Skip to main content

The Origin and Speciation of Oncorhynchus Revisited

  • Chapter

Abstract

Thirty-seven years have passed since Ferris Neave published his classic paper on the origin and speciation of the salmonid genus, Oncorhynchus. Since then, new data on fossils, chromosomes, molecules, and morphology have accumulated, and new analytical techniques for quantifying phylogenetic data have been developed. These new data are reviewed, summarized, and used to reexamine the evolutionary history of the genus. Apparently, Salmo and Oncorhynchus diverged sometime in the early Miocene (∼20 million years ago [mya]) and most of the early speciation (lineage splitting) in the genus occurred during the Miocene. By the late Miocene, or early Pliocene (∼6 mya), members of the chum (O. keta), pink (O. gorbuscha) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon lineages were present in Idaho and Oregon. Geographically, most of the living members of the earliest divergences (the Pacific trout) are concentrated in western North America near the southern margin of the distribution of Oncorhynchus. Later divergences (the Pacific salmon) probably occurred in the Pacific Northwest and in Asia. Although processes that produced lineage splitting in the past can never be identified with certainty, one can examine genetic divergence in modern species. Thus, I use the sockeye-kokanee salmon divergence as an example of lineage splitting. I conclude that speciation in modern Oncorhynchus usually involves geographic isolation, followed by local adaptation, genetic divergence and, where divergent forms come into secondary contact, competitive interactions among forms. There is no reason to suppose that past divergences were driven by different processes. The evolutionary history of the genus suggests that most local adaptation is ephemeral and that clusters of populations (metapopulations) may be appropriate management units.

Keywords

  • British Columbia
  • Chinook Salmon
  • Sockeye Salmon
  • Pacific Salmon
  • Growth Hormone Gene

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-6375-4_4
  • Chapter length: 10 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4615-6375-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Referecnes

  • Allendorf, F.W. 1978. Protein polymorphism and the rate of loss of duplicate gene expression. Nature 272: 76–79.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Allendorf, F.W. and G.H. Thorgaard. 1984. Tetraploidy and the evolution of salmon fishes, p. 1–53. In B. Turner (ed.), Evolutionary Genetics of Fishes. Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native trout of western North America. American Fisheries Society, Monograph 6. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, D.R. and D.A. McLennan. 1992. Historical ecology as a research program, p. 76–113. In R. L. Mayden (ed.), Systematics, Historical Ecology, and North American Freshwater Fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California

    Google Scholar 

  • Cavender, T.M. and R.R. Miller. 1972. Smilidonichthys rastrosus a new Pliocene salmonid fish. Museum of Natural History, University of Oregon, Bulletin 18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cavender, T.M. and R.R. Miller. 1982. Salmo australes, a new species of fossil salmonid from southwestern Mexico. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 26: 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Devlin, R.H. 1993. Sequence of sockeye salmon type 1 and 2 growth hormone genes and the relationship of rainbow trout with Atlantic and Pacific salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 1738–1748.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Du, S.J., R.H. Devlin, and C.L. Hew. 1993. Genomic structure of growth hormone genes in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): presence of two functional genes, GH-I and GH-II, and a male-specific pseudogene, GH-W. DNA and Cell Biology 12: 739–751.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Einarsson, T., D.M. Hopkins, and R.R. Doell. 1967. The stratigraphy of Tjornes, northern Iceland, and the history of the Bering land bridge, p. 312–325. In D. M. Hopkins (ed.), The Bering Land Bridge. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fitch, J.E. 1970. Fish remains, mostly otoliths and teeth, from the Palos Verdes Sand (late Pleistocene) of California. Contributions to Science, Los Angeles County Museum 199.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foote, C.J. and P.A. Larkin. 1988. The role of mate choice in the assortative mating of anadromous and nonanadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Behaviour 106: 43–62.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foote, C.J., C.C. Wood, and R.E. Withler. 1989. Biochemical genetic comparison between sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and non-anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 149–158.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foote, C.J., C.C. Wood, W.C. Clarke, and J. Blackburn. 1992. Circannual cycle of seawater adaptability in Oncorhynchus nerka: genetic difference between sympatric sockeye salmon and kokanee. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 99–109.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hanson, S.J. and H.D. Smith. 1967. Mate selection in a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) of mixed age groups. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 24: 1955–1977.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hartley, S.E. 1987. The chromosomes of salmonid fishes. Biological Reviews 62: 197–214.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Healey, M.C. 1983. Coastwide distribution and ocean migration patterns of stream-and ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Field-Naturalist 97: 427–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hikita, T. 1962. Ecological and morphological studies of the genus Oncorhynchus (Salmonidae) with particular consideration on phylogeny. Scientific Reports of the Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery, No. 17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kato, F. 1978. Morphological and ecological studies on two forms of Oncorhynchus rhodurus found in Lake Biwa and adjoining inlets. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 25: 197–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelso, B.W., T.G. Northcote, and C.F. Wehrhahn. 1981. Genetic and environmental aspects of the response to water current by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) originating from inlet and outlet streams of two lakes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 59: 2177–2185.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kendall, A.W. and R.J. Behnke. 1984. Salmonidae: development and relationships, p. 142–149. In Moser, H. G. (ed.), Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication 1. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimmel, P.G. 1975. Fishes of the Miocene-Pliocene Deer Butte formation, southeast Oregon. Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Papers on Paleontology, no. 14: 69–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurenkov, S.I. 1978. Two reproductively isolated groups of Kokanee salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi, from Lake Kronotskiy. Journal of Ichthyology 18: 526–533.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lieder, S.A., M.W. Chilcote, and J.J. Loch. 1984. Spawning characteristics of sympatric populations of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri): evidence for partial reproductive isolation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 1454–1467.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lim, S. T., and G. S. Bailey. 1977. Gene duplication in salmonid fish: evidence for duplicated but catalytically equivalent A(4) lactate dehydrogenases. Biochemical Genetics 15: 707–721.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lim, S.T., R.M. Kay, and G.S. Bailey. 1975. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of salmonid fish: evidence for unique and rapid functional divergence of duplicated H4 lactate dehydrogenases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 250: 1790–1800.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meffe, G. 1992. Techno-arrogance and halfway technologies: salmon hatcheries on the Pacific coast of North America. Conservation Biology 6: 350–354.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Murata, S., Takasaki, N., Saitoh, H., and N. Okada. 1993. Determination of the phylogenetic relationships among Pacific salmonids by using short interspersed elements (SINEs) as temporal landmarks of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 90: 6995–6999.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nakano, S., T. Kachi, and M. Nagoshi. 1990. Restricted movement of the fluvial form of red-spotted masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus, in a mountain stream, central Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 38: 158–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neave, F. 1958. The origin and speciation of Oncorhynchus. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Third Series, Vol. 52: 25–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norden, C.R. 1961. Comparative osteology of representative salmonid fishes, with particular reference to the grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and its phylogeny. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 18: 679–791.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sanford, C.P.J. 1990. The phylogenetic relationships of salmonoid fishes. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Zoology) 56: 145–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schluter, D. and J.D. McPhail. 1992. Ecological character displacement and speciation in sticklebacks. American Naturalist 140: 85–108.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schluter, D. and J.D. McPhail. 1993. Character displacement and replicate adaptive radiation. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 8: 197–200.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shedlock, A.M., J.D. Parker, D.A. Crispin, T.W. Pietsch, and G.C. Buriner. 1992. Evolution of the salmonid mitochondrial control region. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1: 179–192.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G.R. 1975. Fishes of the Pliocene Glenns Ferry formation, southwest Idaho. Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Papers on Paleontology, no. 14: 1–68.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G.R. 1981. Late Cenozoic freshwater fishes of North America. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 12: 163–193.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G.R. 1992. Introgression in fishes: significance for paleontology, cladistics, and evolutionary rates. Systematic Biology 41: 41–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G.R. and R.R. Miller. 1985. Taxonomy of fishes from Miocene Clarkia Lake beds, Idaho, p. 75–83. In C.J. Smiley (ed.), Late Cenozoic History of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G.R. and R.F. Stearley. 1989. The classification and scientific names of rainbow and cutthroat trout. Fisheries 14: 4–10.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stearley, R.F. 1992. Historical ecology of the Salmoninae, p. 622–658. In R. L. Mayden (ed.), Systematics, Historical Ecology, and North American Freshwater Fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stearley, R.F. and G.R. Smith. 1993. Phylogeny of the Pacific trouts and salmons (Oncorhynchus) and genera of the family Salmonidae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122: 1–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Swain, D.P. and L.B. Holtby. 1989. Differences in morphology and agonistic behaviour in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) rearing in a lake or its tributary stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 1406–1414.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E.B. 1990. Environmental correlates of life history variation in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Biology 37: 1–17.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E.B. 1991. A review of local adaptation in Salmonidae, with particular reference to Pacific and Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 98: 185–207.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E.B. and C.J. Foote. 1991. Critical swimming velocities of juvenile sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and non-anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka. Journal of Fish Biology 38: 407–419.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E. B., C. J. Foote, and C. C. Wood. 1996. Molecular evidence for parallel life history evolution within a Pacific salmon (sockeye salmon and kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 50: 401–416.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, W.K. and A.T. Beckenbach. 1989. Variation in salmonid mitochondrial DNA: evolutionary constraints and mechanisms of substitution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 29: 233–245.

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, W.K., R.E. Withler, and A.T. Beckenbach. 1986. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Pacific salmonid evolution. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 1058–1064.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Utter, F.M., J.E. Seeb, and L.W. Seeb. 1993. Complementary uses of ecological and biochemical genetic data in identifying and conserving salmon populations. Fisheries Research 18: 59–76.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Verspoor, E. and L.J. Cole. 1989. Genetically distinct sympatric populations of resident and anadromous Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 1453–1461.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, G.C. 1992. Natural selection: domains levels and challenges. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, G.M., W.K. Thomas, and A.T. Beckenbach. 1985. Intra-and inter-specific mitochondria) DNA sequence divergence in Salmo: rainbow, steelhead, and cutthroat trouts. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 2088–2094.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, M.V.H. 1977. Middle Eocene Freshwater Fish from British Columbia. Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contribution 11B: 1–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, M.V.H. and R.R.G. Williams. 1992. Phylogenetic, biogeographic, and ecological significance of early fossil records of North American freshwater teleostean fishes, p. 224–244. In R. L. Mayden (ed.), Systematics, Historical Ecology, and North American Freshwater Fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood, C.C. and C.J. Foote. 1990. Genetic differences in the early development and growth of sympatric sockeye salmon and kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 2250–2260.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1997 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

McPhail, J.D. (1997). The Origin and Speciation of Oncorhynchus Revisited. In: Stouder, D.J., Bisson, P.A., Naiman, R.J. (eds) Pacific Salmon & their Ecosystems. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6375-4_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6375-4_4

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4613-7928-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-6375-4

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive