Advertisement

Female-Biased Philopatry, Monogamy, and the Timing of Pair Formation in Migratory Waterfowl

  • Frank C. Rohwer
  • Michael G. Anderson
Part of the Current Ornithology book series (CUOR, volume 5)

Abstract

Waterfowl (family Anatidae) provide several exceptions to more typical avian breeding systems. One exception is their system of parental care, wherein highly precocial young secure their own food. This pattern of development has had important consequences for mating systems in waterfowl. The relative independence of young has resulted in the liberation of males from parental care in most migratory ducks. Theory suggests that such emancipation would lead to polygynous mating systems (Lack, 1968; Orians, 1969). Thus, it is somewhat surprising that there are few exceptions to monogamy in the waterfowl (exceptions: Frith and Davies, 1961; Pitman, 1965; Johnsgard, 1966; Siegfried, 1979). Another surprising character in monogamous pairing waterfowl is that many ducks pair 6 months prior to breeding, yet these pair bonds only last for a single breeding season. Finally, the Anatidae appear to be the only group of birds with greater female philopatry than male philopatry. We suspect that monogamy, early pairing, and female-biased philopatry in migratory ducks, geese, and swans ultimately relate to the system of parental care exhibited by wildfowl.

Keywords

Parental Care Pair Bond Brood Care Snow Goose Canada Goose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Afton, A. D., 1984, Influence of age and time on reproductive performance of female Lesser Scaup, Auk 101:255–265.Google Scholar
  2. Afton, A. D., and Sayler, R. D., 1982, Social courtship and pairbonding of Common Goldeneyes, BucephaJa cJangula, wintering in Minnesota, Can. Field-Nat 96:295–300.Google Scholar
  3. Alatalo, R. V., Lundberg, A., and Glynn, C., 1986, Female pied flycatchers choose territory quality and not male characteristics, Nature 323:152–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldrich, J. W., 1973, Disparate sex ratios in waterfowl, in: Breeding Biology of Birds (D. S. Farner, ed.), National Academy of Sciences, Washington, pp. 482–489.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, W. C, 1980, The behavioral ecology and sociobiology of non-breeding diving ducks (Aythyini), unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina.Google Scholar
  6. Alison, R. M., 1975, Breeding biology and behavior of the Oldsquaw, Ornithol. Monogr. 18:1–152.Google Scholar
  7. Alison, R.M., 1977, Homing of subadult Oldsquaws, Auk 94:383–384.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, M. G., 1985a, Variations on monogamy in Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), in: Avian Monogamy (P. A. Gowaty and D. W. Mock, eds.), Ornithol. Monogr. 37:57–67.Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, M.G., 1985b, Social behavior of the Canvasback [Aythya valisineria): Male and female strategies of reproduction, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  10. Anderson, M. G., Hepp, G. R., McKinney, F., and Owen, M., 1987, Workshop summary: Courtship and pairing in winter, in: Waterfowl in Winter (M. W. Weller, ed.), University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 123–131.Google Scholar
  11. Anderson, M. G., Rhymer, J. M., and Rohwer, F. C., Philopatry dispersal, and the genetic structure of water fowl populations, in: The Ecology and Management of Breeding Fowl (B. D. J. Batt, A. D. Afton, M. G. Anderson, C. D. Anteney, D. H. Johnson, J. A. Kadlec, G. L. Krapu, eds.), (in preparation).Google Scholar
  12. Ankney, C. D., 1984, Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding and molting Brant, Auk 101:361–370.Google Scholar
  13. Ankney, C.D., and MacInnes, C. D., 1978, Nutrient reserves and reproductive performance of female Lesser Snow Geese, Auk 95:459–471.Google Scholar
  14. Armbruster, J. S., 1982, Wood Duck displays and pairing chronology, Auk 99:116–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ashcroft, R. E., 1976, A function of the pairbond in the Common Eider, Wildfowl 27:101–105.Google Scholar
  16. Bateson, P., 1978, Sexual imprinting and optimal outbreeding, Nature 273:659–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bateson, P., 1983, Optimal outbreeding, in: Mate Choice (P. Bateson, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  18. Ball, I. J., Frost, P. G. H., Siegfried, W. R., and McKinney, F., 1978, Territories and local movements of African Black Ducks, Wildfowl 29:61–79.Google Scholar
  19. Bellrose, F. C., 1980, Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.Google Scholar
  20. Bellrose, F. C., Scott, T. G., Hawkins, A. S., and Low, J. B., 1961, Sex ratios and age ratios in North American ducks, Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 27.Google Scholar
  21. Bellrose, F. C., Johnson, K. L., and Meyers, T. U., 1964, Relative value of natural cavities and nesting houses for Wood Ducks, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 28:661–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bengtson, S.-A., 1972, Breeding ecology of the Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus (L.) in Iceland, Ornis Scand. 3:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bennett, J. W., and Bolen, E. G., 1978, Stress response in wintering Green-winged Teal, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 42:81–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bezzel, E., 1959, Beitrage zur Biologie der Geschlechter bei Entenvogeln (Contributions on sex ratios in Anatinae), Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern 5:269–356.Google Scholar
  25. Blohm, R. J., 1979, Breeding ecology of the Gadwall in southern Manitoba, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  26. Bluhm, C. K., 1985, Mate preferences and mating patterns of Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), in: Avian Monogamy (P. A. Gowaty and D. W. Mock, eds.), Ornithol. Monogr. 37:45–56.Google Scholar
  27. Bolen, E. G., 1971, Pair-bond tenure in the Black-bellied Tree Duck, J. Wildl Mgmt. 35:385–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bossema, I., and Roemers, E., 1985, Mating strategy, including mate choice, in Mallards, Ardea 73:147–157.Google Scholar
  29. Bousfield, M. A., and Syroechkovskiy, Y. V., 1985, A review of Soviet research on the Lesser Snow Goose on Wrangel Island, U.S.S.R., Wildfowl 36:13–20.Google Scholar
  30. Boyd, H., 1953, On encounters between wild White-fronted Geese in winter flocks, Behaviour 5:85–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Braithwaite, L. W., 1976, Environment and timing of reproduction and flightlessness in two species of Australian ducks, Proc. Int. Ornithol. Cong. 16:489–501.Google Scholar
  32. Brodsky, L. M., and Weatherhead, P. J., 1985, Time and energy constraints on courtship in wintering American Black Ducks, Condor 87:33–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown, P. W., and Brown, M. A., 1981, Nesting biology of the White-winged Scoter, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 45:38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cheng, K. M., Shoffner, R. N., Phillips, R. E., and Lee, F. B., 1978, Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) Mallards (Anas platyrynchos). I. Initial preference, Anim. Behav. 26:996–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coleman, A. E., and Minton, C. D. T., 1979, Pairing and breeding of Mute Swans in relation to natal area, Wildfowl 30:27–30.Google Scholar
  36. Cooch, F. G., 1965, The breeding biology and management of the Northern Eider (Somateria mollissima borealis) in the Cape Dorset Area, Northwest Territories, Can. Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Mgmt. Bull. Ser. 2(10).Google Scholar
  37. Cooke, F., Machines, C. D., and Prevett, J. P., 1975, Gene flow between breeding populations of Lesser Snow Geese, Auk 92:493–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cooke, F., and Sulzbach, D. S., 1978, Mortality, emigration and separation of mated Snow Geese, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 42:271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cooke, F., Bousfield, M. A., and Sadura, A., 1981, Mate change and reproductive success in the Lesser Snow Goose, Condor 83:322–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cooke, F., Abraham, K. F., Davies, J. C., Findlay, C. S., Healey, R. F., Sadura, A., and Seguin, R. J., 1982, The La Perouse Bay Snow Goose Project—A 13-Year Report, Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  41. Coulter, M. W., and Miller, W. R., 1968, Nesting biology of Black Ducks and Mallards in northern New England, Vermont Fish Game Dept. Bull. 68-2.Google Scholar
  42. Cramp, S., and Simmons, K. E. L., 1977, Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  43. Derrickson, S. R., 1977, Aspect of breeding behavior in the Pintail (Anas acuta), Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  44. Doty, H. A., and Kruse, A. D., 1972, Techniques for establishing local breeding populations of Wood Ducks, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 36:428–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Doty, H. A., and Lee, F. B., 1974, Homing to nest baskets by wild female Mallards, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 38:714–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dow, H., and Fredga, S., 1983, Breeding and natal dispersal of the Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula, J. Anim. Ecol. 52:681–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Drewien, R. C., and Fredrickson, L. F., 1970, High density Mallard nesting on a South Dakota island, Wilson Bull. 82:95–96.Google Scholar
  48. Drobney, R. D., 1977, The feeding ecology, nutrition, and reproductive bioenergetics of Wood Ducks, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia.Google Scholar
  49. Drobney, R. D., 1980, Reproductive bioenergetics of Wood Ducks, Auk 97:480–490.Google Scholar
  50. Duebbert, H.F., and Lokemoen, J. T., 1980, High duck nesting success in a predator–reduced environment, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 44:428–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Duebbert, H. F., Lokemoen, J. T., and Sharp, D. E., 1983, Concentrated nesting of Mallards and Gadwalls on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 47:729–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Eldridge, J. L., 1986a, Observations on a pair of Torrent Ducks, Wildfowl 37:113–122.Google Scholar
  53. Eldridge, J.L., 1986b, Territoriality in a river specialist: The Blue Duck, Wildfowl 37:123–135.Google Scholar
  54. Emlen, S. T., and Oring, L. W., 1977, Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems, Science 197:215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Erskine, A. J., 1961, Nest-site tenacity and homing in the Bufflehead, Auk 78:389–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Evans, C. D., Hawkins, A. S., and Marshall, W. H., 1952, Movements of waterfowl broods in Manitoba, U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish and Wildl. Ser., Spec. Scientific Report Wildl. 16.Google Scholar
  57. Frith, H. J., 1967, Waterfowl in Australia, East-west Center Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  58. Frith, H. J., and Davies, S. J. J. F., 1961, Ecology of the Magpie Goose, Anseranas semipalmata Latham (Anatidae), CSIRO Wildl. Res. 6:91–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gates, J. M., 1962, Breeding biology of the Gadwall in northern Utah, Wilson Bull. 74:43–67.Google Scholar
  60. Gauthier, G., 1987, Further evidence of long-term pair bonds in ducks of the genus Bucephala, Auk 104:521–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Glover, F. A., 1956, Nesting and production of the Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors Linnaeus) in northwestern Iowa, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 20:28–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gollop, J. B., 1959, Homing, Naturalist 10:29–30.Google Scholar
  63. Greenwood, P. J., 1980, Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals, Anim. Behav. 28:1140–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Greenwood, P. J., and Harvey, P. H., 1982, The natal and breeding dispersal of birds, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13:1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grice, D., and Rogers, J. P., 1965, The Wood Duck in Massachusetts, Mass. Div. Fish. Game, Final report, project No. W-19-R.Google Scholar
  66. Guinn, S. J. R., and Batt, B. D. J., 1985, Activity budgets of Northern Pintail hens: Influence of brood size, brood age, and date, Can. J. Zool. 63:2114–2120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hepp, G. R., 1986, Effects of body weight and age on the time of pairing of American Black Ducks, Auk 103:477–484.Google Scholar
  68. Hepp, G. R., and Hair, J. D., 1983, Reproductive behavior and pairing chronology in wintering dabbling ducks. Wilson Bull. 95:675–682.Google Scholar
  69. Hepp, G. R., and Hair, J. D., 1984, Dominance in wintering waterfowl (Anatini): Effects on distribution of sexes, Condor 86:251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hildén, O., 1964, Ecology of duck populations in the island group of Valassaaret, Gulf of Bothnia, Ann. Zool. Fenn. 1:153–279.Google Scholar
  71. Hobaugh, W. C., 1985, Body condition and nutrition of Snow Geese wintering in southeastern Texas, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 49:1028–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hochbaum, H. A., 1944, The Canvasback on a Prairie Marsh, Stackpole, Harrisburg, PA.Google Scholar
  73. Hochbaum, H. A., 1955, Travels and Traditions of Waterfowl, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  74. Hohman, W. L., 1986, Changes in body weight and body composition of breeding Ring-necked Ducks (Aythya collaris), Auk 103:181–188.Google Scholar
  75. Humburg, D. D., Prince, H. H., and Bishop, R. A., 1978, The social organization of a Mallard population in northern Iowa, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 42:72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Johnsgard, P. A. 1960. A quantitative study of sexual behavior of Mallards and Black Ducks, Wilson Bull. 72:133–155.Google Scholar
  77. Johnsgard, P. A. 1966, Behavior of the Australian Musk Duck and Blue-billed Duck, Auk 83:98–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johnson, D. H., and Sargeant, A. B., 1977, Impact of Red Fox predation on the sex ratio of prairie Mallards, U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Res. Rep. 6.Google Scholar
  79. Jones, R. D., Jr., and Jones, D. M., 1966, The process of family disintegration in Black Brant, Wildfowl 17:75–78.Google Scholar
  80. Kear, J., 1970, The adaptive radiation of parental care in waterfowl, in: Social Behaviour in Birds and Mammals (J. H. Crook, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 357–392.Google Scholar
  81. Kehoe, F. P., 1986, Adaptive significance of creching in the White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca deglandi). Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  82. Keith, L. B., 1961, A study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in southeastern Alberta, Wildl. Monogr. 6:1–88.Google Scholar
  83. King, J. R., 1973, Energetics of reproduction in birds, in: Breeding Biology of Birds (D. S. Farner, ed.), National Academy of Sciences, Washington, pp. 78–107.Google Scholar
  84. Klint, T., 1980, Influence of male nuptial plumage on mate selection in the female Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Anim. Behav. 28:1230–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Korschgen, C. E., 1977, Breeding stress of female Eiders in Maine, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 41:360–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krapu, G. L., 1981, The role of nutrient reserves in Mallard reproduction, Auk 98:29–38.Google Scholar
  87. Krapu, G. L., and Doty, H. A., 1979, Age-related aspects of Mallard reproduction, Wildfowl 30:35–39.Google Scholar
  88. Krebs, J. R., 1982, Territorial defense in the Great Tit (Parus major): Do residents always win?, Behav. Ecol. Sociohiol. 11:185–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lack, D., 1968, Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  90. Lazarus, J., and Inglis, I. R., 1978, The breeding behaviour of the Pink-footed Goose: Parental care and vigilant behaviour during the fledging period, Behaviour 65:62–88.Google Scholar
  91. Lebret, T., 1961, The pair formation in the annual cycle of the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos L., Ardea 49:97–158.Google Scholar
  92. Lee, F. B., and Kruse, A. D., 1973, High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain Mallards, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 37:154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lessells, C. M., 1985, Natal and breeding dispersal of Canada Geese Branta canadensis, Ibis 127:31–41.Google Scholar
  94. Limpert, R. J., 1980, Homing success of adult Buffelheads to a Maryland wintering site, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 44:905–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lincoln, F. C., 1934, The operation of homing instinct, Bird Banding 5:149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mainguy, S. K., and Thomas, V. G., 1985, Comparisons of body reserve buildup and use in several groups of Canada geese, Can. J. Zool. 63:1765–1772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Maynard Smith, J., 1977, Parental investment: A prospective analysis, Anim. Behav. 25:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maynard Smith, J., and Parker, G. A., 1976, The logic of asymmetric contests, Anim. Behav. 24:159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McKinney, F., 1965, Spacing and chasing in breeding ducks, Wildfowl 16:92–106.Google Scholar
  100. McKinney, F., 1970, Displays of four species of blue-winged ducks, Living Bird 9:29–64.Google Scholar
  101. McKinney, F., 1973, Ecoethological aspects of reproduction, in: Breeding Biology of Birds (D. S. Farner, ed.), National Academy of Sciences, Washington, pp. 6–21.Google Scholar
  102. McKinney, F., 1975, The evolution of duck displays, in: Function and Evolution in Behaviour (G. Baerends, C. Beer, and A. Manning, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K., pp. 331–357.Google Scholar
  103. McKinney, F., 1985, Primary and secondary male reproductive strategies of dabbling ducks, in: Avian Monogamy (P. A. Gowaty and D. W. Mock, eds.), Ornithol. Monogr. 37:68–82.Google Scholar
  104. McKinney, F., 1986, Ecological factors influencing the social systems of migratory dabbling ducks, in: Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution (D. I. Rubenstein and R. W. Wrangham, eds.), Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 53–171.Google Scholar
  105. McKinney, F., Siegfried, W. R., Ball, I. J., and Frost, P. G. H., 1978, Behavioral specializations for river life in the African Black Duck (Anas sparsa Eyton), Z. Tierpsychol. 48:349–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. McKinney, F., Derrickson, S. R., and Mineau, P., 1983, Forced copulation in waterfowl, Behaviour 86:250–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. McLandress, M. R., and Raveling, D. G., 1981, Changes in diet and body compositition of Canada Geese before spring migration, Auk 98:65–79.Google Scholar
  108. Mickelson, P. G., 1975, Breeding biology of Cackling Geese and associated species on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, Wildl. Monogr. 45:1–35.Google Scholar
  109. Milne, H., 1974, Breeding numbers and reproductive rate of Eiders at the sands of Forvie National Nature Reserve, Scotland, Ibis 116:135–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Milne, H., 1976, Body weights and carcass composition of the Common Eider, Wildfowl 27:115–122.Google Scholar
  111. Minton, C. D. T., 1968, Pairing and breeding of Mute Swans, Wildfowl 19:41–60.Google Scholar
  112. Moore, J., and Ali, R., 1984, Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance related?, Anim. Behav. 32:94–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Moulton, D. W., and Weller, M. W., 1984, Biology and conservation of the Laysan Duck (Anas Jaysanensis), Condor 86:105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Munro, J., and Bedard, J., 1977, Creche formation in the Common Eider, Auk 94:759–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nagata, H., 1986, Female choice in the Middendorff’s Grasshopper-Warbler (Locustella ochotensis), Auk 103:694–700.Google Scholar
  116. Nelson, C. A. M., 1983, Patterns of pothole usage by foraging diving ducks in parkland habitat, southwestern Manitoba, unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.Google Scholar
  117. Norman, F. I., and McKinney, F., In press, Clutches, broods, and brood care behavior in Chestnut Teal, Wildfowl 38: in press.Google Scholar
  118. Olson, D. P., 1965, Differential vulnerability of male and female Canvasbacks to hunting, Trans. North Am. Wildl. Conf. 13:121–135.Google Scholar
  119. Orians, G. H., 1969, On the evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals, Am. Nat. 103:589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Oring, L. W., and D. B. Lank, 1982, Sexual selection, arrival times, philopatry and site fidelity in the polyandrous Spotted Sandpiper, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 10:185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Owen, M., 1980, Wild Geese of the World, Batsford, London.Google Scholar
  122. Owen, M., and Cook, W. A., 1977, Variations in body weight, wing length and condition of Mallard Anas pJatyrhynchos platyrhynchos and their relationship to environmental changes, J. Zool. Lond. 183:377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Owen, R. B., Jr., and Reinecke, K. J., 1979, Bioenergetics of breeding dabbling ducks, in: Waterfowl and Wetlands—An Integrated Review (T. A. Bookhout, ed.), Proc. 1977 Symp., N. Cent. Sect., Wildl. Soc., Madison, WI, pp. 71–93.Google Scholar
  124. Patterson, I. J., 1977, Aggression and dominance in winter flocks of Shelduck Tadorna tadorna (L.), Anim. Behav. 25:447–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Patterson, I. J., 1982, The Shelduck: A study in behavioural ecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Paulus, S. L., 1983, Dominance relations, resource use, and pairing chronology of Gad-walls in winter, Auk 100:947–952.Google Scholar
  127. Paulus, S. L., 1984, Activity budgets of nonbreeding Gadwalls in Louisiana, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 48:371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pettingill, O. S., Jr., 1965, Kelp Geese and Flightless Steamer Ducks in the Falkland Islands, Living Bird 4:65–78.Google Scholar
  129. Pitman, C. R. S., 1965, The nesting and some other habits of Alopochen, Nettapus, Plectropterus and Sarkidiornis, Wildfowl 16:115–121.Google Scholar
  130. Poston, H. J., 1974, Home range and breeding biology of the Shoveler, Can. Wildl. Ser. Rep. Ser. 25.Google Scholar
  131. Prevett, J. P., and MacInnes, C. D., 1980, Family and other social groups in Snow Geese, Wildl. Monogr. 71:1–46.Google Scholar
  132. Rahn, H., Paganelli, C. V., and Ar, A., 1975, Relation of avian egg weight to body weight, Auk 92:750–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Raitasuo, K., 1964, Social behaviour of the Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, in the course of the annual cycle (Riist. Julka.), Finish Pap. Game Res. 24:1–72.Google Scholar
  134. Raveling, D. G., 1969, Social classes of Canada Geese in winter, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 33:304–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Raveling, D. G., 1970, Dominance relationships and agonistic behavior of Canada Geese in winter, Behaviour 37:291–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Raveling, D. G., 1979, The annual cycle of body composition of Canada Geese with special reference to control of reproduction, Auk 96:234–252.Google Scholar
  137. Reinecke, K. J., Stone, T. L., and Owen, R. B., Jr., 1982, Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female Black Ducks in Maine, Condor 84:420–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Remmert, H., 1980, Arctic Animal Ecology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ricklefs, R. E., 1974, Energetics of reproduction in birds, in: Avian Energetics (R. A. Paynter, Jr., ed.), Pub Nuttall Ornithology Club 15, Cambridge MA, pp. 152–297.Google Scholar
  140. Robbins, C. T., 1981, Estimation of the relative protein cost of reproduction in birds, Condor 83:177–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rohwer, F. C., 1986, The adaptive significance of clutch size in waterfowl (Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis), Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  142. Salomonsen, F., 1968, The moult migration, Wildfowl 19:5–24.Google Scholar
  143. Sargeant, A. B., Allen, S. H., and Eberhardt, R. T., 1984, Red Fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America, Wildl. Monogr. 89:1–41.Google Scholar
  144. Salyer, J. W., 1962, Effects of drought and land use on prairie nesting ducks, Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf. 27:69–79.Google Scholar
  145. Savard, J.-P. L., 1985, Evidence of long-term pair bonds in Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), Auk 102:389–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Scott, D. K., 1980a, Functional aspects of the pair bond in winter in Bewick’s Swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), Behav. Ecol. Sociohiol. 7:323–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Scott, D. K., 1980b, Functional aspects of prolonged parental care in Bewick’s Swans, Anim. Behav. 28:938–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sellers, R. A., 1973, Mallard releases in understocked prairie pothole habitat, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 37:10–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Seymour, N. R., 1974, Territorial behaviour of wild Shovelers at Delta, Manitoba, Wildfowl 25:49–55.Google Scholar
  150. Seymour, N. R., and Titman, R. D., 1978, Changes in activity patterns, agonistic behavior, and territoriality of Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during the breeding season in a Nova Scotia tidal marsh, Can. J. Zool. 56:1773–1785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Seymour, N. R., and Titman, R. D., 1979, Behaviour of unpaired male Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during the breeding season in a Nova Scotia tidal marsh, Can. J. Zool. 57: 2421–2428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Shields, W. M., 1982, Philopatry, Inbreeding, and the EvoJution of Sex, State University of New York Press, Albany.Google Scholar
  153. Sibley, C. G, 1957, The evolutionary and taxonomic significance of sexual dimorphism and hybridization in birds, Condor 59:166–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Siegfried, W. R., 1965, The Cape Shoveller Anas smithii (Hartert) in southern Africa, Ostrich 36:155–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Siegfried, W. R., 1974, Brood care, pair bonds and plumage in southern African Anatini, Wildfowl 25:33–40.Google Scholar
  156. Siegfried, W. R., 1976a, Social organization in Ruddy and Maccoa Ducks, Auk 93:560–570.Google Scholar
  157. Siegfried, W. R., 1967b, Segregation in feeding behaviour of four diving ducks in southern Manitoba, Can. J. Zool. 54:730–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Siegfried, W. R., 1979, Social behavior of the African Comb Duck, Living Bird 17:85–104.Google Scholar
  159. Smith, R. I., 1968, The social aspects of reproductive behavior in the Pintail, Auk 85: 381–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Soutiere, E. C., Myrick, H. S., and Bolen, E. G, 1972, Chronology and behavior of American Widgeon wintering in Texas, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 36:752–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sowls, L. K., 1955, Prairie Ducks, Stackpole, Harrisburg, PA.Google Scholar
  162. Spurr, E., and Milne, H., 1976a, Adaptive significance of autumn pair formation in the Common Eider Somateria mollissima (L.), Ornis Scand. 7:85–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Spurr, E., and Milne, H., 1976b, Factors affecting laying date in the Common Eider, Wildfowl 27:107–109.Google Scholar
  164. Stewart, G. R., and Titman, R. D., 1980, Territorial behaviour by prairie pothole Blue-winged Teal, Can. J. Zool. 58:639–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stotts, V. D., 1958, The time of formation of pairs in Black Ducks, Trans. North Am. Wildl. Conf. 23:192–197.Google Scholar
  166. Stotts, V. D., 1960, The Black Duck in the Chesapeake Bay of Maryland: Breeding behavior and biology, Chesapeake Sci. 1:127–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Summers, R. W., 1985, Demographic variations in the movements of Upland Geese Chloephaga picta and Ruddy-headed Geese Chloephaga ruhidiceps in the Falkland Islands, J. Zool. Lond. (A) 206:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Surrendi, D. C., 1970, The mortality, behavior, and homing of transplanted juvenile Canada Geese, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 34:719–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Talent, L. G., Krapu, G. L., and Jarvis, R. L., 1982, Habitat use by Mallard broods in south central North Dakota, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 46:629–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Talent, L. G., Jarvis, R. L., and Krapu, G. L., 1983, Survival of Mallard broods in south-central North Dakota, Condor 85:74–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Titman, R. D., 1983, Spacing and three-bird flights of Mallards breeding in pothole habitat, Can. J. Zool. 61:839–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Titman, R. D., and Lowther, J. K., 1975, The breeding behavior of a crowded population of Mallards, Can. J. Zool. 53:1270–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tome, M. W., 1984, Changes in the nutrient reserves and organ size of female Ruddy Ducks breeding in Manitoba, Auk 101:830–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Trauger, D. L., 1971, Population ecology of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) in Subarctic Taiga (Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis), Iowa State University, Ames.Google Scholar
  175. Trivers, R. L., 1972, Parental investment and sexual selection, in: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971 (B. Campbell, ed.), Aldine-Atherton, Chicago, pp. 136–179.Google Scholar
  176. Verner, J., and Willson, M. F., 1966, The influence of habitats on mating systems of North American passerine birds, Ecology 47:143–147.Google Scholar
  177. Wakeley, J. S., and Mendall, H. L., 1976, Migrational homing and survival of adult female Eiders in Maine, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 40:15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Weller, M. W., 1957, Growth, weights, and plumages of the redhead, Aythya americana, Wilson Bull. 69:4–38.Google Scholar
  179. Weller, M. W., 1965, Chronology of pair formation in some nearctic Aythya (Anatidae), Auk 82:277–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Weller, M. W., 1967, Courtship of the Redhead (Aythya americana), Auk 84:544–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Weller, M. W., 1968, Notes on some Argentine anatids, Wilson Bull. 80:189–212.Google Scholar
  182. Weller, M. W.. 1972, Ecological studies of Falkland Islands’ waterfowl, Wildfowl 23:25–44.Google Scholar
  183. Weller, M. W., 1976, Ecology and behaviour of steamer ducks, Wildfowl 27:45–53.Google Scholar
  184. Williams, D. M., 1983, Mate choice in the Mallard, in: Mate Choice (P. Bateson, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., pp. 297–309.Google Scholar
  185. Williams, M., 1973, Dispersionary behaviour and breeding of Shelduck Tadorna tadorna L. on the River Ythan Estuary, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, U.K.Google Scholar
  186. Williams, M., 1974, Creching behaviour of the Shelduck Tadorna tadorna L., Ornis Scand. 5:131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Williams, M., 1979, The social structure, breeding and population dynamics of Paradise Shelduck in the Gisborne-East Coast District, Notornis 26:213–272.Google Scholar
  188. Wishart, R. A.. 1983, Pairing chronology and mate selection in the American Wigeon (Anas americana), Can. J. Zool. 61:1733–1743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wittenberger, J. F., and Tilson, R. L., 1980, The evolution of monogamy: Hypotheses and evidence, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11:197–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Young, C. M., 1970, Territoriality in the Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna, Ibis 112:330–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank C. Rohwer
    • 1
  • Michael G. Anderson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Delta Waterfowl and Wetlands Research StationManitobaCanada

Personalised recommendations