• A. Nussinovitch


Alginate was first discovered by E.C.C. Stanford in 1881, while searching for useful products from kelp. He developed the process of alkali extraction of a viscous material, ‘algin’, from the algae and later precipitated it using mineral acid (Stanford, 1883, (Stanford, 1884). Algin was isolated 15 years later by Krefting (Krefting, 1896). In 1929, the commercial production of algin was initiated by the Kelco Co. in California. The extracted material was first used as a boiler compound and for can-sealing purposes. In 1934, the use of alginate for foods (as an ice-cream stabilizer) became important. In 1944, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) was developed and produced commercially. Later, alginate-production plants were established in the USA, Europe and Japan (McNeely, 1959).


Sodium Alginate Calcium Alginate Brown Seaweed Alginate Solution British Patent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angermeier, H.F. (1951)Edible Alginate Jelly. US Patent 2,536–708.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. (1957) Quick frozen scampi.Food Trade Rev.,27(8), 15–17.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (1958) Puddings and pie fillings.SeaKem Extracts, 5(1), 2 (published by Marine Colloids, Inc., Springfield, NJ).Google Scholar
  4. An-qi, Xu (1987) Paper given at the7th World Congr. Food Sci. Technol. Singapore.Google Scholar
  5. Berlin, A. (1957) Calcium alginate films and their application for meats used for freezing.Myasn Industr. SSSR,28, 44. (Chem. Abstr. 51, 17007b).Google Scholar
  6. Boyle, J.L. (1959) The stabilization of ice cream and ice lollies.Food Technol. Australia 11, 543. Chavez, M.S., Luna, J.A. and Garrote, R.L. (1994) Cross linking kinetics of thermally preset alginate gels.J. Food Sci., 59(5), 1108–10.Google Scholar
  7. Childs, W.H. (1957)Coated Sausage. US Patent No. 2,811–453.Google Scholar
  8. Conti, E., Flaibani, A., Regan, al. (1994) Alginate fromPseudomonas fluorescens andP. putida: production and properties.Microbiology-Reading, 140(5), 1125–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cottrell, I.W. and Kovacs, P. (1980) Alginates, inHandbook of Water-soluble Gums and Resins, Ch. 2 (ed. R.L. Davidson), McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 1–43.Google Scholar
  10. Doggett, R.C. and Harrison, G.M. (1969) InProc. 5th Int. Cystic Fibrosis Conf. (ed. D. Lawson), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 175–8.Google Scholar
  11. Dourer, H. and Tessmer, E. (1953) Thickening agents.Brot Gebaeck, 7, 163.Google Scholar
  12. Ensor, S.A., Sofos, J.N. and Schmidt, G.R. (1990) Optimization of algin/calcium binder in restructured beef.J. Muscle Foods,1(3), 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ernst, E.A., Ensor, S.A., Sofos, al. (1989) Shelf life of algin/calcium restructured turkey products held under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.J. Food Sci.,54(5), 1147–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. General Foods Corp. (1954)Confectionery Product. British Patent No. 2,485–043.Google Scholar
  15. Gibsen, K.F. (1957)Alginate Composition for Making Milk Puddings. U.S. Patent No. 2, 808–337.Google Scholar
  16. Gibsen, K.F. and Rothe, L.B. (1955) Algin, versatile food improver.Food Eng.,27(10), 87–9.Google Scholar
  17. Glabau, C.A. (1943) How to overcome sticky icings.Baker’s Weekly, Dec. 20, p. 49.Google Scholar
  18. Glicksman, M. (1962a) Utilization of natural polysaccharide gums in the food industry.Adv.Food Res., 11, 109–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glicksman, M. (1962b)Freezable Gels. US Patent No. 3, 060–032.Google Scholar
  20. Glicksman, M. (1969) Seaweed extracts, inGum Technology in the Food Industry, ch. 8, Academic Press, New York, pp. 199–273.Google Scholar
  21. Grant, G.T., Morris, E.R., Rees, al. (1973) Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: the egg-box model.FEBS Lett., 32, 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grasdalen, H. (1983) Highfield ‘H-NMR spectroscopy of alginate. Sequential structure and linkage conformations.Carbohydr. Res., 118, 255–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green, H.C. (1936)Fibrous Alginic Acid. US Patent No. 2,036–934.Google Scholar
  24. Harada, S. and Ikeda, M. (1995)Fried Food and Process for Producing Same. European Patent Application, EP 0 603,879 A2.Google Scholar
  25. Hartwig, M. (1960)Method of Reducing the Swelling Capacity of Synthetic Alginate Skins. US Patent No. 2,965–498.Google Scholar
  26. Haug, A. (1964)Composition and Properties of Alginates Rep. No. 30, Norwegian Institute Seaweed Research, Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
  27. Helgerud, O. and Olsen, A. (1955) AMethod for the Preservation of Food. British Patent No. 7,28–168.Google Scholar
  28. Helgerud, O. and Olsen, A. (1958)Block Freezing of Foods (Fish). US Patent No. 2,763–557.Google Scholar
  29. Henning, W. (1957)Canned Herring. Germam Patent No. 1,004–470.Google Scholar
  30. Hirst, E.L. and Rees, D.A. (1965) The structure of alginic acid. Part V. Isolation and unambiguous characterization of some hydrolysis products of the methylated polysaccharide.J. Chem. Soc.,1,1182–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hunter, A.R. and Rocks, J.K. (1960)Cold Milk Puddings and Method of Producing the Same. US Patent No. 2,949–366.Google Scholar
  32. Imeson, A.P. (1984) InGums and Stabilizers for the Food Industry 2, (eds G.O. Phillips, D.J. Wedlock and P.A. Williams), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 189.Google Scholar
  33. Kneeland, R.F., Jr (1961) Letter to Ohio Products Co., August 22 in: Glicksman, M. (1969) Seaweed extracts, inGum Technology in the Food Industry, Academic Press, New York, p. 269.Google Scholar
  34. Kohler, R. and Dierichs, W. (1958)Stabilizers for Frozen Desserts. US Patent No. 2,854–340.Google Scholar
  35. Kohler, R. and Dierichs, W. (1959)Product and Process for the Production of Aqueous Gels. US Patent No. 2,919–198.Google Scholar
  36. Krefting, A. (1896)An Improved Method of Treating Seaweed to obtain Valuable Products Therefrom. British Patent No. 11,538.Google Scholar
  37. Krigsman, J.G. (1957) Alginic acid and the alginates applied to the food industry.Food Technol. Australia,9, 183–5.Google Scholar
  38. Kunz, C.E. and Robinson, W.B. (1962) Hydrophilic colloids in fruit pie fillings.Food Technol.,16(7), 100–2.Google Scholar
  39. Langmaack, L. (1961)Method of Producing Synthetic Sausage Casings. US Patent No. 2,973–274.Google Scholar
  40. Lebrun, L., Junter, G.A., Jouenne, al. (1994) Exopolysaccharide production by free and immobilized microbial cultures.Enz. Microb. Technol.,16(12), 1048–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Le Gloahec, V.C.E. and Herter, J.R. (1938)7ieating Seaweed. US Patent No. 2,138–551.Google Scholar
  42. Lelli, A. and Ferrero, P. (1995)Stabilizer for Acidic Milk Drinks. EP 0639,335 Al.Google Scholar
  43. McDowell, R.H. (1960) Applications of alginates.Rev. Pure Appl. Chem.,10(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  44. McDowell, R.H. and Boyle, J.L. (1960a)Powdered Alginate Jelly Composition and Method of Preparing Same. US Patent 2,935–409.Google Scholar
  45. McDowell, R.H. and Boyle, J.L. (1960b)Gelling of Milk with Alginate. British Patent No. 839, 767.Google Scholar
  46. McNeely, W.H. (1959). Alginin Industrial Gums (ed. R.L. Whistler), Academic Press, New York, pp. 55–82.Google Scholar
  47. Means, W.J., Clarke, A.D., Sofos, al. (1987) Binding, sensory and storage properties of algin, calcium structured beef steaks.J. Food Sci.,52(2), 252–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Means, W.J. and Schmidt, G.R. (1986a) Algin/calcium gel as a raw and cooked binder in structured beef steaks.J. Food Sci.,51(1), 60–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Means, W.J. and Schmidt, G.R. (1986b)Process for Preparing Algin/calcium Gel Structured Meat Products. US Patent No. 4, 603–054.Google Scholar
  50. Merton, R.R. and McDowell, R.H. (1960)Powdered Alginate Jellies. US Patent No. 2,930–701; British Patent No. 828, 350.Google Scholar
  51. Messina, B.T. and Pape, D. (1966) Ingredient cuts heat-process time.Food Eng., 8(4), 48–51. Miller, A. (1960)Composition and Method for Improving Frozen Confections. US Patent No. 2,935–406.Google Scholar
  52. Moncrieff, R.W. (1953) Stabilizing fruit drinks.Food, 22, 498–9.Google Scholar
  53. Mountney, G.J. and Winter, A.R. (1961) The use of a calcium alginate film for coating cut-up poultry.Poultry Sci., 40, 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nishide, E., Mishima, A., Anzai, al. (1992) Properties of alginic acid from sulfated polysaccharides extracted from residual algae by the hot water method.Bull. College Agric. Vet. Med., Nihon University, No. 49, 140–2.Google Scholar
  55. Nussinovitch, A. (1993) Gum-based texturized products, inYearbook of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 138–140.Google Scholar
  56. Nussinovitch, A., Kopelman, I.J. and Mizrahi, S. (1990) Effect of hydrocolloids and minerals content on the mechanical properties of gels.Food Hydrocolloids,4(4), 257–65. Nussinovitch, A. and Peleg, M. (1990) Strength—time relationships of agar and alginate gels.J. Texture Studies,21(1), 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nussinovitch, A., Peleg, M. and Normand, M.D. (1989) A modified Maxwell and a non-exponential model for characterization of the stress relaxation of agar and alginate gels.J. Food Sci.,54, 1013–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oates, C.G., Ledward, D.A. and Mitchell, J.R. (1987) Paper given at the7th World Congr. Food Sc . Technol.,Singapore.Google Scholar
  59. Ohling, R.A.G. (1959)Food Preparation by Cold Gelation. Canadian Patent No. 574,261.Google Scholar
  60. Olsen, A. (1955) Freezing fish in alginate jelly.Food Manuf, 30(7), 267–70, 285.Google Scholar
  61. Onseyen, E. (1990) Marine hydrocolloids in biotechnological applications, inAdvances in Fisheries Technology and Biotechnology for Increased Profitability, papers from the 34th Atlantic Fisheries Technol. Conf. Seafood Biotechnol. Workshop (eds M.N. Voight and J.R. Botta), Technomic, Lancaster, PA, pp. 265–86.Google Scholar
  62. Onsoyen, E. (1992) Alginates, inThickening and Gelling Agents for Food, ch. 1 (ed. A. Imeson), Chapman & Hall, Glasgow, pp. 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peschardt, W.J.S. (1946)Manufacturing Artificial Edible Cherries Soft Sheets and the like. US Patent No. 2,403–547.Google Scholar
  64. Poarch, A.E. and Tweig, G.W. (1957)Gel forming Compositions. US Patent No. 2,809–893.Google Scholar
  65. Pressman, R. (1957)Coatings for Meat-wrapping Sheets. US Patent No. 2, 811–454.Google Scholar
  66. Proton Biopolymers A/S (1990) Technical information — Alginates. Rees, D.A. (1969) Structure, conformation and mechanism in formation of polysaccharide gels and networks, inAdvances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry,vol. 24 (eds M.L. Wolform and R.S. Tipson), Academic Press, New York, pp. 267–332.Google Scholar
  67. Rocks, J.K. (1960)Method and Composition for Preparing Cold Water Desserts. US Patent No. 2, 925–343.Google Scholar
  68. Schmidt, G.R. and Means, W.J. (1986)Process for Preparing Algin/calcium Gel Structured Meat Products. US Patent No. 4, 603–054.Google Scholar
  69. Shand, P.J., Sofos, J.N. and Schmidt, G.R. (1993) Properties of algin calcium and salt phosphate structured beef rolls with added gums.J. Food Sci.,58(6), 1224–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shetty, C.S., Bhaskar, N., Bhandary, al. (1996) Effect of film forming gums in the preservation of salted and dried mackerel.J. Sci. Food Agric.,70(4), 453–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shiotani, H. and Hara, M. (1955)Ice Cream Stabilizer. Japanese Patent No. 3031(Chem. Abstr. 51, 13263e).Google Scholar
  72. Slepchencnko, I.R., Knizhnik, E.B. and Piraeva, L.A. (1956) Production of calcium alginate films and their utilization in the freezing of meat.Sbornik Stud. Rabot. Moskov. Teknol. Inst. Myasnoi i Molch. Prom.,No. 4, 39(Chem. Abstr., 53, 13440f).Google Scholar
  73. Stanford, E.C.C. (1883) On algin: a new substance obtained from some of the commoner species of marine algae.Chem. News, 47, 254.Google Scholar
  74. Stanford, E.C.C. (1884) On the economic applications of seaweeds.J. Soc. Arts, 32, 717.Google Scholar
  75. Steiner, A.B. (1948)Algin Gel forming Compositions. US Patents No. 2,441–729.Google Scholar
  76. Steiner, A.B. (1949)Alginate Ice Cream Stabilizing Composition. US Patent No. 2,48-,934.Google Scholar
  77. Steiner, A.B. and McNeely, W.H. (1954) Algin in review.Adv. Chem. 11,68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Strachan, C.C., Moyls, A.W., Atkinson, al. (1960) Commercial canning of fruit pie fillings.Can. Dept. Agr. Publ. 1062.Google Scholar
  79. Takeuchi, T., Murata, K. and Kusakabe, I. (1994) A method for depolymerization of alginate using the enzyme system of Flavobacterium multivolum.J. Jap. Soc. Food Sci. Technol.,41(7), 505–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Toft, K. (1982) Interactions between pectins and alginates.Prog. Food Nutr. Sci.,6, 89–96.Google Scholar
  81. Toft, K., Grasdalen, H. and Smidsrod, O. (1986) Synergistic gelation of alginates and pectins, in:ACS Symp. Ser. No. 310 Chem. Funct. Pectins (eds M.L. Fishman and J.J. Jen), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  82. Trout, G.R. (1989) Color and bind strength of restructured pork chops: effect of calcium carbonate and sodium alginate concentration.J. Food Sci., 54(6), 1466–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Trout, G.R., Chen, C.M. and Dale, S. (1990) Effect of calcium carbonate and sodium alginate on the textural characteristics, color and color stability of restructured pork chops.J. Food Sci., 55(1), 38–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Weingand, R. (1957)Synthetic Sausage Casings. US Patent No. 2, 802–744.Google Scholar
  85. Weingand, R. (1959)Process for Producing Synthetic Sausage Casing from Alginates. US Patent No. 2, 897–547.Google Scholar
  86. Whistler, R.L. and Kirby, K.W. (1959) Composition of alginic acid ofMacrocystis pyrifera. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem., 314, 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolff & Co. (1951)Sausage Casings. British Patent No. 711,437.Google Scholar
  88. Yilmazer, G. and Kokini, J.L. (1992) Effect of salt on the stability of propylene glycol alginate/xanthan gum/polysorbate-60 stabilized oil in water emulsions.J. Text. Studies, 23(2), 195–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yilmazer, G., Carrillo, A.R. and Kokini, J.L. (1991) Effect of propylene glycol alginate and xanthan gum on stability of O/W emulsions.J. Food Sci., 56(2), 513–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zheng, Y.W., White, J.W., Konno, al. (1995) A small angle X-ray scattering study of alginate solution and its sol—gel transition by adding of divalent cations.Biopolymers, 35(2), 227–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Nussinovitch
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and NutritionThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations