Defects in Host-Defense Mechanisms

  • Jos W. M. van der Meer


Under normal conditions, large areas of the human body surfaces are colonized with microorganisms. The skin and the mucous membranes of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, intestinal tract, and parts of the genital tract each have their own microflora.1 These patterns of colonization are determined by microbial factors, exogenous factors, and host factors.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Mononuclear Phagocyte Mononuclear Phagocyte System Intracellular Killing Granulocyte Transfusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mackowiak PA: The normal microbial flora. N Engl J Med 307: 83–93, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abraham SN, Beachy EH: Host defenses against adhesion of bacteria to mucosal surfaces. In Gallin JI, Fauci AS (eds): Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms. Raven, New York, 1985, pp. 63–88.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Savage DC: Colonization by and survival of pathogenic bacteria on intestinal mucosal surfaces. In Britton G, Marschall KC (eds): Adsorption of Micro-organisms to Surfaces. Wiley, New York, 1980, pp. 175–206.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guiot HFL: Role of competition for substrate in bacterial antagonism in the gut. Infect Immun 38: 887–892, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    van der Waay D, Berghuis-de Vries JM, Lekkerkerk-van der Wees JEC: Colonization resistance of the digestive tract and the spread of bacteria to the lymphatic organs in mice. J Hyg (Camb) 70: 335–342, 1972.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heczko PB, Pryjma J, Kasprowicz J, et al: Influence of host and parasite factors on the nasal carriage of Staphylococci. In Jeljaszawicz J (ed): Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infection. S. Karger, Basel, 1973, pp. 581–594.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Young LS, LaForce FM, Head JJ, et al: A simultaneous outbreak of meningococcal and influenza infections, N Engl J Med 287: 5–9, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sanford BA, Shelokov A, Ramsay MA: Bacterial adherence to virus infected cells: A culture model of bacterial superinfection. J Infect Dis 137: 176–181, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kominis SD, Copeland CE, Grosiak B, et al: Introduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into a hospital via vegetables. Appl Microbiol 24: 567–570, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pollack M, Charache P, Nieman RE: Factors influencing colonisation and antibiotic-resistance pathogens of gram-negative bacteria in hospital patients. Lancet 2: 668–671, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beachy EH: Bacterial adherence: Adhesin—receptor inter-actions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces. J Infect Dis 143: 325–345, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Svanborg Edén C, Hagberg L, Leffler H, et al: Recent progress in the understanding of the role of bacterial adhesion in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. Infection 10: 327–333, 1982.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kinsman OS, McKenna R, Noble WC: Association between histocompatibility antigens and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol 16: 215–220, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Noble WC: Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci in relation to race. Acta Derm Venerol (Stockh) 54: 403–405, 1974.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thadepalli H, Chan WH, Maidman JE, et al: Microflora of the cervix during normal labor and the puerperium. J Infect Dis 137: 568–572, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mackowiak PA, Martin RM, Smith JW: The role of bacterial interference in the increased prevalence of oropharyngeal gram negative bacilli among alcoholics and diabetics, Am Rev Respir Dis 120: 589–593, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klein RS, Recco RA, Cataland MT, et al: Association of Streptococcus bovin with carcinoma of the colon, N Engl J Med 297: 800–802, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alpern RJ, Dowell VR Jr: Clostridium septicum: Infections and malignancy. JAMA 209: 385–388, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Black PH, Kunz LJ, Swartz MN: Salmonellosis—A review of some unusual aspects, N Engl JMed 262: 811–927, 1960.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reichert U, Saint Leger D, Schaeffer H: Skin surface chemistry and microbial infection, Semin Dermatol 1: 91–100, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith RF: Lactic acid utilization by the cutaneous Micrococaceae. Microbiology 21: 777–779, 1971.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blank I, Oawes RK: The water content of stratum corneum. The importance of water in promoting bacterial multiplication on cornified epithelium. J lnvest Dermatol 31: 141–145, 1958.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Newhouse M, Sanchis J, Bienenstock J: Lung defense mechanisms. N Engl J Med 295: 990–1320, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Giannella RA, Broitman SA, Zamcheck N: Influence of gastric acidity on bacterial and parasite enteric infections. Ann Intern Med 78: 271–276, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Binder Hi, Filburn B, Floch M: Bile acid inhibition of intestinal anaerobic organisms. Am J Clin Nutr 28: 119–125, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hinman F Jr, Cox, CE: The voiding vesical defense mechanism: The mathematical effect of residual urine, voiding interval and volume on bacteriuria. J Urol 96: 491–498, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Strominger JL, Tipper DJ: Structure of bacterial cell walls. The lysozyme substrate. In Osserman E, Canfield W, et al (eds): Lysozyme. Academic, New York, 1974, pp. 169–184.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Masson PL, Heremans JF, Schonne E: Lactoferrin, an iron binding protein in neutrophile leukocytes. J Exp Med 130: 643–658, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McClelland DBL, van Furth R: In vitro synthesis of lysozyme by human and mouse tissues and leucocytes. Immunology 28: 1099–1114, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Joiner KA, Brown EJ, Frank MM: Complement and bacteria: Chemistry and biology in host defense. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 461–491, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fearon DT, Austen KF: The alternative pathway of complement—A system for host resistance to microbial infection. N Engl J Med 303: 259–263, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daha MR: Biological properties of immune complexes. Neth J Med 27: 375–379, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alper CA, Colten HR, Gear JSS, et al: Homozygous human C3 deficiency. J Clin Invest 57: 222–229, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roord JJ, Daha MR, Kuis W, et al: Inherited deficiency of the third component of complement associated with recurrent pyogenic infections, circulating immune complexes and vasculitis in a Dutch family. Pediatrics 71: 81–89, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Snyderman R, Durack DT, McCarthey GA: Deficiency of the fifth component of complement in human subjects. Am J Med 67: 638–645, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miller ME, Nilson UR: A familial deficiency of the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of serum related to a dysfunction of the fifth component of complement (C5). N Engl J Med 282: 354–358, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Miller ME, Koblenzer PT: Leiner’s disease and deficiency of C5, J Pediatr 80: 879–880, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ross SC, Densen P: Complement deficiency states and infection: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and consequence of Neisserial and other infections in an immune deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore) 63: 243–273, 1984.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ellison RT, Kohler PF, Curd JG: Prevalence of congenital or acquired complement deficiency in patients with sporadic meningococcal disease. N Engl J Med 308: 913–916, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Newman SL, Vogler LB, Feigin RD, et al: Recurrent septicemia associated with congenital deficiency of C2 and partial deficiency of factor B of the alternative complement pathway. N Engl J Med 299: 290–292, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kluin-Nelemans H, van Velzen-Blad H, van Helden HPT, et al: Functional deficiency of complement factor D in a monozygous twin, Clin Exp Immunol 58: 724–730, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ziegler JB, Alper CA, Rosen FS, et al: Restoration by purified C3b inactivator of complement-mediated functions in vivo in a patient with C3b inactivator deficiency, J Clin Invest 55: 668–672, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johnston RB Jr, Newman LS, Struth AG: An abnormality of the alternate pathway of complement activation in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 288: 803–808, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hand WL, King NL: Serum opsonization of Salmonella in sickle cell anemia. Am J Med 64: 388–395, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fearon DT, Ruddy S, Schur PH, et al: Activation of the properdin pathway of complement in patients with gram negative bacteremia. N Engl J Med 292: 937–940, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rytel MW, Dee TH, Ferstenfeld JE, et al: Possible pathogenic role of capsular antigens in fulminant pneumococcal disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Am J Med 57: 889–896, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Greenwood BM, Brueton MJ: Complement activation and meningococcal infection. Br Med J 1: 797–799, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dance DAB, Smith CL: Complement deficiency and sporadic meningococcal disease. N Engl J Med 309: 615, 1983.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lehman TJH, Bernstein 13, Hanson V, et al: Meningococcal infection complicating systemic lupus erythematosus. J Pediatr 99: 94–96, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Breedveld FC, van den Barselaar MT, Leijh PCJ, et al: Phagocytosis and intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Felty’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 29: 166–173, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lachmann PJ: Antibody and complement in viral infections. Br Med Bull 41: 3–6, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saba TM, Niehaus GD, Dillon BC: Reticuloendothelial response to shock and trauma: Its relationship to disturbances in fibronectin and cardiopulmonary function. In Altura BM, Saba TM (eds): Pathophysiology of the Reticuloendothelial System. Raven, New York, 1981, pp. 131–157.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bevilacqua M, Amrani D, Mosesson MW, et al: Receptors for cold-insoluble globulin (plasma fibronectin) on human monocytes. J Exp Med 153: 42–60, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Verbrugh HA, Peterson PK, Smith DE, et al: Human fibronectin binding to staphylococcal surface protein and its relative inefficiency in promoting phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages. Infect Immun 33: 811–819, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pommier CG, Inada S, Fries LF, et al: Plasma fibronectin enhances phagocytosis of opsonized particles by human peripheral blood monocytes. J Exp Med 157: 1844–1854, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wright SD, Craigmyle LS, Silverstein SC: Fibronectin and serum amyloid P component stimulate C3b-and C3bi-mediated phagocytosis in cultured monocytes. J Exp Med 158: 1338–1343, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hosein B, Mosesson MW, Bianco CS: Monocyte receptors for fibronectin. In van Furth (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes. Characteristics, Physiology and Function. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, Lancaster, 1985, pp. 723–730.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mosher DF, Williams EM: Fibronectin concentration is decreased in plasma of severely ill patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Lab Clin Med 91: 729–735, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Saba TM, Blumenstock FA, Shah DM, et al: Reversal of fibronectin and opsonic deficiency in patients. Ann Surg 199: 87–96, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brown RA: Failure of fibronectin as an opsonin in the host defence system: A case of competitive self inhibition. Lancet 2: 1058–1060, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60a.
    Shirakami A, Shigekiyo T, Hirai Y: Plasma fibronectin deficiency in eight members of one family, Lancet 1: 473–475, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Hayashi M, Yamada KM: Differences in domain structure between plasma and cellular fibronectins. J Biol Chem 256: 11292–11300, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Tamkun JW, Hynes RO: Plasma fibronectin is synthesized and secreted by hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 258: 4641–4647, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Hynes RO: Fibronectin and its relationship to cellular structure and behavior. In Hay ED (ed): Cell Biology of Extra-cellular Matrix. Plenum, New York, 1981, pp. 295–333.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Steward WE II: Interferon nomenclature. Nature (Lond) 286: 110, 1980.Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Rager Zisman B, Bloom BR: Interferons and natural killer cells. Br Med Bull 41: 22–27, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Stiehm ER, Kronenberg LH, Rosenblatt HM, et al: Interferon: Immunobiology and clinical significance. Ann Intern Med 96: 80–93, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Joklik WK: The molecular basis of the antiviral activity of interferons. Ann NY Acad Sci 350: 432–440, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Schellekens H, Weimar W, Cantell K, et al: Antiviral effect of interferon in vivo may be mediated by the host. Nature (Lond) 278: 742, 1979.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Kasahara T, Hooks JJ, Dougherty SF, et al: Interleukin 2-mediated immune interferon (IFN-y) production by human T cells and T cell subsets. J Immunol 130: 1784–1789, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Ennis FA, Beare AS, Riley D, et al: Interferon induction and increased natural killer cell activity in influenza infections in man. Lancet 2: 891–893, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Bryson YJ, Winter HS, Gard SE, et al: Deficiency of immune interferon production by leucocytes of normal newborns. Cell Immunol 55: 191–200, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Epstein LB, Ammon AJ: Evaluation of T lymphocyte effector function in immunodeficiency diseases: Abnormality in mitogen-stimulated interferon in patients with selective IgA deficiency. J Immunol 112: 617–626, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Lipinski M, Virelizier JL, Tursz T, et al: Natural killer cell activities in patients with primary immunodeficiencies or defects in immune interferon production. Eur J Immunol 10: 246–249, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Virelizier JL, Lenoir G, Griscelli C: Persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child with hypergammaglobulinemia and immunoblastic proliferation associated with selective defect in immune interferon secretion. Lancet 2: 231–234, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Murray HW, Rubin BY, Masur H, et al: Impaired production of lymphokines and immune (gamma) interferon in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 310: 883–889, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Buimovici-Klein E, Lange M, Ramey WG, et al: Cell-mediated immune responses in AIDS. N Engl J Med 311: 328–329, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Rytel MW, Balay J: Impaired production of interferon in lymphocytes from immunosuppressed patients. J Infect Dis 127: 445–449, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Weimar W, van Ruyven CM, Geerlings W, et al: Gamma interferon production capacity after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 15: 421–423, 1983.Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Rhodes-Feuillette A, Canivet M, Devergie A, et al: Circulating interferon after marrow transplant in cytomegalovirus infection. Lancet 1: 1217, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Najjar VA, Fridkin M (eds): Antineoplastic, immunogenic and other effects of the tetrapeptide tuftsin: A natural macrophage activator. Ann NY Acad Sci. 419:1–273, 1983.Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    Tonegawa S: Somatic generation of antibody diversity. Nature (Lond) 302: 575–581, 1983.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Oxelius VA: Chronic infections in a family with herediatory deficiency of IgG2 and IgG4. Clin Exp Immunol 17: 19–27, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Siber GR, Schur PH, Aisenberg AC, et al: Correlation between serum IgG2-concentrations and the antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. N Engl J Med 303: 178–182, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Tomasi TB, Plaut AG: Humoral aspects of mucosal immunity. In Gallin JI, Fauci AS (eds): Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms. Vol. 4. Raven, New York, 1985, pp. 31–61.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    André C, André F, Fargier MC: Distribution of IgAI and IgA2 plasma cells in various normal human tissues and in the jejunum of plasma IgA deficient patients. Clin Exp Immunol 33: 327–331, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Buckley RH, Becker WG: Abnormalities in the regulation of human IgE synthesis. Immunol Rev 41: 288–314, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Dessiant JP, Capron A, Joseph M: Interaction of schistosomiasis and macrophages. In van Furth R (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes, Characteristics, Physiology and Function. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1985, pp. 593–598.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Vadas MA, Butterworth AE, Colley DG, et al: Interactions between human eosimophils and schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. I. Stable and irreversible antibody-dependent adherence. J Immunol 124: 1441–1448, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Thorbecke GJ, Leski GA: Immunoglobulin D: Structure and function. Ann NY Acad Sci 399: 1–410, 1982.Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Rosen FS, Cooper MD, Wedgewood RJP: The primary immunodeficiencies. N Engl J Med 311: 235–310, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Melamed I, Bujanover U, Igra VS, et al: Campylobacter enteritis in normal and immunodeficient children. Am J Dis Child 137: 752–753, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    van der Meer JWM, Mouton RP, Daha MR, et al: Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia as a cause of recurrent fever in a patient with hypogammaglubulinemia. J Infect 12: 235–239, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Ochs HD, Ament ME, Davis SD: Giardiasis with malabsorption in X-linked agammaglobulinemia. N Engl J Med 287: 341–342, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Saulsbury FT, Bernstein MT, Winkelstein JA: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia as the presenting infection in congenital hypogammaglobulinemia. J Pediatr 95: 559–561, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Wright PF, Hatch MH, Kasselberg AG, et al: Vaccine associated poliomyelitis in a child with sex-linked agammaglobulinemia. J Pediatr 91: 408–412, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Wilfert CM, Buckley RH, Mohanakumar T, et al: Persistent and fatal central-nervous-system echovirus infections in patients with agammaglobulinemia. N Engl J Med 296: 1485–1489, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Erlendsson K, Schwarz T, Dwyer JM: Successful reversal of echovirus encephalitis in X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia by intraventricular administration of immunoglobulin. N Engl J Med 312: 351–353, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Saulsbury FT, Winkelstein JA, Yolken RH: Chronic rotavirus infection in immunodeficiency. J Pediatr 97: 61–65, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    So AK, Fun PM, Taylor-Robinson D, et al: Arthritis caused by Mycoplasma salivarium in hypogammaglobulinaemia. Br Med J 286: 762–763, 1983.Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Amman AJ, Hong R: Selective IgA deficiency: Presentation of 30 cases and a review of the literature, Medicine (Baltimore) 50: 223–236, 1971.Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    DeGraeff PA, The TH, van Munster PJ, et al: The primary immune response in patients with selective IgA deficiency. Clin Exp Immunol 54: 778–785, 1983.Google Scholar
  103. 102.
    Oxelius VA, Laurell AB, Lindquist B, et al: IgG subclasses in selective IgA deficiency: Importance of IgG2-IgG4 deficiency. N. Engl J Med 304: 1476–1477, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Hobbs JR, Milner RDG, Watt PJ: Gamma-M deficiency predisposing to meningococcal septicaemia. Br Med J 4: 583–586, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Lefranc MP, Lefranc G, de Lange G, et al: Instability of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region locus indicated by different inherited chromosomal deletions. Mol Biol Med 1: 207–217, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Reinherz EL, Geha R, Wohl ME, et al: Immunodeficiency associated with loss of T4 + inducer T cell function. N Engl J Med 304: 811–816, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Eibl MM, Mannhalter JW, Zlabinger G, et al: Defective macrophage function in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 307: 803–806, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Cronkite EP, Fliedner TM: Granulocytopoiesis. N Engl J Med 270: 1347–1352, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Joyce RA, Boggs DR, Hasiba U, et al: Marginal neutrophil pool size in normal subjects and neutropenic patients as measured by epinephrine infusion. JLab Clin Med 88: 614–620, 1976.Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Craddock PRE, Hammerschmidt D, White JG, et al: Complement (C5a)-induced granulocyte aggregation in vitro: a possible mechanism of complement-mediated leukostasis and leukopenia. J Clin Invest 60: 260–264, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Craddock PRE, Fehr J, Bringham KL, et al: Complement and leucocyte-mediated pulmonary dysfunction in hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 296: 769–774, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Gallin JI (moderator): Disorders of phagocyte chemotaxis. Ann Intern Med 92: 520–538, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Klempner MS, Gallin Jl, Balow JE, et al: The effect of hemodialysis on neutrophil subpopulations. Blood 55: 777–783, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Amaout MA, Hakim RM, Todd RF III, et al: Increased expression of an adhesion promoting surface glycoprotein in the granulocytopenia of hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 312: 457–462, 1985.Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    Metcalf D, Parker J, Chester RHM, et al: Formation of eosinophilic granulocytic colonies by mouse bone marrow in vitro. J Cell Physiol 84: 275–289, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Bass DA: Eosinophil behavior during host defense reactions. In Gallin JE, Fauci AS (eds): Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms. Vol. 1 Raven, New York, 1982, pp. 211241.Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    van Furth R, Cohn ZA: The origin and kinetics of mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med 128: 415–435, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Goud ThJLM, Schotte C, van Furth R: Identification and characterization of the monoblast in mononuclear phagocyte colonies grown in vitro. J Exp Med 142: 1180–1199, 1975.Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    van der Meer JWM, van de Gevel JS, Beelen RHJ, et al: Culture of human bone marrow in the Teflon culture bag: Identification of the human monoblast. J Reticuloendothel Soc 32: 355–369, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    van Furth R, Raeburn JR, van Zwet TL: Characteristics of human mononuclear phagocytes. Blood 54: 485–500, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    van Furth R, Diesselhoff-den Dulk MMC, Sluiter W, et al: New perspectives on the kinetics of mononuclear phagocytes. In van Furth (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes. Characteristics, Physiology, and Function. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1983, pp. 201–208.Google Scholar
  122. 121.
    van Furth R, Cohn ZA, Hirsch JG, et al: The mononuclear phagocyte system: A new classification of macrophages, monocytes and their precursor cells. Bull WHO 46: 845–852, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    van Furth R: Cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Nomenclature in terms of sites and conditions. In van Furth R (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1980, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    Burger EH, van der Meer JWM, van de Gevel JS, et al: In vitro formation of osteoclasts from long-term cultures of bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med 156:1604–1614 1982.Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Snyderman R, Goetzl EJ: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of leucocyte chemotaxis. Science 213: 830–837, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Walker RI, Willemze R: Neutrophil kinetics and the regulation of granulocytopoiesis. Rev Infect Dis 2:282–292, 1980.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Dinarello CLA: Interleukin-1. Rev Infect Dis 6: 52–95, 1984.Google Scholar
  128. 127.
    Sluiter W, van Waarde D, Hulsing-Hesselink E, et al: Humoral control of monocyte production during inflammation. In van Furth R (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes. Functional Aspects. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1980, pp. 325–339.Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    Griffin FM, Griffin JA, Leider JE, et al: Studies on the mechanisms of phagocytosis. I. Requirement for circumferential attachment of particle bound to specific receptors on the macrophage plasma membrane. J Exp Med 142: 1263–1282, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Leijh PCJ, van den Barselaar MT, van Furth R: Kinetics of phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coil by human monocytes. Scand J Immmunol 13: 159–174, 1981.Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Roos D: The metabolic response to phagocytosis. In Weissmann G (ed): Handbook of Inflammation. vol. II: The Cell Biology of Inflammation. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985, pp. 337–385.Google Scholar
  132. 131.
    Klebanoff SJ: Oxygen dependent cytotoxic mechanisms of phagocytes. In Gallin JI, Fauci AS (eds): Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms. Vol. I, Raven, New York, 1982, pp. 111–162.Google Scholar
  133. 132.
    Wright DG: The neutrophil as a secretous organ of host defense. In Gallin JI, Fauci AS (eds): Advances in Host Defense Mechanism. Vol. I. Raven, New York, 1982, pp. 75–110.Google Scholar
  134. 133.
    Leijh PCJ, van den Barselaar MT, van Zwet TL, et al: Requirement of extracellular complement and immunoglobulin for intracellular killing of microorganisms by human monocytes. J Clin Invest 63: 772–784, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Gleich GM, Loegering DA: Immunobiology of eosinophils. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 429–459, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Arend WP, Mannik M: Studies on antigen-antibody complexes. II. Quantitation of tissue uptake of soluble complexes in normal and complement depleted rabbits. J Immunol 107: 63–75, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    van Es LA, Daha MR, Kijlstra A: Clearance of soluble immune complexes and aggregates. In Peeters H (ed): Protides of the Biological Fluids. Pergamon, New York, 1979, pp. 159–162.Google Scholar
  138. 137.
    Haakenstadt AO, Mannik M: Saturation of the reticuloendothelial system with soluble immune complexes. J Immunol 112: 1939–1948, 1974.Google Scholar
  139. 138.
    Atkinson JP, Frank MM: Studies on the in vivo effects of antibody, interaction of IgM antibody and complement in the immune clearance and destruction of erythrocytes in man. J Clin Invest 54: 339–348, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 138a.
    Beutler B, Cerami A: Cachectin: more than a tumor necrosis factor. New Engl J Med 316: 379–385, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Gordon S: Lysozyme and plasminogen activator: constitutive and induced secretory products of mononuclear phagocytes. In van Furth R (ed): Mononuclear phagocytes. Functional Aspects. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1980, pp. 1273–1294.Google Scholar
  142. 140.
    Unanue ER: Antigen presenting function of the macrophage. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 395–428, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 141.
    Bodey GP, Buckley M, Sathe YS, et al: Quantitative relationships between circulating leucocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med 64: 328–340, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    van der Meer JWM, Alleman M, Boekhout M: Infections episodes in severely granulocytopenic patients. Infection 7: 171–175, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 143.
    Dale DC, Dupont G, Wewerka JR, et al: Chronic neutropenia. Medicine (Baltimore) 58: 128–144, 1979.Google Scholar
  146. 144.
    van Furth R, van Zwet TL, Leijh PCJ: In vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes. In Weir DM, Herzenberg LA, Blackwell C (eds): Handbook of Experimental Immunology Vol. 2,Blackwell, Oxford, 1985, pp. 46.1–46.21.Google Scholar
  147. 145.
    Miles AA, Miles EM, Burke J: The value and duration of defense reactions of the skin to the primary lodgment of bacteria. Br J Exp Pathol 38: 79–96, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 146.
    Frank MM, Hamburger MI, Lawley TJ, et al: Defective reticuloendothelial system Fc-receptor function in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 300: 518–523, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 147.
    Hamburger MI, Moutsopoulos HM, Lawley TJ, et al: Sjögren syndrome: A defect in reticuloendothelial system Fc receptor specific clearance. Ann Intern Med 91: 534–538, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 148.
    Hamburger MI, Gerardi EH, Fields TR, et al: Lymphoplasmapheresis and reticuloendothelial system Fc receptor function in rheumathoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 24 (suppl. 399): 4, 1981.Google Scholar
  151. 149.
    Kimberly RP, Imman RD, Bussel JB, et al: Modulation of mononuclear phagocyte system function and circulating immune complexes by lyophilized concentrates in patients with classic hemophilia. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 31: 321–330, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 150.
    Lawley TJ, Hall RP, Fauci AS, et al: Defective Fc receptor functions associated with the HLA B8 DRW3 haplotype. N Engl J Med 304: 185–192, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 151.
    Kimberly RP, Gibofsky J, Salmon JE, et al: Impaired Fc receptor mediated mononuclear phagocyte system clearance in HLA DR2 and MT1 positive healthy young adults. JExp Med 157: 1698–1703, 1983.Google Scholar
  154. 152.
    Jaffe CJ, Vierling JM, Jones EA, et al: Receptor specific clearance by the reticuloendothelial system in chronic liver diseases: Demonstration of defective Cab-specific clearance in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Clin Invest 62: 1069–1077, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 153.
    Biozzi G, Benacerraf B, Halpern BN, et al: Exploration of the phagocyte function of the reticuloendothelial system with heat denatured human serum albumin labeled with I-131 and applications to the measurement of liver blood flow in normal man and in some pathological conditions. J Lab Clin Med 51: 230–238, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 154.
    Lahnborg G, Friman L, Berghem L: Reticuloendothelial function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol 16: 481–489, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 155.
    Rimola A, Soto R: Reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity in cirrhosis and its relation to bacterial infection and prognosis. Hepatology 4: 53–58, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 156.
    Fischer GW, Hunter KW, Wilson SR, et al: Diminished bacterial defences with intralipid. Lancet 2:819–820, 1980.Google Scholar
  159. 157.
    Fraser I, Pearson H, Bowly V, et al: The intravenous intralipid tolerance test. J Leukocyte Bio 36: 647–649, 1984.Google Scholar
  160. 158.
    Editorial: Block the phagocytes. Lancet 2:199, 1983.Google Scholar
  161. 159.
    Ortaldo JR, Herberman RB: Heterogeneity of natural killer cells. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 359–394, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 159a.
    Herberman RB: Natural killer cells, Ann Rev Med 37: 347–352, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 160.
    Timonen T, Saksela E: Isolation of human NK cells by density gradient centrifugation. J Immunol Methods 36: 285–291, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 161.
    Podack ER: The molecular mechanism of lymphocyte mediated tumor cell lysis. Immunol Today 6: 21–27, 1985.Google Scholar
  165. 162.
    Ching C, Lopez C: Natural killing of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected target cells: Normal human responses and influence of antiviral antibody. Infect Immun 26: 49–56, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 163.
    Quinnan GV, Kirmani N, Rook AH: Cytotoxic T cells in cytomegalovirus infection HLA-restricted T lymphocyte and non-T lymphocyte cytotoxic responses correlate with recovery from cytomegalovirus infection in bone marrow transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 307: 7–13, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 164.
    Seligmann M, Chess L, Fahey JL, et al: AIDS-An immunologic reevaluation. N Engl J Med 311: 1286–1292, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 165.
    Van Voorhis WE, Valinsky J, Hoffman E, et al: The relative efficacy of human monocytes and dendritic cells as accessory cells for T cell replication. J Exp Med 158: 174–191, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 166.
    Stingl G, Katz SI, Clement L, et al: Immunological functions of Ia-bearing epidermal Langerhans cells. J Immunol 121: 2005–2013, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 167.
    Mizel SB: Interleukin 1 and T cell activation. Immunol Rev 63: 51–72, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 168.
    Dinarello CA: Interleukin-1 and the pathogenesis of the acute phase response. N Engl J Med 311: 1413–1418, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 169.
    Smith KA: Interleukin 2. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 319–323, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 170.
    Cantor H, Gershon RK: Immunological circuits: Cellular composition. Fed Proc 38: 2058–2064, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 171.
    Ballieux RE, Heynen CJ: Functional T cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies. Immunol Rev 74: 5–28, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 172.
    Meuer SC, Schlossmann SF, Reinherz EL: Clonal analysis of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes: T4 + and T8 + recognize products of different major histocompatibility complex regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 128: 463–468, 1982.Google Scholar
  176. 173.
    Thomas Y, Rogozinski L, Irigoyen OH, et al: Functional analysis of human T cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies. IV. Induction of suppressor cells within the OKT4 ± population. J Exp Med 154: 459–467, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 173a.
    Young M, Geha RF: Human regulatory T cell subsets, Ann Rev Med 37: 165–172, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 174.
    Hahn H, Kaufmann SHE: The role of cell-mediated immunity in bacterial infections. Rev Infect Dis 3: 1221–1250, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 175.
    Murray HW: How protozoa evade intracellular killing. Ann Intern Med 98: 1016–1018, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 176.
    Cohn ZA: The activation of mononuclear phagocytes: Fact, fancy and future. J Immunol 121: 813–816, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 177.
    Adams DO, Hamilton TA: The cell biology of macrophage activation. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 283–318, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 178.
    Siegel RL, Issekutz T, Schwaber J: Deficiency of T helper cells in transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. N Engl J Med 305: 1307–1313, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 179.
    Hunninghake GW, Crystal RG: Pulmonary sarcoidosis. A disorder mediated by excess helper-T lymphocyte activity at sites of disease activity. N Engl J Med 305: 429–434, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 180.
    Weinberg ED: Pregnancy-associated depression of cell-mediated immunity. Rev Infect Dis 6: 814–831, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 181.
    Skamene E, Stevenson MM: Genetic control of macrophage response to infection. In van Furth R (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes. Characteristics, Physiology, and Function. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1985, pp. 647–653.Google Scholar
  186. 182.
    De Vries RRP, van Rood JJ: Immunogenetics and disease. In King RA, Rotter JI, Motulsky AC (eds): Genetic Basis of Common Disease Oxford University Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  187. 183.
    Legrand L, Rivat-Perrau L, Huttin C, et al: HLA and Gm affecting the degradation rate of antigens (sheep red blood cells) endocytized by macrophages. Hum Immunol 4: 1–13, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 184.
    De Vries RRP, Meera Khan P, Bernini LF, et al: Genetic control of survival in epidemics. Jlmmunogenet 6: 271–287, 1979.Google Scholar
  189. 185.
    van Eeden W, Gonzalez NM, de Vries RRP, et al: HLA linked control of predisposition to lepromatous leprosy. J Infect Dis 151: 9–14, 1985.Google Scholar
  190. 186.
    Svejgaard A, Platz P, Rijder LP: HLA and disease 1982. A survey. Immunol Rev 70: 193–218, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 187.
    Pollack MS, Rich RR: the HLA complex and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. J Infect Dis 151: 1–8, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 188.
    Chandra RK: Nutrition, Immunity and Infection: Present knowledge and future directions. Lancet 1: 688–691, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 189.
    Keusch GT: Host defense mechanisms in protein energy malnutrition. Adv Exp Med Bio1135:183–209, 1981.Google Scholar
  194. 190.
    Salimonu LS, Ojo-Amaize E, Williams AIO, et al: Depressed natural killer cell activity in children with protein calorie malnutrition. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 24: 1–7, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 191.
    Sugarman B: Zinc and infection. Rev Infect Dis 5: 137–147, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 192.
    Tucker SB, Schroeter AL, Brown PW Jr, et al: Acquired zinc deficiency: Cutaneous manifestations typical of acrodermatitis enteropathica. JAMA 235: 2399–2402, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 193.
    Chandra RK, Au B, Woodford G, et al: Iron status, immunocompetence and susceptibility to infection. In Iron Metabolism. Ciba Foundation Symposium, No. 51. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977, pp. 249–268.Google Scholar
  198. 194.
    Bullen JJ: The significance of iron in infection: Rev Infect Dis 3: 1127–1138, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 195.
    Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, et al: The adverse effect of iron repletion on the course of certain infections. Br Med J 2: 113–115, 1978.Google Scholar
  200. 196.
    van Asbeck BS, Verbrugh HA, van Oost BA, et al: Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and decreased phagocytosis associated with iron overload, Br Med J 284: 542–544, 1982.Google Scholar
  201. 197.
    Melby K, Slordahl S, Gutteberg TJ: Septicaemia due to Yersinia enterocolitica after oral overdoses of iron. Br Med J 285: 467–468, 1982.Google Scholar
  202. 198.
    Craddock PR, Yawata Y, van Santen L: Acquired phagocyte dysfunction. A complication of the hypophosphatemia of parenteral hyperalimentation. N Engl J Med 290: 1403–1407, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 199.
    Smith D, Peter G; Ingram DL, et al: Responses of children immunized with the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae type B. Pediatrics 52: 637–640, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 200.
    Adamkin D, Stitzel A, Urmson J, et al: Activity of the alternative pathway of complement in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 93: 604–608, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 201.
    Marôdi L. Leijh PCJ, Braat A, et al.: Opsonic activity of cord blood sera against various species of micro-organisms. Pediatr Res 19: 433–436, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 202.
    Park BH, Holmes B, Good RA: Metabolic activities in leucocytes of newborn infants. J Pediatr 76: 237–241, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 203.
    McCracken GH, Eichenwald HF: Leucocyte function and the development of opsonic and complement activity in the neonate. Am J Dis Child 121: 120–126, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 204.
    Schuit KE, Powall DA: Phagocyte dysfunction in monocytes of normal newborn infants. Pediatrics 65: 501–504, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 205.
    Marddi L. Leijh PCJ, van Furth R: Characterization and functional capacities of human cord blood granulocytes and monocytes. Pediatr Res 18: 1127–1131, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 206.
    Marôdi L, Jzerniczky J, Csorba S, et al: Chemotactic and random movement of cord blood granulocytes. Experientia 40: 1407–1410, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 207.
    Maradi L, Csorba S, Nagy B: Chemotactic and random movement of human newborn monocytes. Eur J Pediatr 135: 73–85, 1980.Google Scholar
  212. 208.
    van Tol MJD, Zijlstra J, Thomas CMG, et al: Distinct role of neonatal and adult monocytes in the regulation of the in vitro antigen-induced plaque-forming cell response in man. J Immunol 133: 1902–1908, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 209.
    Kohl S, Frazier JJ, Greenberg SB, et al: Interferon induction of natural killer cytotoxicity in human neonates. J Pediatr 98: 379–384, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 210.
    Wakasugi N, Virelizier JL: Defective IFN -y production in the human neonate. Dysregulation rather than intrinsic abnormality. Jlmmunol134: 167–171, 1985.Google Scholar
  215. 211.
    Phair J, Kauffman CA, Bjornson A: Failure to respond to influenza vaccine in the aged: correlation with B cell number of function. J Lab Clin Med 92: 822–828, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 212.
    Roberts-Thomson IC, Whittingham S, Youngchaiyud U, et al: Aging, immune response and mortality. Lancet 2: 368–370, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 213.
    Gardner ID: The effect of aging on susceptibility to infection. Rev Infect Dis 2: 801–810, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 214.
    Mackowiak PA: Direct effects of hyperthermia on pathogenic microorganisms: Teleologic implications with regard to fever. Rev Infect Dis 3: 508–520, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 215.
    Jampel HD, Duff GW, Gershon RK, et al: Fever and immunoregulation. III. Hyperthermia augments the primary in-vitro humoral response. J Exp Med 157: 1229–1238, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 216.
    Hanson DF, Murphy PA, Silicano R, et al: The effect of temperature on the activation of thymocytes by interleukins I and II. J Immunol 130: 216–221, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 217.
    Giard DJ, Fleischaker RJ, Sinskey AT, et al: Kinetics of human beta inferferon production under different temperature conditions. J Interferon Res 2: 471–477, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 218.
    Dinarello CA, Dempsey RA, Allegretta M, et al: Inhibitory effects of elevated temperature on human cytokine production and natural killer activity. Cancer Res 46: 6236–6241, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 219.
    van der Meer JWM, Guiot HFL, van den Broek PJ, et al: Infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. Semin Hematol 21: 123–140, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 220.
    Witherspoon RP, Lum LG, Storb R: Immunological reconstitution after human marrow grafting. Semin Hematol 21:210, 1984.Google Scholar
  225. 221.
    Engleman EJ, Benike CJ, Hoppe RT, et al: Autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in patients with Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Invest 66: 149–158, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 222.
    Ward PA, Berenberg JC: Defective regulation of inflammatory mediators in Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med 290: 76–80, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 223.
    Weitzman SA, Aisenberg AC, Siber GR, et al: Immunity in treated Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med 297: 245–248, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 224.
    Chilcote RR, Baehner RL, Hammond D: Septicemia and meningitis in children splenectomized for Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med 295: 798–800, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 225.
    Weitzman S, Aisenberg AC: Fulminant sepsis after the successful treatment of Hodgkin’s disease. Am J Med 62: 4750, 1977.Google Scholar
  230. 226.
    Schwartz PE, Sterioff S, Mucha P, et al: Post splenectomy sepsis and mortality in adults. JAMA 284: 2279–2283, 1982.Google Scholar
  231. 227.
    Fibbe W, Ligthart G, van der Broek PF, et al: Septicaemia with a dysgonic fermenten (DF-2) bacterium in a compromised host, Infection 6: 286–287, 1985.Google Scholar
  232. 228.
    Hosea SW, Brown EJ, Hamburger MI, et al: Opsonic requirements for intravascular clearance after splenectomy. N Engl J Med 304: 245–250, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 229.
    Benner R, Hijmans W, Haayman JJ: The bone marrow: The major source of serum immunoglobulins but still a neglected site of antibody formation. Clin Exp Immunol 46: 1–8, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 230.
    Schumacher MJ: Serum immunoglobulin and transferrin levels after childhood splenectomy. Arch Dis Child 45: 114–117, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 231.
    Di Padova F, Durig M, Harder F, et al: Impaired antipneumococcal antibody production in patients without spleens. Br Med J 290: 14–16, 1985.Google Scholar
  236. 231a.
    Amlot PL, Hayes AE: Impaired human antibody response to the thymus independent antigen DNP-Ficoll after splenectomy, Lancet 1: 1000–1011, 1985.Google Scholar
  237. 232.
    Carlisle HN, Saslaw S: Properdin levels in splenectomized persons. Proc Soc Exp Biol 102: 150–155, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 233.
    Broome CV, Facklam RR, Fraser DW: Pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal vaccination. An alternative method to estimate the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine. N Engl J Med 303: 549–552, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 234.
    Barret-Connor E: Infection and sickle cell anemia. In Allen JC (ed): Infection in the Compromised Host. Clinical Correlations and Therapeutic Approaches. 2nd ed. Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, 1981, pp. 107–120.Google Scholar
  240. 235.
    Ballester OF, Prasad AS: Anergy, zinc deficiency and decreased nucleoside phosphorylase activity in patients with sickle cell anemia.. Ann Intern Med 98: 180–182, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 236.
    Amman AJ, Addiego J, Wara DW, et al: Polyvalent pneumococcal-polysaccharide immunization of patients with sickle cell anemia and patients with splenectomy. N Engl J Med 297: 897–900, 1977.Google Scholar
  242. 237.
    Allen JC: The diabetic as a compromised host. In Allen JC (ed): Infection and the Compromised Host. Clinical Correlations and Therapeutic Approaches. 2nd ed., Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, 1981, pp. 229–270.Google Scholar
  243. 238.
    Meyers BR, Wormser G, Hirschman SZ, et al: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis Premortem diagnosis and therapy. Arch Intern Med 139: 557–563, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 239.
    Doroghazi RM, Nadol JB Jr, Hyslop NE Jr, et al: Invasive external otitis, report of 21 cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 71: 603–614, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 240.
    Brayton RG, Stokes PE, Schwartz MS, et al: Effect of alcohol and various diseases on leukocyte mobilization phagocytosis and intracellular bacterial killing. N Engl J Med 282: 123–128, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 241.
    Mowat AG, Baum J: Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 284: 621–627, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 242.
    Miller ME, Baker L: Leucocyte functions in juvenile diabetes mellitus: Humoral and cellular aspects. J Pediatr 81: 979–982, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 243.
    Hill HR, Augustine NH, Rallison ML, et al: Defective monocyte chemotactic responses in diabetes mellitus. J Clin Immunol 3: 70–77, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 244.
    Sheldon WH, Bauer H: The development of the acute inflammatory response to experimental cutaneous mucor-mycosis in normal and diabetic rabbits. J Exp Med 110: 845–859, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 245.
    Bagdade JD, Root RK, Bulger RJ: Impaired leukocyte function in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Diabetes 23: 9–15, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 246.
    Chemew I, Braude AI: Depression of phagocytosis by solutes in concentrations found in the kidney and urine. J Clin Invest 41: 1945–1951, 1962.Google Scholar
  252. 247.
    Nolan CM, Beaty HN, Bagdade JD: Further characterization of the impaired bactericidal function of granulocytes in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Diabetes 27: 889–894, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 248.
    Tan JS, Anderson JL, Watanakunakom C, et al: Neutrophil dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J Lab Clin Med 85: 26–33, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 249.
    Berken A, Sherman AA: Reticuloendothelial system phagocytosis in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 23: 218–220, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 250.
    Maccuish AC, Urbaniak SJ, Cambell CJ, et al: Phytohemagglutinin -transformation and circulating lymphocyte sub-populations in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes 23: 708–712, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 251.
    Eliashiv A, Olumide F, Norton L, et al: Depression of cell-mediated immunity in diabetes. Arch Surg 113: 1180–1183, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 252.
    Mahmoud AAF, Rodman HM, Mandel MA, et al: Induced and spontaneous diabetes mellitus and suppression of cell-mediated immunologic responses. J Clin Invest 57: 362–367, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 253.
    Parry MF, Root RK, Metcalf JA, et al: Myeloperoxidase deficiency, prevalence and clinical significance. Ann Intern Med 95: 293–301, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 254.
    Cech P, Stalder H. Widmann JJ, et al: Leucocyte myeloperoxidase deficiency and diabetes mellitus associated with Candida albicans liver abscess. Am J Med 66: 149–153, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 255.
    Montgomerie JZ, Kalmanson GM, Guze LB: Renal failure and infection, Medicine (Baltimore) 47: 1–32, 1968.Google Scholar
  261. 256.
    Clarke IA, Ormond DJ, Miller TE: Host immune status in uremia. V. Effect of uremia on resistance to bacterial infection. Kidney Int 24: 66–73, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 257.
    Perescenschi G, Zakouth V, Spirer Z, et al: Leucocyte mobilization by epinephrine and hydrocortisone in patients with chronic renal failure. Experientia 33: 1529–1530, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 258.
    Perillie PE, Nolan JP, Finch SC: Studies of the resistance to infection in diabetes mellitus: Local exudative cellular response. Lab Clin Med 59: 1008–1015, 1962.Google Scholar
  264. 259.
    Salant DF, Glover AM, Anderson R, et al: Depressed neutrophil chemotaxis in patients with chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation. J Lab Clin Med 88: 536–545, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 260.
    Abrutyn E, Solomons NW, St Clair L, et al: Granulocyte function in patients with chronic renal failure: Surface adherence, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity in vitro. J Infect Dis 135: 1–8, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 261.
    Urbanitz D, Sieberth HG: Impaired phagocytic activity of human monocytes in respect to reduced antibacterial resistance in uremia. Clin Nephrol 4: 13–17, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 262.
    Nelson J, Ormrod DJ, Muller TE: Host immune status in uremia. IV. Phagocytosis and the inflammatory response in vivo. Kidney Ira 23: 312–319, 1983.Google Scholar
  268. 263.
    Kirkpatrick CH, Wilson WEC, Talmage DW: Immunologic studies in human organ transplantation. I. Observation and characterization of suppressed cutaneous reactivity in uremia. J Exp Med 119: 727–742, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 264.
    Newsberry WM, Sanford JP: Defective cellular immunity in renal failure: depression of reactivity of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin by renal failure serum. J Clin Invest 50: 1262–1271, 1971.Google Scholar
  270. 265.
    Daniels JC, Sakae H, Remmers AR, et al: In-vitro reactivity of human lymphocytes in chronic uraemia: Analysis and interpretation. Clin Exp Immunol 8: 213–227, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 266.
    Miller TE, Stewart E: Host immune status in uraemia. I. cell-mediated immune mechanisms. Clin Exp Immunol 41: 115–122, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 267.
    Stevens CE, Alter HJ, Taylor PE, et al: Hepatitis B vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis. Immunogenicity and efficacy. N Engl J Med 311: 496–511, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 268.
    Crosnier J, Jungers P, Couroucé AM, et al: Randomized placebo-controlled trial of hepatitis B surface antigens vaccine in French haemodialysis units. Lancet 1: 797–800, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 269.
    Desmyter J, Colaert J, de Groote G, et al: Efficacy of heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine in haemodialysis patients and staff: Double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2: 1323–1328, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 270.
    Lelie PN, Reesink HW, De Jong-van Manen STh, et al: Immune response to a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Enhancement of the response by increasing the dose of hepatitis B surface antigen from 3 to 27 p.g. Arch Intern Med 145: 305–309, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 271.
    Ruddy MC, Rubin AL, Novogrodsky A, et al: Decreased macrophage-mediated suppression of lymphocyte activation in chronic renal failure. Am J Med 75: 571–579, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 272.
    Sengar DPS, Rashid A, Harris JE: In-vitro reactivity of lymphocytes obtained from uraemic patients maintained by haemodialysis. Clin Exp Immunol 21: 298–305, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 273.
    Langhoff E, Ladefoged J: Cellular immunity in renal failure: Depression of lymphocyte transformation by uraemia and methylprednisolone. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 74: 241–245, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 274.
    Gloor HJ, Nichols WK, Sorkin MI, et al: Peritoneal acces and related complications in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Med 74: 593–598, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 275.
    Verbrugh HA, Keane WF, Hoidal JR, et al: Peritoneal macrophages and opsonins: Antibacterial defense in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis. J Infect Dis 147: 1018–1029, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 276.
    Keane WF, Peterson PK: Host defense mechanisms of the peritoneal cavity and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dialysis Bull 4: 122–127, 1984.Google Scholar
  282. 277.
    Amair P, Khanna R, Leibel B, et al: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in diabetics with endstage renal disease. N Engl J Med 306: 625–630, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 278.
    MacGregor RR, Spagnuolo PJ, Lentnek AE: Inhibition of granulocyte adherence by ethanol, prednisone, and aspirin measured with an assay system. N Engl JMed 291: 642–646, 1974.Google Scholar
  284. 279.
    Gluckman SJ, Dvorak VC, MacCregor RR: Host defenses during prolonged alcohol consumption in a controlled environment. Arch Intern Med 137: 1539–1543, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 280.
    Berenyi MR, Straus B, Cruz D: In vitro and in vivo studies of cellular immunity in alcoholic cirrhosis. Am J Dig Dis 19: 199–205, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 281.
    Lundy J, Raaf JH, Deakins S, et al: The acute and chronic effects of alcohol in the human immune system. Surg Gynecol Obstet 141: 212–218, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 282.
    Tisman G, Herbert V: In vitro myelosuppression and immunosuppression by ethanol. J Clin Invest 52: 1410–1414, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 283.
    DeMeo AN, Andersen BR: Defective chemotaxis associated with a serum inhibitor in cirrhotic patients. N Engl J Med 286: 735–740, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 284.
    Blussé van Oud Alblas A, Janssens AR, Leijh PCJ, et al: Functions of granulocytes and monocytes in primary biliary and alcoholic cirrhosis. Clin Exp Immunol 62: 724–731, 1985.Google Scholar
  290. 285.
    Wijke RJ, Rajkovic IA, Williams R: Impaired opsonization by serum from patients with chronic liver disease. Clin Exp Immunol 51: 91–98, 1983.Google Scholar
  291. 286.
    Sorrell MF, Leavy CM: Lymphocyte transformation and alcoholic liver injury. Gastroenterology 63: 1020–1028, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 287.
    Staples Pi, Gerding DN, Decker JL, et al: Incidence of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 17: 110, 1974.Google Scholar
  293. 288.
    Abeles M: The reumatic patient as a compromised host. In Allen JC (ed): Infection and the Compromised Host. Clinical Correlations and Therapeutic Approaches. 2nd ed. Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, 1981, pp. 197–227.Google Scholar
  294. 289.
    Ginzler E, Diamond H, Kaplan D, et al: Computer analysis of factors influencing frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 21: 37–47, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 290.
    Moutsopoulos HM, Gallagher JD, Decker JL, et al: Herpes zoster in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 21: 798–802, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 291.
    Clark RA, Kimball HR, Decker JL: Neutrophil chemotaxis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 33: 167–172, 1984.Google Scholar
  297. 292.
    Perez HD, Lipton M, Goldstein IM: A specific inhibitor of complement (C5) derived chemotactic activity in serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Res 26: 519A, 1978.Google Scholar
  298. 293.
    Jasin HE, Orozco JH, Ziff M: Serum heat labile opsonins in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest 53: 343–353, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 294.
    Zurier RB: Reduction of phagocytosis and lysosomal enzyme release from human leucocytes by serum from patients with lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 19: 73–78, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 295.
    Kimball HR, Wolff SM, Talal N, et al: Marrow granulocyte reserves in the rheumatic disease. Arthritis Rheum 16: 345–352, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 296.
    Rosenthal CJ, Franklin EC: Depression of cellular mediated immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 18: 207–217, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 297.
    Mowat AG, Baum J: Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest 59: 2541–2549, 1971.Google Scholar
  303. 298.
    BarEli M, Ehrenfeld M. Litvin Y, et al: Monocyte function in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 9: 17–23, 1980.Google Scholar
  304. 299.
    Turner RA, Schumacher HR, Myers AR: Neutrophil chemotaxis in rheumatic diseases. J Clin Invest 52: 1632–1635, 1974.Google Scholar
  305. 300.
    Barnes CG, Turnbull AL, Vernon-Roberts B: Felty’s syndrome: A clinical and pathological survey of 21 patients and their response to treatment. Ann Rheum Dis 30: 359–374, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 301.
    Ruderman M, Miller LM, Pinals RS: Clinical and serological observations on 27 patients with the Felty syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 11: 377–384, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 301a.
    Breedveld FC, Fibbe WE, Hermans J, et al: Factors influencing the incidence of infections in Felty’s syndrome. Arch Intern Med 147: 915–920, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 302.
    Mackowiak PA: Microbial synergism in human infections. N Engl J Med 298: 21–87, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 303.
    O’Grady F, Smith H (eds): Microbial Perturbation of Host Defences. Academic, London, 1981, pp. 1–254.Google Scholar
  310. 304.
    Solberg CO, Hellum KB: Neutrophil granulocyte function in bacterial infection. Lancet 2: 727–730, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 305.
    Barbour AG, Allred CD, Solberg CO, et al: Chemiluminescence by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with active bacterial infection. J Infect Dis 141: 14–20, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 306.
    Parenti DM, Snydman DR: Capnocytophaga species: infections in nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised hosts. J Infect Dis 151: 140–147, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 307.
    Shurin SB, Socransky SS, Sweeney E, et al: A neutrophil disorder induced by capnocytophaga, a dental micro-organism. N Engl J Med 301: 849–854, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 308.
    Rubin RH, Cosimi AB, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, et al: Infectious disease syndromes attributable to cytomegalovirus and their significance among renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 24: 458–4M, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 309.
    Chatterjee SN, Fiala M, Weiner J, et al: Primary cytomegalovirus infection and opportunistic infections. Incidence in renal transplant recipients. JAMA 240: 2446–2449, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 310.
    Rand KH, Pollard RB, Merigan TC: Increased pulmonary superinfections in cardiac transplant patients undergoing primary cytomegalovirus infection. N Engl J Med 298: 951–953, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 311.
    Carney WP, Rubin RH, Hoffman RA, et al: Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in cytomegalovirus mononucleosis. J Immunol 126: 2114, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 312.
    van Es A, van Gernert GW, Baldwin WK, et al: Viral infection and T-lymphocyte subpopulations in renal transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 309: 110–111, 1983.Google Scholar
  319. 313.
    La Quaglia MP, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Dienstag J, et al: Impact of hepatitis on renal transplantation. Transplant 32: 504–507, 1981.Google Scholar
  320. 314.
    Fauci AS, Dale DC, Balow JE: Glucocorticosteroid therapy. Mechanisms of action and clinical considerations. Ann Intern Med 84: 304–315, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 315.
    Schneiderman CA, Wilson JW: Effects of corticosteroids on complement and the neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocyte. Transplant Proc 7: 41–48, 1979.Google Scholar
  322. 316.
    Butler WT, Rossen RD: Effects of corticosteroids on immunity in man. J Clin Invest 52: 2629–2640, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 317.
    Suda T, Miura Y, Ijima H: The effect of hydrocortisone on human granulopoiesis in vitro. Exp Hematol 11: 114–121, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 318.
    Dale DC, Fauci AS, Guerry D, et al: Comparison of agents producing a neutrophilic leukocytosis in man: Hydrocortisone, prednisone, endotoxin and etiocholanolone. J Clin Invest 56: 808–813, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 319.
    Dale DC, Fauci AS, Wolff SM: Alternate-day prednisone: Leukocyte kinetics and susceptibility to infections. NEngl J Med 291: 1154–1158, 1974.Google Scholar
  326. 320.
    Wiener SL, Wiener R, Urivetzky M, et al: The mechanism of action of a single dose of methylprednisolone on acute inflammation in vivo. J Clin Invest 56: 679–689, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 321.
    Thompson J, van Furth R: The effect of glucocorticosteroids on the kinetics of mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med 131: 429–442, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 322.
    Rinehart JJ, Sagone AL, Balcerzak SP, et al: Effects of corticosteroid therapy on human monocyte function. N Engl J Med 292: 236–241, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 323.
    Rinehart JJ, Balcerzak SP, Sagone AL: Effects of corticosteroid on monocyte function. J Clin Invest 53: 1327–1343, 1974.Google Scholar
  330. 324.
    van Zwet TL, Thompson J, van Furth R: Effect of glucocorticosteroids on the phagocytosis and intracellular killing by peritoneal macrophages. Infect Immun 12: 699–705, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 325.
    van Furth R, Jones TC: Effect of glucocorticosteroids on phagosome-lysosome interaction. Infect Immun 12: 888–890, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 326.
    Atkinson JP, Frank MM: Cortisone inhibition of complement independent erythrocyte clearance. Blood 44: 629–637, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 327.
    Werb ZA: Hormone receptors and hormonal regulation of macrophage physiological functions. In van Furth R (ed): Mononuclear Phagocytes. Functional Aspects. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1980, pp. 809–829.Google Scholar
  334. 328.
    Bondy PK, Bodel PT: Mechanisms of pyrogenic and antipyretic steroids. In Wolstenholme GEW, Birch J (eds): Pyrogens and Fever. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1971, pp. 101–113.Google Scholar
  335. 329.
    Dannenberg AM Jr: The anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticosteroids. A brief review of the literature. Inflammation 3: 329–343, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 330.
    Cupps TR, Fauci AS: Corticosteroid-mediated immunoregulation in man. Immunol Rev 65: 134–155, 1982.Google Scholar
  337. 331.
    Gershwin ME, Goetz] EJ, Steinberg AD: Cyclophosphamide: Use in practice. Ann Intern Med 80: 531–540, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 332.
    Balow JE: Cyclophosphamide suppression of established cell-mediated immunity. J Clin Invest 56: 65–70, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 333.
    Fauci AS, Wolff SM, Johnson JS: Effect of cyclophosphamide upon the immune response in Wegener’s granulomatosis. N Engl J Med 285: 1493–1496, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 334.
    Skinner MD, Schwartz RS: Immunosuppressive therapy. N Engl J Med 287: 221–286, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 335.
    Gassmann AE, van Furth R: The effect of azathioprine on the kinetics of monocytes and macrophages during the normal steady state and an acute inflammatory reaction. Blood 46: 51–64, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 336.
    TenBerge RJM, Schellekens PTA: A critical analysis of the use of azathioprine in clinical medicine. Neth J Med 26: 164–171, 1983.Google Scholar
  343. 337.
    Hyams JS, Donaldson MH, Metcalf JA, et al: Inhibition of human granulocyte function by methotrexate. Cancer Res 38: 650–655, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 338.
    Rubin RH, Cosimi AB, Hirsch MD, et al: Effects of antithymocyte globulin on cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 31: 143–145, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 339.
    van Hooff JP, van Es, A, Koolen MI, et al: Less aggressive rejection therapy and low-dose corticosteroids leading to satisfactory cadaveric kidney graft survival and low morbidity rate. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 17: 435–439, 1980.Google Scholar
  346. 340.
    Cohen DJ, Loertscher R, Rubin MF, et al: Cyclosporine: A new immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation. Ann Intern Med 101: 667–682, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 341.
    Granelli-Piperno A, Inaba K, Steinman RM: Stimulation of lymphokine release from T lymphoblasts, requirements for mRNA synthesis and inhibition by cyclosporin A. JExp Med 160: 1792–1802, 1984.Google Scholar
  348. 342.
    Hauser WE, Remington JS: The effect of antibiotics on the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In Sabath LD (ed): Action of Antibiotics in Patients. H Huber, Berne, 1982, pp. 127–147.Google Scholar
  349. 343.
    Heyworth MF: Clinical experience with antilymphocyte serum. Immunol Rev 65: 79–97, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 344.
    Cosimi AB: Clinical usefulness of antilymphocyte antibodies. Transplant Proc 15: 583–589, 1983.Google Scholar
  351. 345.
    Lederman MM, Ratnoff OD, Scillian JJ, et al: Impaired cell-mediated immunity in patients with classic hemophilia. N Engl J Med 308: 79–82, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 346.
    Editorial: Blood transfusion haemophilia and AIDS. Lancet 2: 1433–1435, 1984.Google Scholar
  353. 347.
    Gascon P. Zoumbos NC, Young NS, et al: Immunological abnormalities in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. Ann Intern Med 100: 173–177, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 348.
    Doria G, Agarossi G, Adorini L: Selective effects of ionizing radiations on the immunoregulatory cells. Immunol Rev 65: 23–54, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 349.
    Baehner RL, Neiburger RG, Johnson DE, et al: Transient bactericidal defect of peripheral blood phagocytes from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving craniospinal irradiation. N Engl J Med 289: 1209–1213, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 350.
    Slater JM, Ngo E, Lau BHS: Effect of therapeutic irradiation on the immune responses. AJR 126: 313–320, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 351.
    Strober S, Slavin S, Gottlieb M, et al: Allograft tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Immunol Rev 46: 87–112, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 352.
    Gallico III GG, O’Connor NE, Compton CC, et al: Permanent coverage of large burn wounds with autologous cultured human epithelium. N Engl J Med 311: 448–451, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 353.
    Hirsch MS, Schooley RT, Cosimi AB, et al: Effects of interferon-alpha on cytomegalovirus reactiviation syndromes renal transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 308: 1489–1493, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 354.
    Schwartmann WB, Tillotson JR, Taft EG, et al: Plasmapheresis for meningococcemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation. N Engl J Med 300: 1277, 1979.Google Scholar
  361. 355.
    Bjorvatn B, Bjertnals L, Fadnes HO, et al: Meningococcal septicaemia treated with combined plasmapheresis and leucopheresis or with blood exchange. Br Med J 288: 439–441, 1984.Google Scholar
  362. 356.
    Roord JJ, van der Meer JWM, Kuis W, et al: Treatment of antibody deficiency syndromes with subcutaneous infusion of gammaglobulin. Birth Defects 19: 217–271, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 357.
    Nydegger UE (ed): Immunohemotherapy. A Guide to Immunoglobulin Prophylaxis and Treatment. Academic, London, 1981.Google Scholar
  364. 358.
    Winston DJ, Young LS: Immunization of the compromised host against infectious complications. In Allen JC (ed): Infection and the Compromised Host. Clinical Correlations and Therapeutic Approaches. Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, 1981, pp. 37–89.Google Scholar
  365. 359.
    Ziegler EJ, McCutchan JA, Fierer J, et al: Treatment of Gram-negative bacteremia and shock with human antiserum to a mutant Escherichia coli. N Engl J Med 307: 1225–1230, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 360.
    Stein RS, Beamon C, Ali MY, et al: Lithium carbonate attenuation of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. N Engl J Med 297: 427–428, 1977.Google Scholar
  367. 361.
    Winston DJ, Ho WG, Gale RP: Therapeutic granulocyte transfusions in documented infections. A controlled trial in ninety five infectious granulocytopenic episodes. Ann Intern Med 97: 509–515, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 362.
    Keusch GT, Ambinder EP, Kovacs I, et al: Role of opsonins in clinical response to granulocyte transfusion in granulocytopenic patients. Am J Med 73: 552–563, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 363.
    van der Meer JWM, van den Broek PJ: Present status of the management of patients with defective phagocyte function. Rev Infect Dis 6: 107–121, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 364.
    Buescher ES, Gallin JI: Leukocyte transfusions in chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med 307: 800–803, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 365.
    Hong R: Thymus transplants: A look to the future. Birth Defects 11: 357–360, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 366.
    Editorial: Which thymic hormone? Lancet 1: 1309–1311, 1983.Google Scholar
  373. 367.
    Massicot JG, Goldstein RA: Transfer factor. Ann Allerg 49: 326–329, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 368.
    Zegers BJM, Stoop JW: Therapy in adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficient patients. Clin Biochem 16: 43–47, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 369.
    Sparks FC: Hazards and complications of BCG immunotherapy. Med Clin North Am 60: 499–509, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 370.
    Bakker W, Nijhuis-Heddes JM, Brutel de la Revière A, et al: Complications of post-operative intrapleural BCG in lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg 33: 267–272, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jos W. M. van der Meer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseasesUniversity HospitalLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations