymphocyte transformation, Cell. Immunol. 18: 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hjorth, N., and Roed-Petersen, J., 1976, Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers, Contact Dermatitis 2: 28–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jillson, O. F., and Baughman, R. D., 1963, Contact photo-dermatitis from bithionol, Arch. Dermatol. 88: 409–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jung, E. G., Dummler, U., and Immrich, H., 1968, Photoallergie durch 4-chlor-2-hydroxy-Benzoesäure-n-Butylamid. I. Lichtbiologische Untersuchungen zur Antigenbildung, Arch. Klin. Exp. Dermatol. 232: 403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Klareskog, L., Tjernlund, U., Forsum, U., and Peterson, P. A., 1977, Epidermal Langerhans cells express Ia antigens, Nature (London) 268: 248–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kligman, A. M., 1958, Poison ivy (Rhus) dermatitis, Arch. Dermatol. 77: 149–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kochevar, I. E., Zalar, G. L., Einbinder, J., Harber, L. C., 1979, Assay of contact photosensitivity to Musk Ambrette in guinea pigs, J. Invest. Dermatol. 73: 144–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lawrence, H. S., 1956, The cellular transfer of cutaneous hypersensitivity of tuberculin type with components of disrupted leukocytes, Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 32: 236–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Leshaw, S., Simon, R. S., and Baer, R. L., 1977, Failure to induce tolerance to mechlorethamine hydrochloride, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1406–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levine, B., Ojeda, A., and Benacerraf, B., 1963, Studies on artificial antigens. III. The genetic control of the immune response to hapten poly-l-lysine conjugates in guinea pigs, J. Exp. Med. 118: 953–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lowney, E., 1968, Immunologic unresponsiveness to a contact sensitizer in man, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51: 411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Macher, E., and Chase, M. W., 1969, Studies on the sen-sitization of animals with simple chemical compounds. XII. The influence of excision of allergenic depots on onset of delayed hypersensitivity and tolerance, J. Exp. Med. 129: 103–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller, A. E., Jr., and Levis, W. R., 1973, Studies on the contact sensitization of man with simple chemicals. I. Specific lymphocyte transformation in response to dinitrochlorobenzene sensitization, J. Invest. Dermatol. 61: 261–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morikawa, F., Hakayama, Y., Fukuda, M., Hamann, M., Yokoyama, Y., Nagura, T., Ishihara, M., Toda, K., 1974, Techniques for evaluation of phototoxicity and photoallergy in laboratory animals and man, in: Sunlight and Man ( T. B. Fitzpatrick, M. A. Pathak, L. C. Harber, J. Seiji, and A. Kukita, eds), pp. 529–558, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  47. Nordqvist, B., and Rosenthal, S. A., 1978, Studies on DNCB contact sensitivity in guinea pigs by the macrophage migration test, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 56: 73–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Parrish, J. A., Fitzpatrick, T. B., Tanenbaum, L., and Pathak, M. A., 1974, Photochemotherapy of psoriasis with oral methoxsalen and long-wave ultraviolet light, N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 1207–1211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pathak, M. A., and Kramer, D. M., 1969, Photosensitization of skin in vivo by furocoumarins (psoralens), Biochim. Biophys. Acta 195: 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Polak, L., and Geleick, H., 1975, Differing mechanisms of tolerance and desensitization to DNCB in guinea pigs, Eur. J. Immunol. 5: 94–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Raab, O., Über die Wirkung fluoreszierender Stoffe auf Infusorien, Z. Biol. 39: 524.Google Scholar
  52. Sidi, E., Hincky, M., and Gervais, A., 1955, Allergic sensitization and photosensitization to Phenergan cream, J. Invest. Dermatol. 24: 345–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Silberberg, I., Baer, R. L., Rosenthal, S. A., Thorbecke, G. J., and Berezowsky, V., 1975, Dermal and intravascular Langerhans cells at sites of passively induced allergic contact sensitivity, Cell. Immunol. 18: 435–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silberberg, I., Thorbecke, G. J., Baer, R. L., and Berezowsky, V., 1976, Antigen-bearing Langerhans cells in skin, dermal lymphatics and in lymph nodes, Cell. Immunol. 25: 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, S. Z., and Epstein, J. H., 1977, Photocontact dermatitis to halogenated salicylanilides and related compounds, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1372–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Storck, H., and Schwarz-Speck, M., 1974, Different response to experimental sensitization by epicutaneous and intracutaneous application of bacterial antigens, Monogr. Allergy 8: 79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Thomas, D. W., Forni, G., Shevach, E. M., and Green, I., 1977, The role of the macrophage as the stimulatory cell in contact sensitivity, J. Immunol. 118: 1677–1681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Turk, J. L., and Parker, D., 1976, Modulation of T-lymphocyte function by B-lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 49: 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vinson, L. K., and Flatt, R. S., 1962, Photosensitization by tetrachlorosalicylanilide, J. Invest. Dermatol. 38: 327–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Walker, F. B., Smith, J. D., and Maibach, H. I., 1967, Genetic factors in human allergic contact dermatitis, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 32: 453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wilkinson, D. S., 1961, Photodermatitis due to tetrachlorosalicylanilide, Br. J. Dermatol. 73: 213–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Willis, I., and Kligman, A. M., 1968, Mechanism of the persistent light reactor, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51: 385–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wolf-Jürgensen, P., 1966, Basophil Leucocytes in Delayed Hypersensitivity: Experimental Studies in Man Using the Skin Window Technique, Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf L. Baer
    • 1
  • David R. Bickers
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations