Advertisement

Food Webs pp 1-22 | Cite as

Food Webs: What Can They Tell Us About the World?

  • Kirk O. Winemiller
  • Gary A. Polis

Abstract

This book unites diverse approaches from theoretical ecology and empirical research in systems ranging from soil fauna to oceans. Major philosophical and methodological differences are expected from such a heterogeneous group of ecologists; indeed, one might be amazed by the establishment of a substantial common basis for discussion. Food webs provide this basis. Much recent ecological literature is cast within a food-web framework, including studies of: (1) Habitat heterogeneity and the regulation of community structure (e.g., Lubchenco (1983), Kareiva (1986), Moore and Hunt (1988), and Moore et al. (1989b)); (2) environmental change through time and community structure and function (Menge and Sutherland, 1976; Winemiller, 1990; Schoenly and Cohen, 1991); (3) productivity gradients and community structure (Oksanen et al., 1981; Persson et al., 1988, 1991); (4) direct and indirect cascading effects of predation on community structure (Paine, 1980; Power et al., 1985; Carpenter et al., 1987; Kerfoot, 1987; Yodzis, 1988; Schoener, 1989; Spiller and Schoener, 1990; Turner and Mittelbach, 1990); (5) intraguild predation (Polis et al., 1989; Oksanen, 1990; Polis and Holt, 1992); (6) indirect mutualism (Vandermeer et al., 1985); (7) apparent competition (Holt, 1984; Holt and Kotler, 1987); and (8) ecosystem stability and nutrient dynamics (DeAngelis, 1992). Some population interactions (e.g., competition, predation) cannot be fully evaluated outside of a food-web context because their outcomes can be modified by other members of the web. Aquatic ecologists have achieved notable success by studying the interactions between top-down (consumption) and bottom-up (production) factors in the regulation of community structure (Carpenter, 1988; McQueen et al., 1989; Power, 1990a, 1990b; Vanni and Findlay, 1990; Vanni et al., 1990; Persson et al., this volume). Most food-web studies have viewed consumption exclusively within pathways derived from primary production, and only recently has the major role of detritus in ecosystem structure and function received much serious attention (Cousins, 1980; Rich, 1984; Coleman et al., 1988; Moore et al., 1989a; Polis and Hurd, this volume; Porter, this volume). There currently is little agreement on how to best characterize the role of detritus (itself a heterogeneous unit) in food webs (Rich, 1984; Cousins, 1985; Winemiller, 1990; Polis, 1991). In addition, food webs are the arenas for several major theoretical debates, such as paradigms associating complexity with stability (MacArthur, 1972; May, 1975, 1983; Pimm, 1982; Abrams and Taber, 1982) and hypotheses relating the effects of size-dependent predation to community structure (Brooks and Dodson, 1965; Warren and Lawton, 1987; Cohen and Newman, 1988).

Keywords

Trophic Interaction American Naturalist Trophic Cascade Food Chain Length Trophic Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, P. 1987. Indirect interactions between species that share a predator: Varieties of indirect effects. In Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities, eds. W.C. Kerfoot and A. Sih, pp. 38–54. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  2. Abrams, P.A. and D.A. Taber. 1982. Complexity, stability, and functional response. American Naturalist 119: 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Addicott, J.F. 1984. Mutualistic interactions in population and community processes. In A New Ecology: Novel Approaches to Interactive Systems, eds. P.W. Price, C.N. Slobodchikoff, and W.S. Gaud, pp. 437–446. Wiley Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, T.F.H. and R. V. O’Neill. 1991. Improving predictability in networks: System specification through hierarchy theory. In Theoretical Studies of Ecosystems: The Network Perspective, eds. M. Higashi and T.P. Burns, pp. 101–114. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  5. Arditi, R. and L.R. Ginzburg. 1989. Coupling in predator-prey dynamics: Ratio-dependence. Journal of Theoretical Biology 139: 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arditi, R. and H. Saïah. 1992. Empirical evidence of the role of heterogeneity in ratio-dependent consumption. Ecology 73: 1544–1551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Auerbach, M.J. 1984. Stability, probability, and the topology of food webs. In Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence, eds. D.R. Strong, D. Simberloff, L.G. Abele, and A.B. Thistle, pp. 413–436. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  8. Beaver, R.A. 1983. The communities living in Nepenthes pitcher plants: Fauna and food webs. In Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities, eds. J.H. Frank and L.P. Lounibos, pp. 125–159. Plexus, Medford, NJ.Google Scholar
  9. Begon, M., J.L. Harper, and C.R. Townshend. 1986. Ecology: Individuals, Populations, and Communities. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Bender, E.A., T.J. Case, and M.E. Gilpin. 1984. Perturbation experiments in community ecology: Theory and practice. Ecology 65: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bengtsson, J. 1994. Confounding variables and independent observations in comparative analyses of food webs. Ecology 75: 1282–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berger, J. and J.D. Wehausen. 1991. Consequences of a mammalian predator-prey disequilibrium in the Great Basin Desert. Conservation Biology 5: 244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berryman, A.A. 1992. The origins and evolution of predator-prey theory. Ecology 73: 1530–1535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berryman, A.A. 1993. The rules of feedback and food web connectance, or does everything really depend on everything else? Oikos 68: 183–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradley, R.A. 1983. Complex food webs and manipulative experiments in ecology. Oikos 41: 150–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briand, F. 1983a. Biogeographic patterns in food web organization. In Current Trends in Food Web Theory: Report on a Food Web Workshop, ORNL-5983, eds. D.L. DeAngelis, W.M. Post, and G. Sugihara, pp. 37–39. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  17. Briand, F. 1983b. Environmental control of food web structure. Ecology 64: 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Briand, F. and J.E. Cohen. 1984. Community food webs have scale-invariant structure. Nature 307: 264–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Briand, F. and J.E. Cohen. 1987. Environmental correlates of food chain length. Science 238: 956–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks, J.L. and S.I. Dodson. 1965. Predation, body size, and the composition of plankton. Science 150: 28–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brownell, R.L., Jr., K. Ralls, and W. Perrin. 1989. The plight of the forgotten whales. Oceanus 32: 5–20.Google Scholar
  22. Burns, T.P., B.C. Patten, and M. Higashi. 1991. Hierarchical evolution in ecological networks: Environs and selection. In Theoretical Studies of Ecosystems: The Network Perspective, eds. M. Higashi and T.P. Burns, pp. 211–239. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  23. Carpenter, S.R., ed. 1988. Complex Interactions in Lake Communities. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Carpenter, S.R. and J.F. Kitchell, J.F. 1988. Consumer control of lake primary productivity. Bioscience 38: 764–769.Google Scholar
  25. Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, J.R. Hodgson, P.A. Cochran, J.J. Elser, M.M. Elser, D.M. Lodge, X. He, and C.N. von Ende. 1987. Regulation of lake primary productivity by food-web structure. Ecology 68: 1863–1876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Closs, G., G.A. Watterson, and P.J. Donnelly. 1993. Constant predator-prey ratios: An arithmetic artifact? Ecology 74: 238–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, J.E. 1978. Food Webs and Niche Space. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, J.E. 1991. Food webs as a focus for unifying ecological theory. Ecology International Bulletin 19: 1–13.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, J.E. and F. Briand. 1984. Trophic links of community food webs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 81: 4105–4109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, J.E., F. Briand, and C.M. Newman. 1986. A stochastic theory of community food webs III. Predicted and observed lengths of food chains. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 228: 317–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, J.E., F. Briand, and C.M. Newman. 1990. Community Food Webs: Data and Theory. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cohen, J.E. and C.M. Newman. 1985. A stochastic theory of community food webs I. Models and aggregated data. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 224: 421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cohen, J.E. and C.M. Newman. 1988. Dynamic basis of food web organization. Ecology 69: 1655–1664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cohen, J.E., C.M. Newman, and F. Briand. 1985. A stochastic theory of community food webs II. Individual webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 224: 449–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coleman, D., D. Crossley, M. Beare, and P. Hendrix. 1988. Interactions of organisms at root/ soil and litter/soil interfaces in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environments 24: 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Connell, J.H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Science 199: 1302–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cousins, S.H. 1980. Atrophic continuum derived from plant structure, animal size and a detritus cascade. Journal of Theoretical Biology 82: 607–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cousins, S.H. 1985. The trophic continuum in marine ecosystems: Structure and equations for a predictive model. In Ecosystem Theory for Biological Oceanography, eds. R.E. Ulanowicz and T. Platt, Publication No. 213, pp. 7693. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  39. Cousins, S.H. 1987. The decline of the trophic level concept. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2: 312–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dayton, P.D. 1985. The ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 215–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deangelis, D.L. 1975. Stability and connectance in food web models. Ecology 56: 238–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deangelis, D.L. 1992. Dynamics of Nutrient Cycling and Food Webs. Chapman & Hall, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deangelis, D.L., W.M. Post, and G. Sugihara, eds. 1983. Current Trends in Food Web Theory: Report on a Food Web Workshop, ORNL-5983. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  44. Drake, J.A. 1990. Communities as assembled structures: Do rules govern pattern? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 159–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Drake, J.A. 1991. Community assembly mechanics and the structure of an experimental species ensemble. American Naturalist 137:1–26.Google Scholar
  46. Duggins, D.O., C.A. Simenstad, and J.A. Estes. 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245: 170–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dungan, M.L. 1987. Indirect mutualism: Complementary effects of grazing and predation in a rocky intertidal community. In Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities, eds. W.C. Kerfoot and A. Sih, pp. 188–200. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  48. Dunning, J.B., B.J. Danielson, and H.R. Pulliam. 1992. Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos 65: 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dunson, W.A. and J. Travis. 1991. The role of abiotic factors in community organization. American Naturalist 138: 1067–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ehrlich, P.R. and A.H. Ehrlich. 1981. Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Endler, J.A. 1982. Problems in distinguishing historical from ecological factors in biogeography. American Zoologist 22: 441–452.Google Scholar
  52. Estes, J.A. 1994. Top-level carnivores and ecosystem effects: Questions and approaches. In Linking Species and Ecosystems, eds. C.G. Jones and J.H. Lawton. Chapman & Hall, New York. pgs. 151–158.Google Scholar
  53. Feder, M.E. and G.V. Lauder, eds. 1986. Predator-Prey Relationships: Perspectives and Approaches from the Study of Lower Vertebrates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  54. Gauch, H.G. 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilbert, L.E. 1977. The role of insect-plant coevolution in the organization of ecosystems. Colloques International Centre National du Recherche Scientifique 265: 399–413.Google Scholar
  56. Glasser, J.W. 1983. Variation in niche breadth with trophic position: On the disparity between expected and observed species packing. American Naturalist 122: 542–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Goldwasser, L. and J. Roughgarden. 1993. Construction and analysis of a large Caribbean food web. Ecology 74: 1216–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hairston, N.G. Sr. and N.G. Hairston Jr. 1993. Cause-effect relationships in energy flow, trophic structure, and interspecific interactions. American Naturalist 142: 379–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hall, S.J. and D. Raffaelli. 1991. Food web patterns: Lessons from a species rich web. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 823–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hall, S.J., D. Raffaelli, and W.R. Turrell. 1990. Predator caging experiments in marine systems: A re-examination of their value. American Naturalist 136: 657–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hall, S.J. and D. Raffaelli. 1993. Food webs: Theory and Reality. In Advances in Ecological Research, eds. M. Begon and A.H. Fitter, pp. 187–239. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  62. Hastings, A. 1988. Food web theory and stability. Ecology 69: 1665–1668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hastings, A. and T. Powell. 1991. Chaos in a three species food chain. Ecology 72: 896–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Haydon, D. 1994. Pivotal assumptions determining the relationship between stability and complexity: An analytical synthesis of the stability-complexity debate. American Naturalist 144: 14–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hespenheide, H.A. 1975. Prey characteristics and predator niche width. In Ecology and Evolution of Communities, eds. M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, pp. 158–180. Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  66. Higashi, M. and T.P. Burns, eds. 1991. Theoretical Studies of Ecosystems: The Network Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  67. Hildrew, A.G., C.R. Townsend, and A. Hasham. 1985. The predatory Chironomidae of an iron-rich stream: Feeding ecology and food web structure. Ecological Entomology 10: 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hill, J.M. 1994. Wildlife value of Castanea dentata past and present, the historical decline of the chestnut and its future use in restoration of natural areas. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference 1: 186–192.Google Scholar
  69. Holling, C.S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of small mammal predation of the European sawfly. Canadian Entomology 91: 293–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Holling, C.S. 1966. The functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 48: 1–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Holling, C.S. 1992. Cross-scale morphology, geometry, and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62: 447–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Holt, R.D. 1993. Ecology at the mesoscale: The influence of regional processes on local communities. In Community diversity: Historical and biogeographic perspective, eds. R. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, pp. 77–88. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  73. Holt, R.D. 1977. Predation, apparent competition, and the structure of prey communities. Theoretical Population Biology 12: 197–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Holt, R.D. 1984. Spatial heterogeneity, indirect interactions, and the coexistence of prey species. American Naturalist 124: 377–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Holt, R.D. 1985. Population dynamics of two patch environments: Some anomalous consequences of an optimal habitat distribution. Theoretical Population Biology 28: 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Holt, R.D. and B.P. Kotler. 1987. Short-term apparent competition. American Naturalist 130: 412–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Holt, R.D. and J.H. Lawton. 1994. The ecological consequences of shared natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 25: 495–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hunter, M.D. and P.W. Price. 1992. Playing chutes and ladders: Heterogeneity and the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down forces in natural communities. Ecology 73: 724–732.Google Scholar
  79. Huston, M. 1979. A general hypothesis of species diversity. American Naturalist 113: 81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hutchinson, G.E. 1948. Circular causal systems in ecology. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 50: 221–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Janzen, D. 1986. Chihuahuan desert nopaleras: Defaunated big mammal vegetation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17: 595–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jeffries, M.J. and J.H. Lawton. 1985. Predator-prey ratios in communities of freshwater invertebrates: The role of enemy free space. Freshwater Biology 15: 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Junk, W.J. P.B. Bayley, and R.E. Sparks. 1989. The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain ecosystems. In Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium ed. D.P. Dodge, pp. 110–127. Canadian Special Publication in Fisheries and Aquaculture Science 106. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  84. Kareiva, P. 1986. Patchiness, dispersal, and species interactions: Consequences for communities of herbivorous insects. In Community Ecoogy eds. J. Diamond and T.J. Case, pp. 192206. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Kaufman, L.S. 1992. The lessons of Lake Victoria: Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems. Bioscience 42: 846–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kerfoot, W.C. 1987. Cascading effects and indirect pathways. In Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities, eds. W.C. Kerfoot and A. Sih, pp. 57–70. University of New England Press, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  87. Kerfoot, W.C. and A. Sih, eds. 1987. Predation: Direct and indirect impacts on aquatic communities. University of New England Press, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  88. Kikkawa, J. 1986. Complexity, diversity, and stability. In Community Ecology: Pattern and Process, eds. J. Kikkawa and D.J. Anderson, pp. 41–62. Blackwell Scientific, London.Google Scholar
  89. King, A.W. and S.L. Pimm. 1983. Complexity, diversity and stability: A reconciliation of theoretical and empirical results. American Naturalist 122: 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kitching, R.L. 1983. Community structure in water-filled tree holes in Europe and Australia-some comparisons and speculations. In Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts for Aquatic Insect Communities. ed. J.H. Frank and L.P. Lounibos, pp. 205–222. Plexus, Medford, NJ.Google Scholar
  91. Kitching, R.L. 1987. Spatial and temporal variation in food webs in water-filled treeholes. Oikos 48: 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kling, G.W., B. Fry, and W.J. O’Brien. 1992. Stable isotopes and planktonic trophic structure in arctic lakes. Ecology 73: 561–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lane, P.A. 1986. Symmetry, change, perturbation, and observing mode in natural communities. Ecology 67: 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lane, P.A. and R. Levins. 1977. Dynamics of aquatic systems II. The effects of nutrient enrichment on model plankton communities. Limnology and Oceanography 21: 454–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lasenby, D, T. Northcote, and M. Furst. 1986. Theory, practice and effects of Mysis relicta introductions to North American and Scandinavian lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 1277–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Law, R. and J.C. Blackford. 1992. Self-assembling food webs: A global viewpoint of coexistence of species in Lotka-Volterra communities. Ecology 73: 567–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lawlor, L.R. 1978. A comment on randomly constructed model ecosystems. American Naturalist 112: 445–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Laws, R.M. 1985. The ecology of the Southern Ocean. American Scientist 73: 26–40.Google Scholar
  99. Lawton, J.H. 1989. Food webs. In Ecological Concepts: The Contribution of Ecology to an Understanding of the Natural World, ed. J.M. Cherrett, pp. 43–78. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  100. LeHouerou, H.N. and H. Gillet. 1986. Conservation versus desertization in African arid lands. In Conservation Biology, ed. M.E. Soule, pp. 444–462. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  101. Levins, R. 1968. Evolution in Changing Environments. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  102. Lewin, R. 1986. Supply-side ecology. Science 234: 25–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lindeman, R.L. 1942. The trophic dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23: 399–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Loehle, C. and J.H.K. Pechmann. 1988. Evolution: The missing ingredient of systems ecology. American Naturalist 132: 884–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lubchenco, J. 1983. Littorina and Fucus: Effects of herbivores, substratum heterogeneity, and plant escapes during succession. Ecology 64: 1116–1123.Google Scholar
  106. MacArthur, R.H. 1972. Geographical Ecology: Patterns in the Distribution of Species. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  107. MacArthur, R.H. and R. Levins. 1967. The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist 101: 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Martinez, N.D. 1991a. Artifacts of attributes? Effects of resolution on the Little Rock Lake food web. Ecological Monographs 61: 367–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Martinez, N.D. 199lb. Constant connectance in community food webs. American Naturalist 139: 1208–1218.Google Scholar
  110. Martinez, N.D. 1993. Effects of resolution on food web structure. Oikos 66: 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. May, R.M. 1972. Will a large complex system be stable? Nature 238: 413–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. May, R.M. 1975. Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems, 2nd Ed. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  113. May, R.M. 1983. The structure of food webs. Nature 301: 566–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. McCann, K. and P. Yodzis. 1994. Biological conditions for chaos in a three-species food chain. Ecology 75: 561–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McKaye, K.R. and A. Marsh. 1983. Food switching in two specialized algae-scraping cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi, Africa. Oecologia 56: 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. McQueen, D.J., M.R.S. Johannes, J.R. Post, T.J. Stewart, and D.R.S. Lean. 1989. Bottom-up and top-down impacts of freshwater pelagic community structure. Ecological Monographs 59: 289–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Menge, B.A. and J.P. Sutherland. 1976. Species diversity gradients: Synthesis of the roles of predation, competition, and temporal heterogeneity. American Naturalist 110: 351–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Menge, B.A. and J.P. Sutherland. 1987. Community regulation: Variation in disturbance, competition, and predation in relation to environmental stress and recruitment. American Naturalist 130: 730–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Miller, T.E. and W.C. Kerfoot. 1987. Redefining indirect effects. In Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities, eds. W.C. Kerfoot and A. Sih, pp. 33–37. University of New England Press, Hanover, NH.Google Scholar
  120. Mithen, S.J. and J.H. Lawton. 1986. Food-web models that generate constant predator-prey ratios. Oecologia 69: 542–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Moore, J.C. and H.W. Hunt. 1988. Resource compartmentation and the stability of real ecosystems. Nature 333: 261–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Moore, J.C., D.E. Walter, and H.W. Hunt. 1989a. Arthropod regulation of micro-and mesobiota in belowground detrital food webs. Annual Review of Entomology 33: 419–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Moore, J.C., D.E. Walter, and H.W. Hunt. 1989b. Habitat compartmentation and environmental correlates to food chain length. Science 243: 238–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Morris, W.F. 1992. The effects of natural enemies, competition, and host plant water availability on an aphid population. Oecologia 90: 359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mulholland, P.J., J.D. Newbold, J.W. Elwood, and J.R. Webster. 1985. Phosphorus spiralling in a woodland stream: Seasonal variations. Ecology 66: 1012–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Murphy, G.I. 1972. Fisheries in upwelling regions-With special reference to Peruvian waters. Geoforum 11:63–71.Google Scholar
  127. Newman, C.M. and J.E. Cohen. 1986. A stochastic theory of community food webs IV. Theory of food chain lengths in large webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 228: 355–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Odum, E.P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164: 262–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Odum, H.T. and E.P. Odum. 1976. Energy Basis for Man and Nature. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  130. Oksanen, L. 1988. Ecosystem organization: Mutualism and cybernetics or plain Darwinian struggle for existence. American Naturalist 131: 421–444.Google Scholar
  131. Oksanen, L., S.D. Fretwell, J. Arruda, and P. Niemelä. 1981. Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary production. American Naturalist 118: 240–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Oksanen. T. 1990. Exploitation ecosystems in heterogeneous habitat complexes. Evolutionary Ecology 4: 220–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. O’Neill, R.V., D.L. DeAngelis, J.B. Waide, and T.F.H. Allen. 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  134. Paine, R.T. 1980. Food webs: Linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. Journal of Animal Ecology 49: 667–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Paine, R.T. 1983. Intertidal food webs: Does connectance discribe their essence? In Current Trends in Food Web Theory: Report on a Food Web Workshop, ORNL-5983, eds. D.L. DeAngelis, W.M. Post, and G. Sugihara, pp. 11–15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  136. Paine, R.T. 1988. Food webs: Road maps of interactions or grist for theoretical development. Ecology 69: 1648–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Paine, R.T. 1992. Food web analysis through field measurements of per capita interaction strength. Nature 355: 73–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Parsons, T.R. 1992. The removal of marine predators by fisheries and the impact of trophic structure. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 51–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Patten, B.C. 1982. Environs: Relativistic particles for ecology. American Naturalist 119: 179–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Patten, B.C. 1991. Network ecology: Indirect determination of the life-environment relationship in ecosystems. In Theoretical studies of ecosystems: The network perspective, eds. M. Higashi and T.P. Burns, pp. 288–351. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  141. Persson, L.G., G. Andersson, S.F. Hamrin, and L. Johansson. 1988. Predator regulation and primary production along the productivity gradient of temperate lakes-Patterns and the importance of size-structured interactions. Journal of Fish Biology 38:281–293. See also: Persson et al., 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Peters, R.H. 1988. Some general problems for ecology illustrated by food web theory. Ecology 69: 1673–1676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Peterson, B.J. and B. Fry. 1987. Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18: 293–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Petraitis, P.S., R.E. Latham, and R.A. Niesen-baum. 1989. The maintenance of species diver-20/Kirk O. Winemiller and Gary A. Polissity by disturbance. Quarterly Review of Biology 64: 393–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pianka, E.R. 1987. The subtlety, complexity and importance of population interactions when more than two species are involved. Revista Chileana de Historia Natural 60: 351–361.Google Scholar
  146. Pimm, S.L. 1979. Complexity and stability, another look at MacArthur’s original hypothesis. Oikos 33: 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pimm, S L 1980. Properties of food webs. Ecology 61: 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pimm, S.L. 1982. Food Webs. Chapman & Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pimm, S.L. 1992. The balance of nature? University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  150. Pimm, S.L. and R.L. Kitching. 1987. The determinants of food chain length. Oikos 50: 302–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pimm, S.L. and R.L. Kitching. 1988. Food web patterns: Trivial flaws or the basis for an active research program. Ecology 69: 1669–1672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Pimm, S L, J H Lawton, and J.E. Cohen. 1991. Food web patterns and their consequences. Nature 350: 669–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pimm, S L and J.C. Rice. 1987. The dynamics of multispecies, multi-life-stage models of aquatic food webs. Theoretical Population Biology 32: 303–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Polis, G.A. 1991. Complex trophic interactions in deserts: An empirical critique of food-web theory. American Naturalist 138: 123–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Polis, G.A. 1994. Food webs, trophic cascades and community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology, 19: 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Polis, G.A. and R.D. Holt. 1992. Intraguild predation: The dynamics of complex trophic interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7: 151–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Polis, G.A., C.A. Myers, and R.D. Holt. 1989. The ecology and evolution of intraguild predation: Potential competitors that eat each other. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20: 297–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Polis, G.A. and D. Strong. In press. Food web complexity and community dynamics. American Naturalist.Google Scholar
  159. Post, W.M. and S.L. Pimm. 1983. Community assembly and food web stability. Mathematical Biosciences 64: 169–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Power, M.E. 1990a. Effects of fish in river food webs. Science 250: 811–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Power, M.E. 1990b. Top-down and bottom-up forces in food webs: do plants have primacy? Ecology 73: 733–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Power, M.E., W.J. Matthews, and A.J. Stewart. 1985. Grazing minnows, piscivorous bass, and stream algae: Dynamics of a strong interaction. Ecology 66: 1448–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Price, P.W. 1992. The resource-based organiza- tion of communities. Biotropica 24: 273–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pulliam, H.R. 1988. Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132: 652–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Raffaelli, D. and S.J. Hall. 1992. Compartments and predation in an estuarine food web. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 551–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rejmanek, M. and P. Stary. 1979. Connectance in real biotic communities and critical values for stability of model ecosystems. Nature 280: 311–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rich, P. 1984. Trophic-detrital interactions: Vestiges of ecosystem evolution. American Naturalist 123: 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ricklefs, R.E. 1987. Community diversity: Relative roles of local and regional processes. Science 235: 167–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ricklefs, R.E. 1990. Ecology, 3rd Ed. W.H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  170. Robinson, G.R., R.D. Holt, M.S. Gaines, S.P. Hamburg, M.L. Johnson, H.S. Fitch, and E.A. Martinko. 1992. Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation. Science 257: 524–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rosenheim, J.A., L.R. Wilhoit, and C.A. Armer. 1993. Influence of intraguild predation among generalist insect predators on the suppression of an herbivore population. Oecologia 96: 439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Roubik, D.W. 1978. Competitive interactions between neotropical pollinators and Africanized honey bees. Science 201: 1030–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rowe, G.T. 1981. The benthic processes of coastal upwelling ecosystems. In Coastal Up-welling, ed. F.A. Richards, pp. 464–471. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Ryan, M.J. 1985. The tungara frog: A study in sexual selection and communication. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  175. Schoener, T.W. 1982. The controversy over inter-specific competition. American Scientist 70: 586–595.Google Scholar
  176. Schoener, T.W. 1989. Food webs from the small to the large: Probes and hypotheses. Ecology 70: 1559–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Schoenly, K. and J.E. Cohen. 1991. Temporal variation in food web structure: Sixteen empirical cases. Ecological Monographs 61: 267–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Seely, T.D. 1985. Honeybee Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  179. Simenstad, C.A., J.A. Estes, and K.W. Duggin. 1978. Aleuts, sea otters, and alternate stable-state communities. Science 200: 403–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Smith, R.L. 1992. Elements of Ecology, 3rd Ed. Harper Collins, New York.Google Scholar
  181. Spencer, C., B. McClelland, and J. Stanford. 1991. Shrimp stocking, salmon collapse and eagle displacement. BioScience 41: 14–21.Google Scholar
  182. Spiller, D.A. and T.W. Schoener. 1990. A terrestrial field experiment showing the impact of eliminating top predators on foliage damage. Nature 347: 469–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sprules, W.G. and J.E. Bowerman. 1988. Omnivory and food chain lengths in zooplankton food webs. Ecology 69: 418–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Stephens, G.R. 1971. The relation of insect defoliation to mortality in Connecticut forests. Connecticut Experimental Station Bulletin 723: 1–16.Google Scholar
  185. Strong, D.R. 1986. Density vagueness: Abiding by the variance in the demography of real populations. In Community Ecology, eds. J. Diamond and T.J. Case, pp. 257–268. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  186. Sugihara, G. 1983. Niche hierarchy: Structure organization, and assembly in natural communities. Dissertation. Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  187. Sugihara, G. 1984. Graph theory, homology and food webs. Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics 30: 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sugihara, G., K. Schoenly, and A. Trombla. 1989. Scale invariance in food web properties. Science 245: 48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Taylor, J. 1984. A partial food web involving predatory gastropods on a Pacific fringing reef. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology Ecology 74: 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Thompson, J.N. 1988. Variation in interspecific interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19: 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tilman, D. 1987. The importance of the mechanisms of interspecific competition. American Naturalist 129: 769–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Turner, A.M. and G.G. Mittelbach. 1990. Predator avoidance and community structure: Interactions among piscivores, planktivores, and plankton. Ecology 71: 2241–2254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Ulanowicz, R.E. 1986. Growth and Development: Ecosystem Phenomenology. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Ulanowicz, R.E. and J.H. Tuttle. 1992. The trophic consequences of oyster stock rehabilitation in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 15: 298–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Vandermeer, J. 1980. Indirect mutualism: Variations on a theme by Stephen Levine. American Naturalist 116: 441–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vandermeer, J.H., B. Hazlett, and B. Rathcke. 1985. Indirect facilitation and mutualism, In The Biology of Mutualism, ed. D.H. Boucher, pp. 326–343. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  197. Vanni, M.J. and D.L. Findlay. 1990. Trophic cascades and phytoplankton community structure. Ecology 71:921–937.Google Scholar
  198. Vanni, M.J., C. Luecke, J.F. Kitchell, Y. Allen, J. Temte, and J.J. Magnuson. 1990. Effects on lower trophic levels of massive fish mortality. Nature 344: 333–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Warren, P.H. 1989. Spatial and temporal variation in the structure of a freshwater food web. Oikos 55: 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Warren, P.H. 1990. Variation in food-web structure: The determinants of connectance. American Naturalist 136: 689–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Warren, P.H. and J.H. Lawton. 1987. Invertebrate predator-prey body size relationships: An explanation for upper triangular food webs and patterns in food web structure? Oecolgia 74: 231–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Werner, E.E. and J.F. Gilliam. 1984. The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15: 393–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Werner, E.E., J.F. Gilliam, D.J. Hall, and G.G. Mittelbach. 1983. An experimental test of the effects of predation on habitat use in fish. Ecology 64: 1540–1548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wiens, J.A. 1977. On competition and variable environments. American Scientist 65: 590–597.Google Scholar
  205. Wiens, J.A. 1984. On understanding a non-equilibrium world: Myth and reality in community patterns and processes. In Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence. eds. D.R. Strong, D. Simberloff, L.G. Abele, and A.B. Thistle, pp. 439–457. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  206. Winemiller, K.O. 1989. Must connectance decrease with species richness? American Naturalist 134: 960–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Winemiller, K.O. 1990. Spatial and temporal variation in tropical fish trophic networks. Ecological Monographs 60: 331–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Winemiller, K.O. and E.R. Pianka. 1990. Organization in natural assemblages of desert lizards and tropical fishes. Ecological Monographs 60: 27–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yodzis, P. 1980. The connectance of real ecosystems. Nature 284: 544–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Yodzis, P. 1981a. The stability of real ecosystems. Nature 289: 674–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Yodzis, P. 1981b. The structure of assembled communities. Journal of Theoretical Biology 92: 103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Yodzis, P. 1984. The structure of assembled communities. II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 107: 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Yodzis, P. 1988. The indeterminancy of ecological interactions as perceived through perturbation experiments. Ecology 69: 508–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Yodzis, P. 1993. Environmental and trophodiversity. In Species Diversity in Ecological Communities, eds. R.E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, pp. 26–38. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  215. Zaret, T.M. 1980. Predation and Freshwater Communities. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirk O. Winemiller
  • Gary A. Polis

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations