It has long been known that the general colors and tones of animals tend to match their backgrounds (E. Darwin, 1794; Poulton, 1890). The adaptive significance of this has been borne out in numerous experimental studies (DiCesnola, 1904; Sumner, 1934, 1935; Isley, 1938; Popham, 1942; Dice, 1947; Turner, 1961; Kettlewell, 1956, 1973; Kaufman, 1974; Wiklund, 1975; Curio, 1976). There is also a good understanding of warning coloration (Cott, 1940; Wickler, 1968; Edmunds, 1974; Rothschild, 1975). However, the determinants of color pattern are poorly known, although it is known in a general way that the patterns and forms of animals are similar to their backgrounds (Poulton, 1890; Thayer, 1909; Cott, 1940; Wickler, 1968; Robinson, 1969; Edmunds, 1974; Fogden and Fogden, 1974). It is the purpose of this paper to explore the factors that determine color patterns under various specific conditions. The basic assumption is that a color pattern must resemble a random sample of the background seen by predators in order to be cryptic, and must deviate from the background in one or more ways in order to be conspicuous. As a result, the actual pattern evolved in a particular place represents a compromise between factors which favor crypsis and those which favor conspicuous color patterns.
- Sexual Selection
- Patch Size
- Color Vision
- Color Pattern
- Color Patch
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Ayala, F. J., and Campbell, C. A., 1974, Frequency-dependent selection, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 115–138.
Baburina, E. A., Nogatyrev, and Protosov, V. R., 1968, A study of age related changes in the visual acuity of some fish, Zool. Zh. 47: 1364–1369.
Baerends, G. P., Brower, R., and Waterbolk, H. T., 1955, Ethological studies on Lebistes reticulatus (Peters). I. An analysis of the male courtship patterns, Behaviour 8: 249–334.
Barlow, G. W., 1976, The midas cichlid in Nicaragua, in: Investigations of the Ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes, ( T. B. Thorson, ed.), pp. 332–358, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Barlow, G. W., and Ballin, P., 1976, Predicting and assessing dominance for size and coloration in the polychromatic midas cichlid, Anim. Behay. 24: 793–813.
Blaxter, J. H. S., 1970, Light-fishes, in: Marine Ecology ( O. Kinne, ed.), pp. 213–285, London: Wiley-Interscience.
Brown, J. L., 1975, The Evolution of Behavior, New York: W. W. Norton.
Cain, A. J., 1953, Visual selection by tone of Cepaea nemoralis, J. Conchol. 23: 333–336.
Cain, A. J., and Currey, J. D., 1963, Area effects in Cepaea, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 246: 1–81.
Cain, A. J., and Currey, J. D., 1968, Studies on Cepaea. III. Ecogenetics of a population of Cepaea nemoralis (L.) subject to strong area effects, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 253: 447–482.
Cain, A. J., and Sheppard, P. M., 1950, Selection in the polymorphic land snail Cepaea nemoralis, Heredity 4: 275–294.
Cain, A. J., and Sheppard, P. M. 1952, The effects of natural selection on body color in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis, Heredity 6: 217–223.
Cain, A. J., and Sheppard, P. M., 1954, Natural selection of Cepaea, Genetics 39: 89–116.
Carter, M. A., 1969, Studies on Cepaea. II. Area effects and visual selection in Cepaea nemoralis (L.) and Cepaea hortensis, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 253: 397–446.
Chace, F. A., Jr., and Hobbs, H. H., Jr., 1969, The freshwater and terrestrial decapod Crustaceans of the West Indies with special reference to Dominica, US Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 292, pp. 1–258.
Clark, J. A., 1974, Energy transfer and surface temperature over plants and animals, in: Light as an Ecological Factor, II. Symp. Brit. Ecol. 16, ( G. C. Evans, R. Bainbridge, and O. Rackham, eds.), pp. 451–463, Blackwell, Oxford.
Clarke, B. C., 1960, Divergent effects of natural selection on two closely related polymorphic snails, Heredity 14: 423–443.
Clarke, B. C., 1964, Frequency-dependent selection for the dominance of rare polymorphic genes, Evolution 18: 364–369.
Clarke, B. C., 1969, The evidence for apostatic selection, Heredity 24: 347–352.
Clarke, B. C., 1975, Frequency-dependent and density-dependent natural selection, in: The Role of Natural Selection in Human Evolution ( F. M. Salzano, ed.), pp. 187–200, North-Holland, New York.
Clarke, B. C., and O’Donald, P., 1964, Frequency-dependent selection, Heredity 19: 201–206.
Clarke, C. A., Dickson, C. C. C., and Sheppard, P. M., 1963, Larval color patterns in Papilio demodocus, Evolution 17: 130–137.
Cochran, D., 1966, Living Amphibians of the World, Doubleday, New York.
Cott, H. B., 1940, Adaptive Coloration in Animals, Methuen, London.
Curio, E., 1976, The Ethology of Predation, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Currey, J. D., Arnold, R. W., and Carter, M. A., 1964, Further examples of variation of populations of Cepaea nemoralis with habitat, Evolution 18: 111–117.
Darwin, E., 1794, The colors of many animals seem to be adapted to their purposes of concealing themselves, either to avoid danger or to spring upon their prey, Zoonomia 1:509. Quoted in Poulton (1890).
Dawkins, M., 1971a, Perceptual changes in chicks: Another look at the “search image” concept, Anim. Behay. 19: 566–574.
Dawkins, M., 1971b, Shifts of “attention” in chicks during feeding, Anim. Behay. 19: 575–582.
Deakin, M. A. B., 1968, Genetic polymorphism in a subdivided population, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 21: 165–168.
Dice, L. R., 1947, Effectiveness of selection by owls of deer-mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) which contrast in color with their background, Contrib. Lab. Vertebr. Biol. Univ. Mich. No. 34, pp. 1–20.
DiCesnola, A. P., 1904, Preliminary notes on the protective value of color in Mantis religiosa, Biometrika 3: 58–59.
Diener, H. C., Wist, E. R., Dichgans, J., and Brant, T., 1976, The spatial frequency effect on perceived velocity, Vis. Res. 16: 169–176.
Diver, C., 1940, The problem of closely related species living in the same area, in: The New Systematics ( J. Huxley, ed.), pp. 303–328, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Edmunds, M., 1974, Defense in Animals: A Survey of Anti-Predator Defenses, Longmans, London.
Ehrlich, P., Talbot, F. H., Russel, B. C., and Anderson, G. R. V., 1977, The behaviour of chaetodontid fishes with special reference to Lorenz’s “poster coloration” hypothesis, J. Zool. 183: 213–228.
Endler, J. A., 1977, Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines, Monographs in Population Biology 10, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Endler, J. A., 1978a, Fish community structure in tropical montane streams, (to be submitted to Copeia).
Endler, J. A., 1978b, The physical basis of Matthiessen’s ratio for fish eye lenses and visual acuity of predator and prey. In preparation.
Farr, J. A., 1975, The role of predation in the evolution of social behavior of natural populations of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae), Evolution 29: 151–158.
Farr, J. A., 1976, Social facilitation of male sexual behavior, intrasexual competition, and sexual selection in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae), Evolution 30: 707–717.
Farr, J. A., 1977, Male rarity or novelty, female choice behavior, and sexual selection of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae), Evolution 31: 162–168.
Farr, J. A., and Herrnkind, W. F., 1974, A quantitative analysis of social interaction of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae), as a function of population density, Anim. Behay. 22: 582–591.
French, R., 1973, A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago, Livingstone, Wynnewood, Pa.
Fisher, R. A., 1930, The evolution of dominance in certain. polymorphic species, Am. Nat. 64: 385–406.
Fogden, M., and Fogden, P., 1974, Animals and Their Colors, Crown, New York.
Ford, E. B., 1945, Polymorphism, Biol. Rev. 20: 73–88.
Gandolfi, G., 1971, Sexual selection in relation to social status of males in Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), Boll. Zool. 38: 35–48.
Gorlick, D. L., 1976, Dominance hierarchies and factors influencing dominance in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, Anim. Behay. 24: 336–346.
Greene, R. J., Jr., 1972, Female preferential selection for males in Lebistes reticulatus, Thesis, Biology Dept., University of Utah.
Greenwood, J. J. D., 1974, Visual and other selection in Cepaea: A further example, Heredity 33: 17–31.
Haas, R., 1976a, Sexual selection in Nothobranchius guntheri (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae), Evolution 20: 614–622.
Haas, R., 1976b, Behavioral biology of the annual killifish, Nothobranchius guntheri, Copeia 1976: 80–91.
Halkka, O., and Mikkola, E., 1977, The selection regime of Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Homoptera), in: Measuring Selection in Natural Populations, Lecture Notes in Bio-mathematics 19 ( F. B. Christiansen and T. M. Fenchel, eds.), pp. 445–463. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Haskins, C. P., Haskins, E. F., McLaughlin, J. J. A., and Hewitt, R. E., 1961, Polymorphism and population structure in Lebistes reticulatus, a population study, in: Vertebrate Speciation ( W. F. Blair, ed.), pp. 320–395, University of Texas Press, Austin.
Haskins, C. P., Young, P., Hewitt, R. E., and Haskins, E. F., 1970, Stabilized heterozygosis of supergenes mediating Y-linked color patterns in populations of Lebistes reticulatus, Heredity 25: 575–589.
Hedrick, P. W., Ginevan, M. E., and Ewing, E. P., 1976, Genetic polymorphism in heterogeneous environments, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7: 1–32.
Hemmings, C. C., 1966, Factors influencing the visibility of objects underwater, in: Light as an Ecological Factor, Symp. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 6 ( R. Bainbridge, C. C. Evans, and O. Rackham, eds.), pp. 359–374, Blackwell, Oxford.
Hemmings, C. C., 1974, The visibility of objects underwater, in: Light as an Ecological Factor II, Symp. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 16 ( C. C. Evans, R. Bainbridge, and O. Rackham, eds.), pp. 543–545, Blackwell, Oxford.
Herklots, G. A. C., 1961, The Birds of Trinidad and Tobago, Collins, London.
Hinton, H. E., 1976, Possible significance of the red patches of the female crab spider Misumena vatia, J. Zool. 180: 35–39.
Hobson, E., 1968, Predatory behavior of some shore fishes in the Gulf of California, U.S. Dept. Interior. Bur. Spt. Fish. Wildl. Res. Rep. 73.
Holland, W. J., 1908, The Moth Book, Vo. 7, The Nature Library, Doubleday, Page, and Co., New York.
Horn, H. S., 1969, Polymorphism and evolution of the Hispaniolan snake genus Uromacer (Colubridae), Breviora, No. 324, pp. 1–23.
Isely, F. B., 1938, Survival value of Acridian protective coloration, Ecology 19: 370–389.
Jackson, J. F., Ingram III, W., and Campbell, H. W., 1976, The dorsal pigmentation of snakes as an anti-predator strategy: A multivariate approach, Am. Nat. 110: 1029–1053.
Jones, J. S., 1973, Ecological genetics and natural selection in mollusks, Science 182: 546–552.
Jones, J. S., Leith, B. H., and Rawlings, P., 1977, Polymorphism in Cepea: A problem with too many solutions? Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 8: 109–143.
Kaufman, D. W., 1974, Adaptive coloration in Peromyscus polionotus: Experimental selection by owls, J. Mammal. 55: 271–283.
Kaufman, D. W., and Kaufman, G. A., 1976, Pelage coloration of the old-field mouse with comments on adaptive coloration, Acta Theriol. 21: 165–168.
Keiper, R. R., 1969, Behavioral adaptations of Cryptic moths. IV. Preliminary studies on species resembling dead leaves, J. Lepidol. So. 23: 205–210.
Kerfoot, W. C., 1975, The divergence of adjacent populations, Ecology 56: 1298–1313.
Kettlewell, H. B. D., 1956, A resumé of the investigations of the evolution of melanism in the Lepidoptera, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 145: 297–303.
Kettlewell, H. B. D., 1973, The Evolution of Melanism: A Study of a Recurring Necessity, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
King, R. C. (ed.), 1975, Handbook of Genetics, Vols. 3 and 4, Plenum Press, New York.
Kortmulder, K., 1972, A comparative study in color patterns and behavior in seven Asiatic Barbus species (Cyprinidae, Ostariophysi, Osteichthys), a progress report, Behaviour, 19 (Suppl.): 1–331.
Levene, H., 1953, Genetic equilibrium when more than one ecological niche is available, Am. Nat. 87: 331–333.
Levins, R., and MacArthur, R., 1966, The maintenance of genetic polymorphism is a spatially heterogeneous environment: Variations on a theme by Howard Levene, Am. Nat. 100: 585–589.
Lewis, T. H., 1949, Dark coloration in the reptiles of the Tularosa Malpais, New Mexico, Copeia 1949: 181–184.
Lewontin, R. C., 1974, The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, Columbia University Press, New York.
Liley, R. N., 1966, Ethological isolating mechanisms in four sympatric species of Poeciliid fishes, Behaviour 13(Suppl.):l-197.
Liley, R. N., and Seghers, B. H., 1975, Factors affecting the morphology and behavior of guppies in Trinidad, in: Function and Evolution in Behavior ( G. P. Baerends, C. Beer, and A. Manning, eds.), pp. 92–118, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Lythgoe, J. N., 1966, Visual pigments and underwater vision, in: Light as an Ecological Factor, Symp. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 6 ( R. Bainbridge, C. C. Evans, and O. Rackham, (eds.), pp. 375–391, Blackwell, Oxford.
Lythgoe, J. N., 1974, Problems of seeing color under water, in: Vision in Fishes ( M. Ali, ed.), pp. 619–634, Plenum Press, New York.
Maynard-Smith, J., 1970, Genetic polymorphism in a varied environment, Am. Nat. 104: 487–490.
McFarland, W. N., and Munz, F. W., 1974, The visible spectrum during twilight and its implications to vision, in: Light as an Ecological Factor, II. Symp. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 16 (G. C., Evans, R. Bainbridge, and O. Rackham, eds.), pp. 249–270, Blackwell, Oxford.
McFarland, W. N., and Munz, F. W., 1975, The photic environment of clear tropical seas during the day, Vision Res. 15: 1063–1070.
McKaye, K. R., and Barlow, G. W., 1976, Competition between color morphs of the midas cichlid, Cichlasoma citrinellum, in Lake Jiloa, Nicaragua, in: Investigations of the Ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes ( T. B. Thorson, ed.), pp. 465–475, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Milinski, M., 1977, Do all members of a swarm suffer the same predation?, Z. Tierpsychol. 45: 373–388.
Moodie, G. E. E., 1972, Predation, natural selection, and adaptation in an unusual threespine stickleback, Heredity 28: 155–167.
Mottram, J. C., 1915, Some observations of pattern-blending with reference to obliterative shading and concealment of outline, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1915, No. 49, pp. 679–692.
Mottram, J. C., 1916, An experimental determination of the factors which cause patterns to appear conspicuous in nature, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1916, No. 13, pp. 383–419.
Munz, F. W., and McFarland, W. N., 1973, The significance of spectral position in the Rhodopsins of tropical marine fishes, Vision Res. 13: 1829–1874.
Norris, K. S., 1967, Color adapations in desert reptiles and its thermal relationships, in: Lizard Ecology, A Symposium (W. W. Milstead, ed.), pp. 162–229, University of Missouri Press, Columbia.
Norris, K. S., and Lowe, C. H., 1964, An analysis of background color-matching in amphibians and reptiles, Ecology 45: 565–580.
O’Donald, P., 1968, Natural selection by glow-worms in a population of Cepaea nemoralis, Nature, 217: 194.
Otte, D., 1974, Effects and functions in the evolution of signalling systems, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 385–417.
Otte, D., and Joern, A., 1977, On feeding patterns in desert grasshoppers and the evolution of specialized diets, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 128: 89–126.
Papageorgis, C., 1975, Mimicry in neotropical butterflies, Am. Sci. 63: 522–532.
Parsons, P. A., 1963, Migration as a factor in natural selection, Genetica 33: 184–206.
Pietrewicz, A. T., and Kamil, A. C., 1977, Visual detection of cryptic prey by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), Science 195: 580–582.
Popham, E. J., Jr., 1942, The variation in the color of certain species of Corixidae and their significance, Proc. Zool. Soc. London Ser. A 111: 135–172.
Pough, F. H., 1976, Multiple cryptic effects of crossbanded and ringed patterns of snakes, Copeia 1976: 834–836.
Poulton, E. B., 1890. The Colors of Animals, Their Meaning and Use, Especially Considered in the Case of Insects, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., London.
Prout, T., 1968, Sufficient conditions for multiple niche polymorphism, Am. Nat. 102: 493–496.
Rand, A. S. 1967, Predator-prey interactions and the evolution of aspect diversity, Atas do Simposio sobra a Biota Amazonica 5 (Zoologia): 73–83.
Randall, J. E., 1961, Observations on the spawning of Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) in the Society Islands, Copeia 1961: 237–238.
Richardson, A. M. M., 1975, Winter predation by thrushes: Turdus ericetorum (Turton) on a sand dune population of Cepaea nemoralis (L.), Proc. Malacol. Soc. London, 41: 481–488.
Ricklefs, R. E., and O’Rourke, K. E., 1975, Aspect diversity in moths: A temperate-tropical comparison, Evolution 29: 313–324.
Robertson, D. R., and Hoffman, S. G., 1977, The roles of female mate choice and predation in the mating systems of some tropical Labroid fishes, Z. Tierpsychol. 45: 298–320.
Robinson, M. H., 1969, Defenses against visually hunting predators, Evol. Biol. 3: 225–259.
Rosen, D. E., and Bailey, R. M., 1963, The Poeciliid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes), their structure, zoogeography, and systematics, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 126: 1–176.
Rothschild, M., 1975, Remarks on carotenoids in the evolution of signals, in: Coevolution of Animals and Plants ( L. E. Gilbert and P. H. Raven, eds.), pp. 20–47, University of Texas Press, Austin.
Rowell, C. H. F., 1971, The variable coloration of the Acridoid grasshoppers, Adv. Insect Physiol. 8: 145–198.
Royama, T., 1970, Factors governing the hunting behavior and selection of food by the great tit (Parus major L.), J. Anim. Ecol. 39: 619–668.
Sargent, T. D., 1969a, Behavioral adaptations of cryptic moths. II. Experimental studies on bark-like species, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 77: 75–79.
Sargent, T. D., 1969b, Behavioral adaptations of cryptic moths. III. Resting attitudes of two bark-like species, Melanolophia canadaria and Catocala ultronia, Anim. Behay. 17: 670–672.
Sargent, T. D.. 1976, Legion of Night, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.
Sargent, T. D., and Keiper, R. R., 1969, Behavioral adaptations of cryptic moths, I. Preliminary studies on bark-like species, J. Lepid. Soc. 23: 1–9.
Seghers, B. H., 1973, Analysis of geographic variation in the antipredator adaptations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Ph.D. thesis, Zoology Dept., University of British Columbia.
Seghers, B. H., 1974a, Schooling behavior in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): An evolutionary response to predation, Evolution 28: 486–489.
Seghers, B. H., 1974b, Geographic variation in the response of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to aerial predators, Oecologica, 14: 94–98.
Semler, D. E., 1971, Some aspects of adaptation in a polymorphism for breeding color in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), J. Zool. 165: 291–302.
Shapiro, A., 1976, Seasonal polyphenism, Evol. Biol. 9: 259–333.
Sheppard, P. M., 1951, Fluctuations in the selective value of certain phenotypes in the polymorphic land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.), Heredity 5: 125–134.
Spence, D. H. N., 1974, Light and plant response in fresh water, in: Light as an Ecological Factor, II, Symp. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 16 ( G. C. Evans, R. Bainbridge, and O. Rackham, eds.), pp. 93–133, Blackwell, Oxford.
Stewart, M. M., 1974, Parallel pattern polymorphism in the genus Phrynobatrachus (Amphibia: Ranidae), Copeia 1974: 823–832.
Sumner, F. B., 1934, Does protective coloration protect? Results from some experiments with fishes and birds, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 20: 559–564.
Sumner, F. B., 1935, Studies on protective color change. III. Experiments with fishes, both as predators and as prey, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 21: 345–353.
Thayer, G. H., 1909, Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom: An Exposition of the Laws of Disguise through Color and Pattern: Being a Summary of Abbott H. Thayer’s Discoveries, MacMillan Co., New York.
Thresher, R. E., 1977, Eye ornamentation of Caribbean reef fishes, Z. Tierpsychol. 43: 152–158.
Turner, E. R. A., 1961, Survival values of different methods of camouflage as shown in a model population, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 136: 273–284.
Vine, I., 1971, Risk of visual detection and pursuit by a predator and the selective advantage of flocking behavior, J. Theor. Biol. 30: 405–422.
Vine, I., 1973, Detection of prey flocks by predators, J. Theor. Biol. 40: 207–210.
Von Frisch, O., 1973, Animal Camouflage, Collins, London.
Walls, G. L., 1942, The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.
Waterman, T. H., 1961, Light sensitivity and vision, in: The Physiology of the Crustacea, vol. 2, Sense Organs, Integration, and Behavior ( T. H. Waterman, ed.), pp. 1–64, Academic Press, New York.
Watt, W. B., 1968, Adaptive significance of pigment polymorphisms in Colias butterflies. I. Variation of melanin pigment in relation to thermoregulation, Evolution 22: 437–458.
Westlake, D. F., 1966, The light climate for plants in rivers, in: Light as an Ecological Factor, Symp. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 6 ( R. Bainbridge, C. C. Evans, and O. Rackham, eds.), pp. 99–119, Blackwell, Oxford.
Weismann, A., 1882, Studies on the Theory of Descent, with notes and additions by the author, translated with notes by R. Meldola, with a prefatory note by C. Darwin, 2 vols. Sampson, Low, Searles, and Rivington, London.
Wickler, W., 1968, Mimicry in Plants and Animals, Weidenfield and Nicholson, World University Library, London.
Wicklund, C., 1975, Pupal color polymorphism in Papilio machaon L. and the survival in the field of cryptic versus non-cryptic pupae, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 127: 73–84.
Wolda, H., 1963, Natural populations of the polymorphic land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.), Arch. Neerl. Zool. 15: 381–471.
Wolken, J. J., 1971, Invertebrate Photoreceptors: A Comparative Study, Academic Press, New York.
Yamamoto, T., 1975, The medaka, Oryzias latipes, and the guppy, Lebistes reticulatus, Handbook of Genetics, vol. 4, Vertebrates of Genetic Interest (R. C. King, ed), pp. 133–149, Plenum, New York.
Yamanouchi, T., 1956, The visual acuity of the coral fish, Microcanthus strigatus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 5: 133–156.
Young, A. M., 1971, Wing coloration and reflectance in Morpho butterflies as related to reproductive behavior and escape from avian predators, Oecologica, 7: 209–222.
Zaret, T., 1972, Predators, invisible prey, and the nature of polymorphism in the Cladocera (class Crustacea), Limnol. Oceanogr. 17: 171–184.
Zaret, T., and Kerfoot, W. C., 1975, Fish predation on Bosmina longirostris: Body size selection versus visibility selection, Ecology 56: 232–237.
Editors and Affiliations
© 1978 Springer Science+Business Media New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Endler, J.A. (1978). A Predator’s View of Animal Color Patterns. In: Hecht, M.K., Steere, W.C., Wallace, B. (eds) Evolutionary Biology. Evolutionary Biology, vol 11. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6956-5_5
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4615-6958-9
Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-6956-5
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive