Advertisement

A Behavioral Model of Day Treatment

Chapter
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Day treatment programs for children with psychiatric disorders have been identified by Zimet and Farley (1985) as being based on several theoretical models, including those with primarily psychodynamic, developmental therapy, and behavioral orientations. This chapter focuses on a program based primarily on a behavioral model. The rationale for this model will be presented, and the use of both individual behavioral interventions and comprehensive contingency management systems will be discussed. The specific contingency management systems utilized at Brewer-Porch Children’s Center will be described in detail.

Keywords

Anorexia Nervosa Behavioral Model Maladaptive Behavior Apply Behavior Analysis Summer Camp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, R. N., Corbett, T. F., & Smigel, J. (1976). The effects of individual and group consequences on school attendance and curfew violations with predelinquent adolescents. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 221–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, K. E., & Harris, F. R. (1966). Elimination of a child’s excessive scratching by training the mother in reinforcement procedures. Behavior Research and Therapy, 4, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman, K., Haavik, S., & Cook, J. W. (1978). Punishment of self-injurious behavior in natural settings using contingent aromatic ammonia. Behavior Research and Therapy, 16, 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayllon, T., & Azrin, N. H. (1968). The token economy: A motivational system for therapy and rehabilitation. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  5. Baumeister, A. A., & Forehand, R. (1972). Effects of contingent shock and verbal command on body rocking of retardates. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 586 – 590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bierer, J. (1951). The day hospital. London: H. K. Lewis and Company.Google Scholar
  7. Bijou, S. W., & Baer, D. M. (1963). Some methodological contributions from a functional analysis of child development. In L. P. Lipsett & C. S. Spiker (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior: Volume 1 (pp. 197–231). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blinder, B. J., Freeman, D. M., & Stunkard, A. J. (1970). Behavior therapy of anorexia nervosa: Effectiveness of activity as a reenforcer of weight gain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 1093–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blom, G. E., Farley, G. K., & Ekanger, C. (1973). A psycho-educational treatment program: Its characteristics and results. In G. E. Blom & G. K. Farley (Eds.), Report on activities of the Day Care Center of the University of Colorado Medical Center to the Commonwealth Foundation (pp. 65–81). Denver: University of Colorado Medical Center Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brandsma, J. M., & Stein, L. I. (1973). The use of punishment as a treatment modality: A case report. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 156, 30–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Breiling, J. P., Shipman, H., Milligan, J., & Pepin, L. (1971). Glugies, snirkles, and models: Three systems of token reinforcement in the grade school classroom. Educational Technology Research, 14, 1–20.Google Scholar
  12. Cameron, D. E. (1947). The day hospital. Medical Hospital, 69, 3.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, D. F. (1966). Behavior therapy of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 771–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, H. B., Greene, B. F., Macrae, J. W., McNees, M. P., Davis, J. L., & Risley, T. R. (1977). A parent advice package for family shopping trips: Development and evaluation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 605–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clements, C. B., Willis, J. W., & Rickard, H. C. (1974). Schoolhouse in the woods: A first attempt. In H. C. Rickard & M. Dinoff (Eds.), Behavior modification in children: Case studies and illustrations from a summer camp (pp. 132–147). Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  16. Conway, J. B., & Bucher, B. D. (1974). “Soap in the mouth” as an aversive consequence. Behavior Therapy, 5, 154–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davis, J. C. (1978). Community intensive treatment for youth. Alabama Law Enforcement Planning Agency Grant Proposal (No. 78-A2–10), Montgomery, AL.Google Scholar
  18. DeVoge, J. T., & Downey, W. E., Jr. (1975). A token economy program in a community mental health day treatment center. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), Applied behavior modification (pp. 84–108). St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company.Google Scholar
  19. Dinoff, M., Rickard, H. C., & Colwick, J. (1974). Weight reduction through successive contracts. In H. C. Rickard & M. Dinoff (Eds.), Behavior modification in children: Case studies and illustrations from a summer camp (pp. 104–109). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dinoff, M., Serum, C., & Rickard, H. C. (1974). Controlling rebellious behavior through successive contracts. In H. C. Rickard & M. Dinoff (Eds.), Behavior modification in children: Case studies and illustrations from a summer camp (pp. 115–122). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  21. Doty, D. W., Mclnnis, T., & Paul, G. L. (1974). Remediation of negative side effects of an ongoing response-cost system with chronic mental patients. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 191–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drabman, R. S., & Spitalnik, R. (1973). Social isolation as a punishment procedure: A controlled study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 16, 236–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stewart.Google Scholar
  24. Epstein, L. H., Doke, L. A., Sajwaj, T. E., Sorrell, S., & Rimmer, B. (1974). Generality and side effects of overcorrection. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 385–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foxx, R. M., & Azrin, N. H. (1973). The elimination of autistic self-stimulatory behavior by overcorrection. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 1 – 14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Freedman, A. M. (1959). Day hospitals for severely disturbed schizophrenic children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 893–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gelfand, D. M., & Hartmann, D. P. (1975). Child behavior analysis and therapy New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Goldfarb, W., Goldfarb, N., & Pollack, R. C. (1966). Treatment of childhood schizophrenia: A three year comparison of day and residential treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 14, 119–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamilton, J., & Standahl, J. (1969). Suppression of stereotyped screaming behavior in a profoundly retarded institutionalized female. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 7, 114–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harris, S. L., & Romanczyk, R. (1976). Treating self-injurious behavior of a retarded child by overcorrection. Behavior Therapy, 7, 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Homme, L. (1970). How to use contingency contracting in the classroom. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  32. Homme, L. E., DeBaca, P. C., Devine, J. V., Steinhorst, R., & Rickert, E.J. (1963). Use of the Premack Principle in controlling the behavior of nursery school children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaufman, K. F., & O’Leary, K. D. (1972). Reward, cost, and self-evaluation procedures for disruptive adolescents in a psychiatric hospital school. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 293–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kazdin, A. E. (1973). The effect of response cost and aversive stimulation in suppressing punished and nonpunished speech disfluencies. Behavior Therapy, 4, 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lahey, B. B., McNees, M. P., & McNees, M. C. (1973). Control of an obscene “verbal tic” through timeout in an elementary school classroom. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 6, 101–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. LaVietes, R. L., Cohen, R., Reens, R., & Ronall, R. (1965). Day treatment center and school: Seven years experience. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 160–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lovaas, O. L., & Simmons, J. Q. (1969). Manipulation of self-destruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 143–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lovaas, O. I., Frietag, G., Kinder, M. I., Rubenstein, B. D., Schaeffer, B., & Simmons, J. Q. (1966). Establishment of social reinforcers in two schizophrenic children on the basis of food. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 109–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Madsen, C. K., & Madsen, C. H., Jr. (1972). Parents/children/discipline: A positive approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  40. Madsen, C. H., Jr., Becker, W. C., Thomas, D. R., Koser, L., & Plager, E. (1968). An analysis of the reinforcing function of “sit down” commands. In R. K. Parker (Ed.), Readings in educational psychology (pp. 265–278). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  41. Mattos, R. L., Mattson, R. H., Walker, H. M., & Buckley, N. K. (1969). Reinforcement and aversive control in the modification of behavior. Academic Therapy, 5, 37–52.Google Scholar
  42. McKenzie, H. S., Clark, M., Wolf, M. M., Kothera, R., &Benson, C. (1968). Behavior modification of children with learning disabilities using grades as tokens and allowances as backup reinforcers. Exceptional Children, 34, 745–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. O’Leary, K. D., Kaufman, K. F., Kass, R., & Drabman, R. (1970). The effects of loud and soft reprimands on the behavior of disruptive students. Exceptional Children, 37, 145–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Phillips, E. L., Phillips, E. A., Fixsen, D. L., & Wolf, M. M. (1973). Behavior shaping works for delinquents. Psychology Today, 7, 75–79.Google Scholar
  45. Premack, D. (1965). Reinforcement theory. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 123–180). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  46. Prentice-Dunn, S., Wilson, D. R., & Lyman, R. D. (1981). Client factors related to outcome in a residential and day treatment program for children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 10, 188–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Redl, F. (1966). When we deal with children. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  48. Rickard, H. C., Willis, J. W., & Clements, C. B. (1974). Effects of contingent and noncontingent token reinforcement upon classroom performance. In H. C. Rickard & M. Dinoff (Eds.), Behavior modification in children: Case studies and illustrations from a summer camp (pp. 115–122). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  49. Risley, T. R. (1968). The effects and side effects of punishing the autistic behaviors of a deviant child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 21–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Risley, T., Sajwaj, T., Doke, L., & Agras, S. (1975). Specialized day care as a psychiatric outpatient service. In E. Ramp &G. Semb (Eds.), Behavioral analysis: Areas of research &application (pp. 97–123). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  51. Sajwaj, T., Libet, J., &Agras, S. (1974). Lemon-juice therapy: The control of life-threatening rumination in a six-month-old infant. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 557–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sanok, R. L., &Striefel, S. (1979). Elective mutism: Generalization of verbal responding across people and settings. Behavior Therapy, 10, 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stone, M. C. (1970). Behavior shaping in a classroom for children with cerebral palsy. Exceptional Children, 36, 674–677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Stuart, R. B. (1974). Behavioral contracting within the families of delinquents. In O. I. Lovaas & B. D. Bucher (Eds.), Perspectives in behavior modification with deviant children (pp. 319–335). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  55. Swan, W. W., & Wood, M. M. (1976). Making decisions about treatment. In M. M. Wood (Ed.), Developmental therapy. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  56. Tahmisian, J. A., &McReynolds, W. T (1971). Use of parents as behavioral engineers in the treatment of a school phobic girl. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 18, 225–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tate, B. G., &Baroff, G. S. (1966). Aversive control of self-injurious behavior in a psychotic boy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Walton, D. (1961). Experimental psychology and the treatment of a ticquer. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2, 148–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Walton, D. (1964). Massed practice and simultaneous reduction in drive level: Further evidence of the efficacy of this approach to the treatment of tics. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), Experiments in behavior therapy (pp. 398–400). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  60. Wielkiewicz, R. M. (1986). Behavior management in the schools: Principles and procedures. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  61. Willis, J. W. (1974). Contingent token reinforcement in an educational program for emotionally disturbed children. In H. C. Rickard and M. Dinoff (Eds.), Behavior modification in children: Case studies and illustrations from a summer camp (pp. 157–169). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  62. Wilson, D. R., & Lyman, R. D. (1982). Time-out in the treatment of childhood behavior problems: Implementation and research issues. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 4, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wood, M. M. (Ed.). (1975). Developmental therapy: A textbook for teachers as therapists for emotionally disturbed young children. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  64. Zang, L. C. (1978). The antisocial aggressive school age child: Day hospitals. In B. B. Wolman, J. Egan, & A. O. Ross (Eds.), Handbook of treatment of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence (pp. 317–329). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  65. Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1985). Day treatment for children in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 732–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zimet, S. G., Farley, G. K., Silver, J., Hebert, F. B., Robb, E. D., Ekanger, C., & Smith, D. (1980). Behavior and personality changes in emotionally disturbed children enrolled in a psychoeducational day treatment center. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19, 240–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

Personalised recommendations