Skip to main content

Bird Songs and Avian Systematics

  • Chapter

Part of the Current Ornithology book series (CUOR,volume 3)

Abstract

Song has been used widely in the systematic study of bird species and their relationships in the past two decades. The similarity of songs among different populations provides a test of the species identity of isolated or remote populations. As song is used in social and sexual behavior, we can test whether different populations respond to each other’s behavior. Systematists have used song differences and experiments to determine species limits among remote populations (Rowley, 1970; Lanyon, 1978; Martens, 1980, 1982; Payne, 1973a, 1982). The conditions under which song is a reliable guide to species relationships have not generally been considered. How similar must songs be for populations to be considered conspecific, or how different to support a hypothesis of species distinctiveness? How reliable are song playback experiments? How adequate are studies that compare songs alone? What effect does song learning have on the usefulness of song as a guide to species limits? In addition, systematists are interested in song as a guide to relationships among species. Several reviews of song in systematics have indicated that song may be more useful at the species level than at higher levels (Mayr, 1956; Löhrl, 1963; Thielcke, 1964; Lanyon, 1969; Selander, 1971). Is song a reliable guide to the phylogenetic history of speciation? Has cultural evolution within related species obscured their biological relationships?

Keywords

  • Song Type
  • Advertising Call
  • Allopatric Population
  • Bird Song
  • Species Limit

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-6784-4_2
  • Chapter length: 40 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4615-6784-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Adkisson, C. S., 1981, Geographic variation in vocalizations and evolution of North American Pine Grosbeaks, Condor 83:277–288.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ali, S., and Ripley, S. D., 1969, Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan, Volume 3, Oxford University Press, Bombay.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baker, M. C., Spittler-Nabors, K. J., and Bradley, D. C., 1981a, Early experience determines song dialect responsiveness of female sparrows. Science 214:819–820.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baker, M. C., Thompson, D. B., Sherman, G. L., and Cunningham, M. A., 1981b, The role of male vs male interactions in maintaining population dialect structure, Behav. Ecol Sociobiol 8:65–69.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., 1975, Song dialects and demes in sedentary populations of the White- crowned Sparrow [Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli], Univ. Calif. PubJ. ZooJ. Vol. 105, 52 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., 1977, Geographic variation in song and dialects of the Puget Sound White- crowned Sparrow, Condor 79:356–370.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., 1978, Territorial, courtship, and duet songs of the Cuban Grassquit [Tiaris canora], J. Ornithol. 119:91–101.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., and Johnson, R. B., 1982, Song variation in insular and mainland California Brown Creepers, J. Ornithol. 123:131–144.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., and King, J. R., 1980, Geographical variation in song and song dialects of montane White-crowned Sparrows, Condor 82:267–284.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., and Morton, M. L., 1981, Interspecific song acquisition by a White-crowned Sparrow, Auk 98:383–385.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., and Morton, M. L., 1982, Song dialects and mate selection in montane White-crowned Sparrows, Auk 99:537–547.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., and Petrinovich, L., 1984, Social interaction, sensitive phases and the song template hypothesis in the White-crowned Sparrow, Anirn. Behav. 32:172–181.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baptista, L. F., Boarman, W. I., and Kandianidis, P., 1983, Behavior and taxonomie status of Grayson’s Dove, Auk 101:907–919.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barlow, J. C., 1981, Songs of the vireos and their allies, Ara Records, 7, Gainesville, Florida.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., 1977a, Geographische Variation des Gesanges von Winter- und Sommergoldhähnchen (ReguJus reguJus, R. ignicapillus), Vogelwarte 29:1–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., 1977b, Verhalten auf Lautäusserungen der Zwillingsart, interspezifische Territorialität und Habitatansprüche von Winter- und Sommergoldhähnchen (Regulus regulus, R. ignicapillus), J. Ornithol 118:233–260.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., 1978a, Sumpfmeise lernt künstliche Gesangsstrophe vom Tonband und tradiert sie, Naturwiss. 65:338.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., 1978b, Der Einfluss des Lernens auf einfache und komplexe Gesangsstrophen der Sumpfmeise [Parus palustris], J. OrnithoL 119:388–411.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., 1978c, Vergleich von Lautäusserungen der Gattung Regulus (Goldhähnchen) als Beitrag zur Systematik, Bonn. Zool. ßeitr. 29:101–121.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., 1982, The coding of species-specific characteristics in bird sounds, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Volume 1 (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 213–252.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Becker, P. H., Thielcke, G., and Wüstenberg, K., 1980, Versuche zum angenommenen Kontrastverlust im Gesang der Blaumeise (Parus caeruleus) auf Teneriffa, J. Ornithol 121:81–95.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Becking, J. H., 1975, New evidence of the specific affinity of Cuculus lepidus Müller, Ibis 117:275–284.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Benson, G. W., 1946, Notes on the birds of southern Abyssinia, Ibis 88:180–205.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berger, L. R., and Ligon, J. D., 1977, Vocal communication and individual recognition in the Pinon Jay, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Anim. Behav. 25:567–584.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bertram, B., 1970, The vocal behaviour of the Indian Hill Mynah, Gracula religiosa, Anim. Behav. Monogr. 3:81–192.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brémond, J. G., 1972, Recherche sur les paramètres acoustiques assurant la reconnaissance spécifique dans les chants de Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Phylloscopus bonelli et d’un hybride, Gerfaut 63:313–323.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brewer, R., 1961, Gomparative notes of the life history of the Garolina Ghickadee, Wilson Bull. 73:348–373.

    Google Scholar 

  • Borror, D. J., 1972, Bird Song and Bird Behavior, Dover, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gatchpole, G. K., 1980, Sexual selection and the evolution of complex songs among European warblers of the genus Acrocephalus, Behaviour 74:149–166.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gavalli-Sforza, L. L., and Feldman, M. W., 1981, Gultural transmission and evolution: A quantitative approach, Princeton Monographs in Population Biology 16. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghappuis, G., 1974, Illustration sonore de problèmes bioacoustiques posés par les oiseaux de la zone éthiopienne, AJauda 42:197–222, 467–500; Supplément Sonore, Disques nos. 1, 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghappuis, G., 1976, Oiseaux de Gorse et Méditerrranée. Alauda 44:497–503; Supplément Sonore, Disques no. 7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chappuis, C., 1980, Study and analysis of certain vocalizations as an aid in classifying African Sylviidae, Proc. IV Pan-African OrnithoL Congr. 57–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chappuis, C., 1981, Illustration sonore de problèmes bioacoustiques posés par les oiseaux de la zone éthiopienne (suite), Alauda 49:35–58; Supplément sonore, Disque no. 12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cronin, E. W., and Sherman, P. W., 1976, A resource-based mating system: the Orange- rumped Honeyguide, Living Bird 14:5–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crook, J. R., 1984, Song variation and species discrimination in Blue-winged Warblers, Wilson Bull. 96:91–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Czileki, H., 1982a, Acoustic differentiation in the Yellow Wagtail-complex (Motacilla flava spp.), XVIII Int. OrnithoL Congr. Abstracts, 179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Czileki, H., 1982b, Dichtebedingter Zusammenhang zwischen Gesangtyp und Ökotyp bei der Grauammer (Emberiza calandra)? J. Ornithol. 123:95–100.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Czileki, H., and Knötzsch, G., 1979, Rufunterschiede zwischen südlichen und mittel-bis nordeuropäischen Rassen der Schafstelze Motacilla flava ssp., Ökol. Vögel 1:159–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, L. I., and Webster, F. S., 1970, An intergeneric hybrid flycatcher (Tyrannus x Muscivora), Condor 72:37–42.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dewolfe, B. B., Kaska, D. D., and Peyton, L. J., 1974, Prominent variations in the songs of Gambel’s White-crowned Sparrows, Bird-Banding 45:224–252.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, A. W., 1980, Seasonality, population structure and breeding ecology of the Seychelles Brush Warbler Acrocephalus seychellensis, Proc. IV Pan-African OrnithoL Congr. 253–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dowsett, R. J., and Dowsett-Lemaire, F., 1980, The systematic status of some Zambian birds, Gerfaut 70:151–199.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dowsett, R. J., and Stjernstedt, R., 1979, The Bradypterus cinnarnomeus-mariae complex in Central Africa, Bull. Br. OrnithoL Club 99:86–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eberhardt, C., and Baptista, L. F., 1977, Intraspecific and interspecific song mimesis in California Song Sparrows, Bird-Banding 48:193–205.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eck, S., 1980, Intraspezifische Evolution bei Graumeisen (Aves, Paridae: Parus, subgenus Poecile], Zool. Abhandl. Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 36:135–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisenmann, E., and Short, L. L., 1982, Systematics of the avian genus Eniberizoides (Emberizidae), Am. Mus. Novität. 2740.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eldredge, N., and Cracraft, J., 1980, Phylogenetic Patterns and the Evolutionary Process, Columbia University Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Emlen, S. T., Rising, J. D., and Thompson, W. L., 1975, A behavioral and morphological study of sympatry in the Indigo and Lazuli Buntings of the Great Plains, Wilson BuJi. 87:145–179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erard, C., 1974, The problem of the Boran Cisticola, Bull. Br. OrnithoL Club 94:26–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ewert, D. N., 1980, Recognition of conspecific song by the Rufous-sided Towhee, Anim. Behav. 28:379–386.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Falls, J. B., 1969, Functions of territorial song in the White-throated Sparrow, in: Bird Vocalizations (R. A. Hinde, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 207–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Falls, J. B., 1982, Individual recognition by sound in birds, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Volume 2 (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 237–278.

    Google Scholar 

  • Falls, J. B., and Szijj, L. J., 1959, Reactions of Eastern and Western Meadowlarks to each others’ vocalizations, Anat. Ree. 134:560.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferry, C., and Deschaintre, A., 1974, Le chant, signal interspecifique chez Hippolais icterina et polyglotta, Alauda 42:289–311.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fitzpatrick, J. W., 1976, Systematics and biogeography of the tyrannid genus Todirostrum and related genera (Aves), Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 147:435–463.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleischer, R. C., and Rothstein, S. I., 1984, Individual variability in the cowbird’s flight whistle: age differences and bilingual birds. Abstracts One Hundredth and Second Stated Meeting, American Ornithologists’ Union, Lawrence, 23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J., 1966, Taxonomy and variation of the chestnut-shouldered wrens of Western Australia, Emu 66:47–57.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J., 1979, Speciation or subspeciation in the Yellow Robins? Emu 79:103–106.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J., 1981a, Evolution, distribution and stage of speciation in the Rhipidurafuliginosa complex in Australia, Emu 81:128–144.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J., 1981b, Hybridization and migration in Australian populations of the Little and Rufous-breasted Cuckoos, Emu 81:209–222.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J., and Parker, S. A., 1973, A second species of Wedgebill? Emu 73:113–118.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fourage, J. G., 1972, Observation d’un pouillot considere comme hybrid du Pouillot de Bonelli et du Pouillot siffleur, (Phylloscopus bonelli x Phylloscopus sibilatrix], Gerfaut 62:307–311.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedmann, H., 1955, The honey-guides, U. S. Natl. Museum Bull 208.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gill, F. B., 1980, Historical aspects of hybridization between Blue-winged and Golden- winged Warblers, Auk 97:1–18.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gill, F. B., and Murray, B. G., Jr., 1972, Song variation in sympatric Blue-winged and Golden-winged Warblers, Auk 89:625–643.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gompertz, T., 1968, Results of bringing individuals of two geographically isolated forms of Parus major into contact, Vogelweit, Beiheft 1:63–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodwin, D., 1965, A comparative study of captive blue waxbills (Estrildidae), Ibis 107:285–315.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goodwin, D., 1970, Pigeons and Doves of the World, British Museum (Natural History), London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodwin, D., 1976, Crows of the World, British Museum (Natural History), London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gould, S. J., 1977, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., 1970, Zur Evolution von Verhaltensweisen und Lautäusserungen bei Prachtfinken (Estrildidae), Z. Tierpsychol. 27:1011–1075.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., 1974, Gesang des Grünlings (Chloris chlorisj, Lokale Unterschiede und Entwicklung bei Schallisolation, J. Ornithol 115:321–337.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., 1976, Zur systematischen Stellung der Gattungen Amadina, Lepidopygia und Lonchura (Aves, Estrildidae), Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 27:218–244.

    Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., 1977, Variable and constant structures in Greenfinch song (Chloris chloris) in different locations. Behaviour 60:304–318.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., 1978, Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen und Gesangaufbau bei Stieglitz (Car- duelis carduelis] und Grünlingsverwandten (Chloris spec.), J. Ornithol 119:172–190.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., and Nicolai, J., 1973, Struktur und Funktion der Rufe bei Prachtfinken (Estrildidae), Z. Tierpsychol. 33:319–334.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Güttinger, H. R., Wolffgram, J., and Thimm, F., 1978, The relationship between species specific song programs and individual learning in songbirds: a study of individual variation in songs of Canaries, Greenfinches, and hybrids between the two species. Behaviour 65:241–262.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gwinner, E., and Kneutgen, J., 1962, Über die biologische Bedeutung der ’zweckdienlichen’ Anwendung erlernter Laute bei Vögeln, Z. Tierpsychol. 19:692–696.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haller, K. W., 1940, A new wood warbler from West Virginia, Cardinal 5:49–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. W., 1961, Studies in the behavior and phylogeny of certain New World jays (Garrulinae), Univ. Kansas Sei. Bull. 42(2):13–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. W., 1966, Physical and behavioral factors in sociality and evolution of certain parrots (Aratinga), Auk 83:66–83.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. W., 1969, A taxonomie revision of the New World jays, Condor 71:360–375.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. W., 1974, Behavior and its evolution in Neotropical jays [Cissilopha], Bird- Banding 45:253–268.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, J. W., and Raitt, R. J., 1977, Relationships between the two races of the San Bias Jay Cyanocorax sanblasiana, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 97:27–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrison, T., 1950, Bird notes from Borneo, Bull. Raffles Museum 23:328–335.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hennig, W., 1966, PhyJogentic Systematics, translated by D. D. Davis and R. Zangerl, University of Illinois Press, Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Higuchi, H., and Sato, S., 1984, An example of character release in host selection and egg colour of cuckoos Cuculus spp. in Japan, Ibis 126:398–404.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hinde, R. A., 1956, The behaviour of certain cardueline Fi inter-species hybrids. Behaviour 9:202–213.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, N. K., 1963, Biosystematics of sibling species of flycatchers in the Empidonax hammondii-oberholseri-wrightii complex, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 66(2):79–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, N. K., 1980, Character variation and evolution of sibling species in the Empidonax difßcilis-flavescens complex (Aves: Tyrannidae), Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. Vol. 112, 151 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, D. W., 1961, The Biosystematics of American Crows, University of Washington Press, Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, D. W., 1971, Ecological aspects of hybridizing chickadees (Parus) in Virginia, Am. Midi. Nat. 85:124–134.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keith, S., 1973, The voice of Sarothrura insularis with further notes on members of the genus. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 93:130–136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keith, S., 1980, Origins of the avifauna of the Malagasy region, Proc. IV Pan-African Ornithol. Congr. 99–108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keith, S., Benson, C. W., and Irwin, M. P. S., 1970, The genus Sarothrura (Aves, Rallidae), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 143:1–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • King, A. P., and West, M. J., 1977, Species identification in the North American cowbird: appropriate responses to abnormal song, Science 195:1002–1004.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, A. P., and West, M. J., 1983a, Dissecting cowbird song potency: assessing a song’s geographic identity and relative appeal, Z. Tierpsychol 63:37–50.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, A. P., and West, M. J., 1983b, Female perception of cowbird song: A closed developmental program, Dev. Psychobiol. 16:335–342.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, A. P., West, M. J., and Eastzer, D. H., 1980, Song structure and song development as potential contributors to reproductive isolation in cowbirds (Molothrus ater), J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 94:1028–1039.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, A. P., West, M. J., Eastzer, D. H., and Staddon, J. E. R., 1981, An experimental investigation of the bioacoustics of cowbird song, Behav. Ecol Sociobiol 9:211–227.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, B. F., and Dickinson, E. C., 1975, A Field Guide to the Birds of South-east Asia, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koskimies, P., 1980, Breeding biology of Blyth’s Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum in SE Finland, Ornis Fennica 57:26–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krebs, J. R., and Kroodsma, D. E., 1980, Repertoires and geographical variation in bird song, Adv. Study Behav. 11:143–177.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., 1977, Correlates of song organization among North American wrens, Am. Nat. 111:995–1008.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., 1979, Aspects of learning in the ontogeny of bird song: where, from whom, when, how many, which, and how accurately? in: Ontogeny of Behavior (G. Burghardt and M. Bekoff, eds.), Garland, New York, pp. 215–230.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., 1981, Geographical variation and functions of song types in warblers (Parulidae), Auk 98:743–751.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., 1982, Learning and the ontogeny of sound signals in birds, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Volume 2 (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., 1984, Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum] and Willow Flycatcher [Empidonax traillii) are innate, Auk 101:13–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., and Baylis, J. R., 1982, Appendix: a world survey of evidence for vocal learning in birds, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Volume 2 (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 311–337.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., and Piekert, R., 1980, Environmentally dependent sensitive periods for avian vocal learning, Nature 288:477–479.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., Meservey, W. R., and Piekert, R., 1983, Vocal learning in the Parulinae, Wilson Bull. 95:138–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroodsma, D. E., Meservey, W. R., Whitlock, A. L., and VanderHaegen, W. M., 1984, Blue-winged Warblers [Vermivora pinus) “recognize” dialects in type II but not type I songs, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 15:127–131.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lade, B. I., and Thorpe, W. H., 1964, Dove songs as innately coded patterns of specific behaviour, Nature 212:366–368.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1963, Experiments on species discrimination in Myiarchus flycatchers, Am. Mus. Novität. 1225:2126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1965, Specific limits of the Yucatan Flycatcher, Myiarchus yucatenensis. Am. Mus. Novität. 1226:2229.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1967, Revision and probable evolution of the Myiarchus flycatchers of the West Indies, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 136:331–370.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1969, Vocal characters and avian systematics, in: Bird Vocalizations (R. A. Hinde, ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 291–310.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1975, Behavior and generic status of the Rufous Flycatcher of Peru, Wilson Bull. 87:441–455.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1978, Revision of the Myiarchus flycatchers of South America, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 161: 427–628.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1979, Development of song in the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina], with notes on a technique for hand-rearing passerines from the egg. Am. Mus. Novität. 15:2666.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanyon, W. E., 1982, The subspecies concept: then, now, and always, Auk 99:603–604.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lein, M. R., 1978, Song variation in a population of Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica]: Its nature and suggested significance, Can. J. Zool. 56:1266–1283.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lein, M. R., 1979, Song pattern of the Cypress Hills population of White-crowned Sparrows, Can. Field-Nat. 93:272–275.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leisler, B., Heine, G., and Siebenrock, K.-H., 1983, Einnischung und interspezifische Territorialität überwinternder Steinschmätzer (Oenanthe isabellina, O. oenanthe, O. pleschanka) in Kinia, J. Ornithol. 124:393–413.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lemaire, F., 1977, Mixed song, interspecific competition and hybridisation in the Reed and Marsh Warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus and palustris), Behaviour 63:215–240.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Löhrl, H., 1963, The use of bird calls to clarify taxonomie relationship, Proc. XIII Internat. Ornithol. Congr. 544–552.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lorenz, K., 1941, Vergleichende Bewegungsstudien an Anatinen, J. Ornithol. Sonderheft 3, 89:206–293.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ludescher, F.-B., 1973, Sumpfmeise (Parus p. palustris L.) und Weidenmeise (P. montanus salicarius Br.) als sympatrische Zwillingsarten, J. Ornithol. 114:1–56.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marler, P., 1975, On strategies of behavioural development, in: Function and Evolution in Behaviour (G. Baerends, C. Beer, and A. Manning, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 254–275.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marler, P., and Peters, S., 1977, Selective vocal learning in a sparrow. Science 198:519–521.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marler, P., and Peters, S., 1981, Sparrows learn adult song and more from memory. Science 213:780–782.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marler, P., and Peters, S., 1982, Subsong and plastic song: their role in the vocal learning process, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Volume 2 (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marler, P., and Piekert, R., 1984, Species-universal microstructure in the learned song of the Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana), Anim. Behav. 32:673–689.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marler, P., and Sherman, V., 1983, Song structure without auditory feedback: Emendations of the auditory template hypothesis, J. Neurosci. 3:517–531.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, J. T., 1967, Parallel variation in North and Middle American screech-owls, Monogr. Western Foundation Vert. Zool. 45:1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, J. T., 1978, Systematics of smaller Asian night birds based on voice, Ornithol. Monogr. 25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martens, J., 1975, Akustische Differenzierung verwandtschaftlicher Beziehungen in der Parus (Periparus)-Gruppe nach Untersuchungen im Nepal-Himalaya, J. Ornithol. 116:369–433.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martens, J., 1979, Gesang und Verwantschaft des Steinortolan (Emberiza buchanani), Natur und Museum 109:337–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martens, J., 1980, Lautäusserungen, verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen und Verbreitungsgeschichte asiatischer Laubsänger [Phylloscopus], Fortschritte der Verhaltensforschung 22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martens, J., 1981, Lautäusserungen der Baumläufer des Himalaya und zur akustischen Evolution in der Gattung Certhia, Behaviour 77:287–318.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martens, J., 1982, Ringförmige Arealüberschneidung und Artbildung beim Zilpzalp, PhyJ- loscopus collybita, Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch. 20:82–100.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martens, J., and Hänel, S., 1981, Gesangsformen und Verwandtschaft der asiatischen Zilpzalpe Phylloscopus collybita abietinus und P. c. sindianus, J. Ornithol. 122:403–427.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mayr, E., 1956, Gesang und Systematik, Beitr. Vogelkunde 5:112–117.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayr, E., 1963, Animal Species and Evolution, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mayr, E., and Short, L. L., 1970, Species taxa of North American birds, Pub!. Nuttali Ornithol. Club No. 9.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCamey, F., 1950, A puzzling hybrid warbler from Michigan, Jack-Pine Warbler 28:67–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGrath, T. A., Shatler, M. D., Schleidt, W. M., and Sarvella, D., 1972, Analysis of distress calls of chicken x pheasant hybrids, Nature 237:47–48.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mengel, R. M., 1964, The probable history of species formation in some northern wood warblers (Parulidae), Living Bird 3:9–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, A. H., 1940, A hybrid between Zonotrichia coronata and Zonotrichia leucophrys, Condor 42:45–48.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, E. H., 1982, Character and variance shift in acoustic signals of birds, in: Vocal Communication in Birds, Volume 1 (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 253–295.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirsky, E. N., 1976, Song divergence in hummingbird and junco populations on Guadalupe Island, Condor 78:230–235.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, M. L., 1982, The structure of western warbler assemblages: ecomorphological analysis of the Black-throated Gray and Hermit Warblers, Auk 99:503–513.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, M. L., and Hardy, J. W., 1983, Vocalizations of the Black-throated Gray Warbler, Wilson Bull. 95:640–643.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moynihan, M., 1959, A revision of the family Laridae (Aves), Am. Mus. Novität. 14:1928.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mundinger, P., 1979, Call learning in the Carduelinae: ethological and systematic considerations, Syst. Zool. 28:270–283.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Murray, B. G., and Gill, F. B., 1976, Behavioral interactions of Blue-winged and Golden- winged Warblers, Wilson Bull. 88:231–253.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nethersole-Thompson, D., 1975, Pine Crossbills, T. and A. D. Poyser, Berkhamsted.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicolai, S., 1964, Der Brutparasitismus der Viduinae als ethologisches Problem, Z. Tierpsychol. 21:129–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicolai, J., 1968, Wirtsvogel-Beziehngen der Hypochera Formen camerunensis und ni- geriae, Naturwiss. 53:654.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nicolai, J., 1977a, Der Rotmaskenastrild (Pytilia hypogrammica) als Wirt der Togo- Paradieswitwe (Steganura togoensis), J. Ornitbol. 118:175–188.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nicolai, J., 1977b, Intraspezifische Selektion und die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen natürlicher Auslese und geschlechtlicher Zuchtwahl, Vogelwarte 29:120–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nuechterlein, G. L., 1981a, Variations and multiple functions of the advertising display of Western Grebes, Behaviour 76:289–317.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nuechterlein, G. L., 1981b, Courtship behavior and reproductive isolation between Western Grebe color morphs. Auk 98:335–349.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orenstein, R. and Pratt, H. D., 1983, The relationships and evolution of the southwest Pacific warbler genera Vitia and Psamathia (Sylviinae), Wilson Bull. 95:184–198.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker, S. A., 1981, Prolegomenon to further studies in the Chrysococcyx ’malayanus’ group (Aves, Cuculidae), Zool. Verhand. Vol. 187, 56 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1973a, Behavior, mimetic songs and song dialects, and relationships of the parasitic indigobirds [Vidua] of Africa, Ornithol. Monogr. 11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1973b, Vocal mimicry of the paradise whydahs (Vidua) and response of female whydahs to the songs of their hosts [Pytilia] and their mimics, Anim. Behav. 21:762–771.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1977, Juvenile plumages of Cuculus canorus and Cuculus gularis in Africa, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 97:48–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1979, Song structure, behaviour, and sequence of song types in a population of Village Indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, Anim. Behav. 27:997–1013.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1980, Behavior and songs of hybrid parasitic finches, Auk 97:118–134.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1981a, Song learning and social interaction in Indigo Buntings, Anim. Behav. 29:688–697.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1981b, Population structure and social behavior: models for testing the ecological significance of song dialects in birds, in: Natural Selection and Social Behavior (R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle, eds.), Chiron Press, New York, pp. 108–120.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1982, Species limits in the indigobirds (Ploceidae, Vidua) of West Africa: mouth mimicry, song mimicry, and description of new species. Misc. Publ. Museum Zool. Univ. Mich. 12:162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., 1983, Bird songs, sexual selection, and female mating strategies, in: Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates (S. K. Wasser, ed.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 55–91.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., and Groschupf, K. D., 1984, Sexual selection and interspecific competition: A field experiment on territorial behavior of nonparental finches (Vidua spp.). Auk 101:140–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., and Risley, C. J., 1976, Systematics and evolutionary relationships among the herons (Ardeidae), Misc. Publ. Museum Zool. Univ. Mich. 16:150.

    Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., and Skinner, N. J., 1970, Temporal patterns of duetting in African barbets. Ibis 112:173–183.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., Thompson, W. L., Fiala, K. L., and Sweany, L. L., 1981, Local song traditions in Indigo Buntings: cultural transmission of behavior patterns across generations, Behaviour 77:199–221.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Payne, R. B., Payne, L. L., and Doehlert, S. M., 1984, Interspecific song learning in a wild Chestnut-sided Warbler, WiJson Bull. 96:292–294.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pepperberg, I., 1981, Functional vocalizations by an African Grey Parrot [Psittacus eri- thacus], Z. Tierpsychol. 55:139–160.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peters, S. S., Searcy, W. A., and Marler, P., 1980, Species song discrimination in choice experiments with territorial male Swamp and Song Sparrows, Anim. Behav, 28:393–404.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, R. T., 1975, A Field Guide to Western Bird Songs, 6th impression, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petrinovich, L., and Patterson, T. L., 1981, The responses of White-crowned Sparrows to songs of different dialects and subspecies, Z. Tierpsychol. 57:1–14.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petrinovich, L., Patterson, T., and Baptista, L. F., 1981. Song dialects as barriers to dispersal: A reevaluation, Evolution 35:180–188.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, A., Marshall, J., and Monson, G., 1964, The Birds of Arizona, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raitt, R. J., 1967, Relationships between black-eared and plain-eared forms of Bushtits (Psaltriparus), Auk 84:503–528.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raitt, R. J., and Hardy, J. W., 1970, Relationships between two partly sympatric species of thrushes (Catharus) in Mexico, Auk 87:20–57.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ratti, J. T., 1979, Reproductive separation and isolating mechanisms between sympatric dark- and light-phase Western Grebes, Auk 96:573–586.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rauch, N., 1978, Struktur der Lautausserungen eines spräche imitierenden Graupapageis (Psittacus erithacus L.), Behaviour 66:56–105.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reed, T. M., 1982, Interspecific territoriality in the Chaffinch and Great Tit on islands and the mainland of Scotland: playback and removal experiments, Anim. Behav. 30:171–181.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rice, J., 1978, Ecological relationships of two interspecifically territorial vireos, Ecology. 59:526–538.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richards, D. B., and Thompson, N. S., 1978, Critical properties of the assembly call of the common American Crow, Behaviour 64:184–203.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richards, D. G., 1979, Recognition of neighbors by associative learning in Rufous-sided Towhees, Auk 96:688–693.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rising, J. D., 1968, A multivariate assessment of interbreeding between the chickadees Parus atricapillus and P. carolinensis, Syst. Zool. 17:160–169.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins, C. S., Bruun, B., and Zim, H. S., 1966, Birds of North America, Golden Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Romanowski, E., 1978, Der Gesang von Sumpf- und Weidenmeise (Parus palustris und Parus montanus)—Variation und Funktion, Vogelwarte 29:235–253.

    Google Scholar 

  • Romanowski, E., 1979, Der Gesang von Sumpf- und Weidenmeise (Parus palustris und Parus montanus)—reaktionsauslösende Parameter, Vogelwarte 30:48–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rothstein, S., 1978, Geographical variation in the nestling coloration of parasitic cow- birds, Auk 95:152–260.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I. 1967a, A fourth species of Australian corvid, Emu 66:191–210.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I., 1967b, Sympatry in Australian ravens, Proc. EcoL Soc. Austr. 2:107–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, L, 1970, The genus Corvus (Aves: Corvidae) in Australia, CSIRO Wildlife Research 15:27–71.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I., 1973a, The comparative ecology of Australian corvids. I. Introduction, study areas, and methods of study, CSIRO Wildlife Research 18:1–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I., 1973b, The comparative ecology of Australian corvids. II. Social organization and behaviour, CSIRO Wildlife Research 18:25–65.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I., 1974, Display situations in two Australian ravens, Emu 74:47–52.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I., 1980, Parent-offspring recognition in a cockatoo, the Galah, Cacatua rosei- capilla, Austr. J. Zool. 28:445–456.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rowley, I., and Chapman, G., 1986, Cross-fostering, imprinting and learning in two sympatric species of cockatoo. Behaviour, (in press].

    Google Scholar 

  • Saunders, D. A., 1979, Distribution and taxonomy of the White-tailed and Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoos Calyptorhynchus spp. Emu 79:215–227.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Saunders, D. A., 1980, Food and movements of the short-billed form of the White-tailed Black Cockatoo, Ausfr. Wildlife Research

    Google Scholar 

  • Saunders, D. A., 1983, Vocal repertoire and individual recognition in the short-billed White-tailed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus funereus latirostris Carnaby. Austr. Wildlife Research 10:527–536.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schnell, G. D., 1970, A phenetic study of the suborder Lari (Aves), I, II, Syst. Zool. 19:35–57, 264–302.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schodde, R., 1982, The Fairy-wrens, Lansdowne, Melbourne.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schubert, M., 1971, Untersuchungen über die reaktionsauslösenden Signalstrukturen des Fitisgesanges, Phylloscopus t. trochilus (L.), und das Verhalten gegenüber arteigenen Rufen, Rehaviour 38:250–288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schubert, G., and Schubert, M., 1969, Lautformen und verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen einiger Laubsänger (PhyJJoscopus), Z. TierpsychoJ. 26:7–22.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Searcy, W. A., Marler, P., and Peters, S. S., 1981, Species song discrimination in adult female Song and Swamp Sparrows, Anim. Rehav. 29:997–1003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selander, R. K., 1959, Polymorphism in Mexican Brown Jays, Auk 76:385–417.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Selander, R. K., 1964, Speciation in wrens of the genus Campylorhynchus, Univ. Calif. PubJ. Zool. 74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selander, R. K., 1965, Avian speciation in the Quaternary, in: The Quaternary of the United States (H. W. Wright, Jr., and D. G. Frey, eds.), Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. 527–542.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selander, R. K., 1971, Systematics and speciation in birds, in: Avian Riology, Volume 1 (D. S. Earner and J. R. King, eds.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 57–147.

    Google Scholar 

  • Selander, R. K., and Giller, D. R., 1959, Sympatry of the jays Cissilopha beecheii and C. san-blasiana in Nayarit, Condor 61:52.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Selander, R. K., and Giller, D. R., 1961, Analysis of sympatry of Great-tailed and Boat- tailed Crackles, Condor 63:29–86.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shiovitz, K. A., 1975, The process of species-specific song recognition by the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea, and its relationship to the organization of avian acoustical behavior, Rehaviour 55:128–179.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Short, L. L., and Home, J. F. M., 1983, A review of duetting, sociality and speciation in some African barbets (Capitonidae), Condor 85:323–332.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sibley, C. G., and Short, L. L., 1959, Hybridization in the buntings (Passerina) of the Great Plains, Auk 76:443–463.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Simson, C., 1966, A Rird Overhead, H. F. and G. Witherby, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, W. J., 1966, Communication and relationships in the genus Tyrannus, Publ. Nuttall Ornithol Club No. 6.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, W. J., and Vuilleumier, F., 1971, Evolutionary relationships of some South American ground tyrants. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 141:181–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snow, D. W, (ed.), 1978, An AtJas o/Speciation in African Non-passerine Birds, Trustees British Museum (Natural History), London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, R. C., 1958, The behavioral,ecological and morphological characteristics of two populations of the Alder Flycatcher Empidonax traillii (Audubon), New York State Mus. Bull. 371:1–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, R. C., 1962, A comparative study of songs recorded from five closely related warblers. Living Bird 1:61–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, R. C., 1963, Isolating mechanisms between populations of Traill’s Flycatchers, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 107:21–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stein, R. C., 1968, Correlations among song pattern, morphology and distribution within the genus Vermivora (Parulidae), Vogelweit, Beihefte 1:139–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, H. M., Eisenmann, E., Winegarner, C., and Karlin, A., 1983, Notes on Common and Antillean Nighthawks of the Florida Keys, Auk 100:983–988.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stiles, F. G., 1982, Aggressive and courtship displays of the male Anna’s Hummingbird, Condor 84:208–225.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stiles, F. G., 1983, The taxonomy of Microcerculus wrens (Troglodytidae) in Central America, Wilson Bull. 95:169–183.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stiles, F. C., 1984, The songs of Microcerculus wrens in Costa Rica, WiJson Bull. 96:99–103.

    Google Scholar 

  • Storer, R. W., 1965, The color phases of the Western Grebe, Living Bird 4:59–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Storr, G. M., and Johnstone, R. E., 1979, Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, Perth.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thielcke, G., 1964, Lautäusserungen der Vögel in ihrer Bedeutung für die Taxonomie, J. Ornithol. 105:78–84.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thielcke, G., 1969a, Die Reaktion von Tannen- und Kohlmeise (Parus ater, P. major) auf den Gesang nahverwandter Formen, J. Ornithol. 110:148–157.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thielcke, G., 1969b, Geographie variation in bird vocalizations, in: Bird Vocalizations (R. A. Hinde, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 311–339.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thielcke, G., 1972, Waldbaumläufer [Certhia familiaris] ahmen artfremdes Signal nach und reagieren darauf, J. Ornithol. 113:287–296.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thielcke, G., 1983, Entstanden dialekte des Zilpzalps Phylloscopus collybita durch Lernentzug?, J. Ornithol 124:333–368.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thielcke, G., Wüstenberg, K., and Becker, P. H., 1978, Reaktionen von Zilpzalp und Fitis (Phylloscopus collybita, P. trochiJus) auf verschiedene Gesangsformen des Zilpzalps, J. Ornithol 119:213–226.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, W. L., 1968, The songs of five species of Passerina, Behaviour 31:261–287.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, W. L., 1976, Vocalizations of the Lazuli Bunting, Condor 78:195–207.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thönen, W., 1962, Stimmgeographische, ökologische und verbreitungsgeschichtliche Studien über die Mönchsmeise (Parus montanus Conrad), Ornithol Beob. 59:101–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Todt, D., 1975, Social learning of vocal patterns and modes of their application in Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus), Z. Tierpsychol. 39:178–188.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Todt, D., Hultsch, H., and Heike, D., 1979, Conditions affecting song acquisition in Nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos L.), Z. Tierpsychol 51:23–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Traylor, M. A., 1967, Cisticola aberdare a good species. Bull. Br. Ornithol Club 87:137–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Traylor, M. A., 1977, A classification of the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae), Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 148:129–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Traylor, M. A., 1979, Two sibling species of Tyrannus (Tyrannidae), Auk 96:221–233.

    Google Scholar 

  • Traylor, M. A., and Fitzpatrick, J. W., 1982, A survey of the tyrant flycatchers. Living Bird 19:7–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • van den Elzen, R., 1981, Zwei Bastarde Mozambikgirlitz (Ochrospiza mozambica cani- ceps) X Angolagirlitz (Ochrospiza a. atrogularis); Aves, Carduelidae, Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 32:127–135.

    Google Scholar 

  • Veprintsev, B. N., 1982, Birds of the Soviet Union, a Sound Guide, C90–18023-4 and C90–18025-6, Ministry of Culture, U.S.S.R., Melodia, Pushchino.

    Google Scholar 

  • Veprintsev, B. N., and Zablotskaya, M. M., 1982, Acoustical communication of the Hor- nemann’s Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni (Holb.), (in Russian, English summary.) Library of Wildlife Sounds, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., Pushchino, 23 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voous, K. H., 1964, Wood owls of the genera Strix and Ciccaha, Zool. Meded. 39:471–478.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, D. R., 1982a, Biological species limits in the Cettia fortipes complex. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 102:57–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, D. R., 1982b, A confirmation of the specific relations of Cuculus saturatus insulindae, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 102:62–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, D. R., and Becking, J. H., 1975, Vocalizations and status of Little and Himalayan Cuckoos, Cuculus poliocephalus and C. saturatus, in southeast Asia, Ibis 117:366–371.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wells, S., and Baptista, L. F., 1979, Displays and morphology of an Anna x Allen Hummingbird hybrid, Wilson Bull. 92:524–532.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, M. J., King, A. P., and Harrocks, T. J., 1983a, Cultural transmission of cowbird song: measuring its development and outcome, J. Comp. PhysioJ. Psychol. 97:327–337.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • West, M., Stroud, A. N., and King, A. P., 1983b, Mimicry of the human voice by European Starlings: The role of social interaction, Wilson Bull. 95:635–640.

    Google Scholar 

  • West-Eberhard, M.J., 1983, Sexual selection, social competition, and speciation, Q. Rev. Biol. 58:155–183.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • White, G., 1789, The Natural History of Selborne, Reprinted, n.d, George Routledge and Sons, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wickler, W., and Uhrig, D., 1969, Bettelrufe, Antwortszeit und Rassenunterschiede im Begrüssungsduett des Schmuckbartvogels Trachyphonus d’arnaudii, Z. Tierpsychol. 26:651–661.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wiley, E. O., 1981, Phylogenetics: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Winkler, H., and Short, L. L., 1978, A comparative analysis of acoustical signals in pied woodpeckers (Aves, Picoides), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 160:1–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, L. L., 1977, Species relationships in the avian genus Aimophila, Ornithol. Monogr. 23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, S. Y., and Selander, R. K., 1968, Hybridization in the grackle Quiscalus quiscuJa in Louisiana, Syst. Zool. 17:107–143.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zablotskaya, M. M., 1975, Vocal reaction of Carduelis caniceps Vig. and C. carduelis L. The form and functional significance of calls (in Russian, English summary), Bull. Moskow Soc. Naturalists 80:22–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zablotskaya, M. M., 1978, Acoustic signalization of the Siskin Spinus spinus (L.) (in Russian, English summary), Bull. Moskow Soc. Naturalists 83:36–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zablotskaya, M. M., 1981, Acoustical communication of the Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea flammea (L.), (in Russian, English summary). Library of Wildlife Sounds, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., Pushchino, 27 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zablotskaya, M. M., 1982, Systematics and cardueline song, XVIII Internat. Ornithol. Congr. Abstracts, 73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zablotskaya, M. M., 1984, Systematics and cardueline songs, acoustic signalization of animals (in English), Library of Wildlife Sounds, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., Pushchino, 21 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zink, R. M., and Johnson, N. K., 1984, Evolutionary genetics of flycatchers, I, Sibling species in the genera Empidonax and Contopus, Syst. Zool. 33:205–216.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1986 Plenum Press, New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Payne, R.B. (1986). Bird Songs and Avian Systematics. In: Johnston, R.F. (eds) Current Ornithology. Current Ornithology, vol 3. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6784-4_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6784-4_2

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4615-6786-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-6784-4

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive