Agricultural Biotechnology Research Advisory Committee, Working Group on Aquatic Biotechnology and Environmental Safety. 1995. Performance standards for safely conducting research with genetically modified fish and shellfish. Parts I & II. United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Agricultural Biotechnology, Documents No. 95–04 and 95–05. Washington, DC.
Allendorf, F.W. and N. Ryman. 1987. Genetic management of hatchery stocks, p.141–159. In N. Ryman and F. Utter (eds.), Population Genetics and Fishery Management. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Anonymous. 1992. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project report series: part I. Background, description, performance measures, uncertainty, and theory. May 1, 1992. Bonneville Power Administration. Portland, Oregon.
Boyce, M.S. 1992. Population viability analysis. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1992 (23): 481–506.
Busack, C. and K. Currens. 1995. Genetic risks and hazards in hatchery operations: fundamental concepts and issues. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15: 71–80.
Carson, H. L. 1983. The genetics of the founder effect, p. 189–200. In C. M. Schonewald-Cox, S. M. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and L. Thomas (eds.), Genetics and Conservation. The Benjamin Cummins Publishing Co., Inc., Menlo Park, California.
Cederholm, C.J., D.B. Houston, C.B. Cole, and W.J. Scarlett. 1989. Fate of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) carcasses in spawning streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 1347–1355.
Cuenco, M.L., T. W.H. Backman, and P.R. Mundy. 1993. The use of supplementation to aid in natural stock restoration, p. 269–293. In J.G. Cloud and G.H. Thorgaard (eds.), Genetic Conservation of Salmonid Fishes. Plenum Press, New York.
Currens, K. 1993. Genetic vulnerability of the Yakima fishery project: a risk assessment. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Olympia.
Currens, K.P. and C. Busack. 1995. Genetic risk assessment. Fisheries 20(12): 24–31.
Donaldson, J.R. 1967. The phosphorous of Iliamna Lake, Alaska as related to the cyclic abundance of sockeye salmon. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington. Seattle.
Doppelt, B., M. Scurlock, C. Frissell, and J. Karr. 1993. Entering the Watershed. A New Approach to Save America’s River Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Eberhardt, L.L. and J. M. Thomas. 1991. Designing environmental field studies. Ecological Monographs 61(1): 53–73.
Flick, W.A. and D.A. Webster. 1962. Problems in sampling wild and domestic stocks of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91: 140–144.
Flick, W.A. and D.A. Webster. 1964. Comparative first year survival and production in wild and domestic strains of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 93: 58–69.
Gregory, S. and P.A. Bisson. 1996. Degradation and loss of anadromous salmonid habitat in the Pacific Northwest, p. 277–314. In D.J. Stouder, P.A. Bisson, and R.J. Naiman (eds.), Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems: Status and Future Options. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Groot, C. and L. Margolis (eds.). 1991. Pacific Salmon Life Histories. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Hard, J.J. 1995. Genetic monitoring of life-history characters in salmon supplementation: problems and opportunities. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15: 212–225.
Hard, J.J., R.P. Jones, Jr., M.R. Delarm, and R.S. Waples. 1992. Pacific salmon and artificial propagation under the Endangered Species Act. National Marine Fisheries Service, Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC2. Seattle, Washington.
Hill, W.G. 1981. Estimation of effective population size from data on linkage disequilibrium. Genetical Research 38: 209–216.
Hughes, R. M., and R. R Noss. 1992. Biological diversity and biological integrity: current concerns for lakes and streams. Fisheries 17(3): 11–19.
Integrated Hatchery Operations Team. 1994a. Policies and procedures for Columbia Basin anadromous salmonid hatcheries, October 1994. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon.
Integrated Hatchery Operations Team. 1994b. Policies and procedures for Columbia Basin anadromous salmo-nid hatcheries. Executive Summary, October, 1994. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon.
Integrated Hatchery Operations Team. 1994c. Implementation plan for integrating regional hatchery policies, October 1994. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon.
Johnson, J.I. and M.V. Abrahams. 1991. Interbreeding with domestic strain increases foraging under threat of predation in juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an experimental study. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 243–247.
Jorde, P.E. and N. Ryman. 1995. Temporal allele frequency change and estimation of effective size in populations with overlapping generations. Genetics 139:1077–1090.
Kapuscinski, A.R. 1991. Genetic analysis of policies and guidelines for salmon and steelhead hatchery production in the Columbia River Basin, p. 117–160 in Hearing before the Subcommittee on Environment and Natural Resources, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, US House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session on Watershed Management and Fish Hatchery Practices in the Pacific Northwest, March 9, 1993. Serial No. 103–3. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Kapuscinski, A.R. 1993. Testimony on role of hatcheries in the recovery of naturally-spawning salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest, p. 107–113. In Hearing before the Subcommittee on Environment and Natural Resources, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, US House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session on Watershed Management and Fish Hatchery Practices in the Pacific Northwest, March 9, 1993. Serial No. 103–3. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Kapuscinski, A.R. 1994. A common conservation ethic: communicating the way towards conservation of aquatic biodiversity, p. 36–50. In D. P. Philipp (ed.), The Protection of Aquatic Biotic Diversity: Proceedings of the World Fisheries Congress, Theme 3. Oxford and IBM Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.
Kapuscinski, A.R. and L.M. Miller. 1993. Genetic hatchery guidelines for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Olympia.
Kline, T.C., Jr., J.J. Goering, O.A. Mathisen, P.H. Poe, and P.L. Parker. 1990. Recycling of elements transported upstream by runs of Pacific salmon: I. 8’5N and 8’3C evidence in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 136–144.
Kline, T.C., Jr., J.J. Goering, O.A. Mathisen, P.H. Poe, and P.L. Parker. 1993. Recycling of elements transported upstream by runs of Pacific salmon: II. 8’5N and S“C evidence in the Kvichak River watershed, Bristol Bay, Southwestern Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 2350–2365.
Krueger, C.C., D.J. Decker, and T.A. Gavin. 1986. A concept of natural resource management: an application to unicorns. Transactions of the Northeast Section of the Wildlife Society 43: 50–56.
Lawson, P.W. 1993. Cycles in ocean productivity, trends in habitat quality, and the restoration of salmon runs in Oregon. Fisheries 18(8): 6–10.
Li, H.W., C.B. Schreck, C.E. Bond, and E. Rextad. 1987. Factors influencing changes in fish assemblages in Pacific Northwest streams, p. 193–202. In W. J. Matthews and D. C. Hein (eds.), Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Mason, J.W., O.M. Brynildson, and P.E. Degurse. 1967. Comparative survival of wild and domestic strains of brook trout in streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 96: 313–319.
Moyle, P.B. 1969. Comparative behavior of young brook trout of domestic and wild origin. The Progressive Fish Culturist 31: 51–56.
National Research Council. 1996. Upstream. Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Nehlsen, W., J.E. Williams, and J. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries (Bethesda) 16(2): 4–21.
Northwest Power Planning Council. 1992. Strategy for salmon. Volume II. Northwest Power Planning Council. Portland, Oregon.
Noss, R.R. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4: 355–364.
Pollak, E. 1983. A new method for estimating the effective population size from allele frequency changes. Genetics 104: 531–548.
Reisenbichler, R.R. 1996. Genetic factors contributing to declines of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific northwest, p. 223–244. In D.J. Stouder, P.A. Bisson, and R.J. Naiman (eds.), Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems: Status and Future Options. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Richey, J.E., M.A. Perkins, and C.R. Goldman. 1975. Effects of kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) decomposition on the ecology of a subalpine stream. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32: 817–820.
Ricker, W.E. 1954. Stock and recruitment. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 11: 559–623.
Riddell, B.E. 1993. Salmonid enhancement: lessons from the past and a role for the future, p. 338–355. In D. Mills (ed.), Salmon in the Sea and New Enhancement Strategies. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
Vincent, R.E. 1960. Some influences of domestication upon three stocks of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89: 35–52.
Wahl, D.H., R.A. Stein, and D.R. DeVries. 1995. An ecological framework for evaluating the success and effects of stocked fishes. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15: 176–189.
Waples, R.S. 1989. A generalized approach for estimating effective population size from temporal changes in allele frequency. Genetics 121: 379–391.
White, G.M. 1995. Urban planning for the conservation of stream ecosystems: a case study from Indianapolis, Indiana. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
Wilson, M.F. and K.C. Halupka. 1995. Anadromous fish as keystone species in vertebrate communities. Conservation Biology 9(3): 489–497.