Skip to main content

The Role of Competition and Predation in the Decline of Pacific Salmon and Steelhead

  • Chapter

Abstract

In this paper, I examine the role of competition and predation in the decline of Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations along the Pacific coast of North America. Few studies have clearly established the role of competition and predation in anadromous population declines, especially in marine habitats. A major reason for the uncertainty in the available data is the complexity and dynamic nature of competition and predation; a small change in one variable (e.g., prey size) significantly changes outcomes of competition and predation. In addition, large data gaps exist in our understanding of these interactions. For instance, evaluating the impact of introduced fishes is impossible because we do not know which nonnative fishes occur in many salmon-producing watersheds. Most available information is circumstantial. While such information can identify where inter-or intraspecific relationships may occur, it does not test mechanisms explaining why observed relationships exist. Thus, competition and predation are usually one of several plausible hypotheses explaining observed results.

Competition and predation should not be considered primary causes of population declines. For competition and predation to contribute to anadromous population declines, something must occur to alter the outcomes of these interactions (e.g., predation mortality increases). Competition and predation are altered as a result of the following: introductions of nonnative, non-salmonid fishes, introductions of artificially produced salmonids, environmental changes, and non-environmental changes in predator or competitor populations (e.g., from fishing). Efforts to restore salmon populations must direct action at identifying and eliminating primary causes of population declines and not simply treating secondary effects (i.e., competition and predation) of these causes.

Keywords

  • Chum Salmon
  • Striped Bass
  • Chinook Salmon
  • Coho Salmon
  • Sockeye Salmon

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-6375-4_16
  • Chapter length: 31 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4615-6375-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Allee, B. J. 1974. Spatial requirements and behavioral interactions of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). PhD dissertation, University of Washington. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Angell, T. and K.C. Balcomb III. 1982. Marine birds and mammals of Puget Sound. Washington Sea Grant, Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Armstrong, R.H. and P.C. Winslow. 1968. An incidence of walleye pollock predation on salmon young. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 97: 202–203.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baltz, D.M. and P.B. Moyle. 1984. Segregation by species and size classes of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, and Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis, in three California streams. Environmental Biology of Fishes 10: 101–110.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baltz, D.M. and P.B. Moyle. 1993. Invasion resistance to introduced species by a native assemblage of California stream fishes. Ecological Applications 3: 246–255.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bax, N. 1983. Early marine mortality of marked juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) released into Hood Canal, Puget Sound, Washington in 1980. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40: 426–435.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beach, R.J., A.C. Geiger, S.F. Jefferies, S.D. Treacy, and B. Troutman. 1985. Marine mammals and their interactions with fisheries of the Columbia River and adjacent waters, 1980–1982. Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, NMFS, NWAFC Processed Report 85–04. Seattle, Washington.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beachum, T.D. 1993. Competition between juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and its effect on growth and survival. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1270–1274.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beamish, R. and D.R. Bouillon. 1993. Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 1002–1016.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beamish, R.J. and C. M. Neville. 1995. Pacific salmon and Pacific herring mortalities in the Fraser River plume caused by river lamprey (Lamptera ayresi). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 644–650.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beamish, R., B.L. Thomson, and G.A. McFarlane. 1992. Spiny dogfish predation on chinook and coho salmon and the potential effects on hatchery-produced salmon. Transactions of the American Society 121: 444–455.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beauchamp, D.A. 1987. Ecological relationships of hatchery rainbow trout in Lake Washington. PhD dissertation, University of Washington. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belford, D.L. 1978. Simulation of coho smolt predation on pink and chum fry. The importance of relative size and growth rate. MS thesis, University of British Columbia. Vancouver.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bevan, D.E., J. Harville, P. Bergman, T. Bjornn, J. Crutchfield, P. Klingeman, and J. Litchfield. 1994. Snake River Salmon Recovery Team: Final Recommendations to the National Marine Fisheries Service. Portland, Oregon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bisson, P.A., T.P. Quinn, G.H. Reeves, and S.V. Gregory. 1992. Best management practices, cumulative effects, and long-term trends in fish abundance in Pacific Northwest River systems, pp. 189–232. In R.J. Naiman (ed.), Watershed Management: Balancing Sustainability and Environmental Change. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bisson, P. A., K. Sullivan, and J.L. Nielsen. 1988. Channel hydraulics, habitat use, and body form of juvenile coho salmon, steelhead, and cutthroat trout in streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117: 262–272.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bjornn, T. C. 1978. Survival, production, yield of trout and chinook salmon in the Lemhi River, Idaho. University of Idaho, College of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences Bulletin Number 27. Moscow.

    Google Scholar 

  • Black, M. 1994. Recounting a century of failed fishery policy toward California’s Sacramento River salmon and steelhead. Conservation Biology 8: 892–894.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Botkin, D., K. Cummins, T. Dunne, H. Reiger, M. Sobel, L. Talbot, and L. Simpson. 1995. Status and future of salmon of Western Oregon and Northern California: Findings and options. Center for the Study of the Enviornment, Report No. 8. Santa Barbara, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brodeur, R.D., R.C. Francis, and W.G. Pearcy. 1992. Food consumption of juvenile coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) on the continental shelf off Washington and Oregon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 1670–1685.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brodeur, R.D. and W.G. Pearcy. 1990. Trophic relations of juvenile Pacific salmon off the Oregon and Washington coast. Fisheries Bulletin (US) 88: 617–636.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle. 1981. The impact of squawfish on salmonid populations: a review. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 1: 104–111.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L.R. and P.B. Moyle. 1991. Changes in habitat and microhabitat partitioning within an assemblage of streamfishes in response to predation by Sacramento squawfish (Ptychocheilus grandis). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 849–856.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, L.R., P.B. Moyle, and R.M. Yoshiyama. 1994. Historical decline and current status of coho salmon in California. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14: 237–261.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Buchanan, D.V., R.M. Hooton, and J.R. Moring. 1981. Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) predation on juvenile salmonids in sections of the Willamette River basin, Oregon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38: 360–364.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Burgner, R. 1991. Life history of sockeye salmon, pp. 1–117. In C. Groot and L. Margolis (eds.), Pacific Salmon Life Histories. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bustard, D.R. and D.W. Narver. 1975. Aspects of the winter ecology of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 32: 667–680.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Calambokidis, J. and R.W. Baird. 1994. Status of marine mammals in the Strait of Georgia, Puget Sound, and the Strait of Georgia, and potential impacts, pp. 282–300. In R.C.H. Wilson, R.J. Beamish, F. Aitkens, and J. Bell (eds.), Review of the Marine Environment and Biota of the Strait of Georgia, Puget Sound, and Juan de Fuca Strait. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Technical Report No. 1948.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, D.W. 1962. Aggressive behavior of juvenile coho salmon as a cause of emigration. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 19: 1047–1080.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, D.W. 1966. Food and space as regulators of salmonid populations in streams. American Naturalist 100: 345–357.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooney, R.T. 1993. A theoretical evaluation of the carrying capacity of Prince William Sound, Alaska for juvenile Pacific salmon. Fisheries Research 18: 77–88.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooney, R.T., D. Urquhart, R. Neve, J. Hilsinger, R. Clasby, and D. Barnard. 1978. Some aspects of the carrying capacity of Prince Williams Sound, Alaska for hatchery-released pink and chum salmon fry. University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Sea Grant Report 78–4, IMS Report R78–3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coutant, C.C., R.B. McLean, and D.L. DeAngelis. 1979. Influences of physical and chemical alterations on predator-prey interactions, pp. 57–68. In H. Clepper (ed.), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management. Sport Fish. Institute, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dahle, T.F. 1979. Observations of fingerling chinook salmon in the stomachs of yellow perch from the Klamath River, California. California Fish and Game 65: 168.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dawley, E.L., C.W. Sims, R.D. Ledgerwood, T. Blahm, C.W. Sims, J. Durkin, and others. 1986. Migrational characteristics, biological observations, and relative survival of juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966–1983. Final Report, Bonneville Power Administration, US Department of Energy. Portland, Oregon.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dickson, T.A. and H.R. MacCrimmon. 1982. Influence of hatchery experience on growth and behavior of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) within allopatric and sympatric stream populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39: 1453–1458.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dolloff, C.A. 1993. Predation by river otters (Luira canadensis) on juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) in Southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 312–315.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dolloff, D.A. and G.H. Reeves. 1990. Microhabitat partitioning among stream-dwelling juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 2297–2306.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dunford, W.E. 1975. Space and food utilization by salmonids in marsh habitats of the Fraser River Estuary. MS thesis, University of British Columbia. Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eggers, D.M. 1978. Limnetic feeding behavior of juvenile sockeye salmon in Lake Washington and predator avoidance. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 1114–1125.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Emlen, J.M., R.R. Reisenbichler, A.M. McGie, and T.E. Nickelson. 1990. Density dependence at sea for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 1765–1772.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Evenson, M.D., R.D. Ewing, E. Birks, A.R. Hemmingsen, and J. Dentier. 1981. Coles River Hatchery evaluation. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Division, Progress Report 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fausch, K.D. 1988. Tests of competition between native and introduced salmonids in streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 2238–2246.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fausch, K.D. and R.J. White. 1981. Competition between brook trout and brown trout for positions in a Michigan stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38: 1220–1227.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fausch, K.D. and R.J. White. 1986. Competition among juveniles of coho salmon, brook trout, and brown trout in a laboratory stream, and implications for Great Lakes tributaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 363–381.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fenderson, O.C. and M.R. Carpenter. 1971. Effects of crowding on the behavior of juvenile hatchery and wild landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Animal Behavior 19: 439–447.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fiscus, C.H. 1980. Marine mammal-salmonid interactions: a review, pp. 121–131. In W.J. McNeil and D.C. Himsworth (eds.), Salmonid Ecosystems of the North Pacific. Oregon State University Press and Oregon State University Sea Grant Program, Corvallis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, J.P. and W.G. Pearcy. 1988. Growth of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) off Oregon and Washington, USA, in years of differing coastal upwelling. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 1036–1044.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Flagg, T.A., F.W. Waknitz, D.J. Maynard, G.B. Milner, and C.V.W. Mahnken. 1995. The effect of hatcheries on native coho salmon populations in the lower Columbia River. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15: 366–375.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foerster, R.E. 1968. The sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foerster, R.E. and W.E. Ricker 1941. The effect of reduction of predaceous fish on survival of young sockeye salmon at Cultus Lake. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 5: 315–336.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fraser, F.J. 1969. Population density effects on survival and growth of juvenile coho salmon and steelhead trout in experimental stream channels, pp. 253–268. In T.G. Northcote (ed.). Symposium on Salmon and Trout in Streams. H.R. MacMillan Lectures in Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fresh, K.L., R.D. Cardwell, and R.R. Koons. 1981. Food habits of Pacific salmon, baitfish, and their potential competitors and predators in the marine waters of Washington, August 1978 to September 1979. Washington Department of Fisheries, Progress Report No. 145. Olympia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fresh, K.L. and S.L. Schroder. 1987. Influence of the abundance, size, and yolk reserves of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) on predation by freshwater fishes in a small coastal stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 236–243.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gallagher, A.F., Jr. 1979. An analysis of factors affecting brood year returns in the wild stocks of Puget Sound chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). MS thesis, University of Washington. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gard, R. 1971. Brown bear predation on sockeye salmon at Karluk Lake, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 35: 193–204.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gilhousen, P. and I.V. Williams. 1989. Fish predation on juvenile Adams River sockeye salmon in the Shuswap Lakes in 1975 and 1976, pp. 83–100. In Studies of the Lacustrine Biology of the Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Shuswap System. Bulletin XXIV, International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginetz, R. and P.A. Larkin. 1976. Factors affecting rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) predation on migrant fry of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 33: 19–24.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Glova, G.J. 1986. Interaction of food and space between experimental populations of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and coastal cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) in a laboratory stream. Hydrobiologia 132: 155–168.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gregory, R.S. 1993. Effect of turbidity on the predator avoidance behavior of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 241–246.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, F.A. 1979. An evaluation of downstream migrant chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) losses at Hallwood-Cordura fish screen. California Department of Fish and Game, Anadromous Fisheries Branch, Administrative Report No. 79–5. Stockton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hargreaves, N.B. 1988. A field method of determining prey preferences of predators. Fishery Bulletin 86: 763–772.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hargreaves, N.B., and R.J. Lebrasseur. 1986. Size selectivity of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) preying on juvenile chum salmon (O. keta). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 581–586.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hartman, G.F. 1965. The role of behavior in the ecology and interaction of underyearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 22: 1035–1081.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Healey, M.C. 1980. The ecology of juvenile salmon in Georgia Strait, British Columbia, pp. 203–229. In W.J. McNeil and D.C. Himsworth (eds.), Salmonid Ecosystems of the North Pacific. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hearn, W.E. 1987. Interspecific competition and habitat segregation among stream-dwelling trout and salmon: A review. Fisheries 12: 24–31.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Herbold, B. and P.B. Moyle. 1986. Introduced species and vacant niches. American Naturalist 128: 751–760.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hicks, B.J., J.D. Hall, P.A. Bisson, and J.R. Sedell. 1991. Responses of salmonids to habitat changes, pp. 483–518. In W.R. Meehan (ed.) Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19. Bethesda, Maryland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hilborn, R. 1992. Hatcheries and the future of salmon in the Northwest. Fisheries 17: 5–8.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hume, J.M.B. and E.A. Parkinson. 1987. Effect of stocking density on the survival, growth, and dispersal of steelhead trout fry (Salmo gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 271–281.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, J.G. 1959. Survival and production of pink and chum salmon in a coastal stream. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 16: 835–886.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ito, J. and R.R. Parker. 1971. A record of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) feeding on juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a British Columbia estuary. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28: 1921.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, J.H., A.A. Nigro, and R. Temple. 1992. Evaluating enhancement of striped bass in the context of potential predation on anadromous salmonids in Coos Bay, Oregon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12: 103–108.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, R.C. 1973. Potential interspecific problems between hatchery coho smolts and juvenile pink and chum salmon. Puget Sound stream studies, pink and chum investigations. Washington Department of Fisheries. Olympia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaczynski, V.W. and J.F. Palmisano. 1992. A review of management and environmental factors responsible for the decline and lack of recovery of Oregon’s wild anadromous salmonids. Technical Report, Oregon Forest Industries Council. Salem, Oregon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy, G.J.A., and C.D. Strange. 1986. The effects of intra-and interspecific competition on the survival and growth of stocked juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and resident trout, Salmo trutta L., in an upland stream. Journal of Fish Biology 28: 479–489.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Konkel, G.W. and J.D. McIntyre. 1987. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids. US Fish and Wildlife Service Fish and Wildlife Technical Report 9. Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lagler, K.F. and A.T. Wright. 1962. Predation of the Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma, on young salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., in an estuary of Southeastern Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91: 90–93.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Larkin, P.A. 1956. Interspecific competition and population control in freshwater fish. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 13: 327–342.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Levings, C.D. and R. Lauzier. 1989. Migration patterns of wild and hatchery-reared juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Nicola River, British Columbia, pp. 267–275. In B. Shepherd (rapporteur), Proceedings of the 1988 Northwest Pacific Chinook and Coho Salmon Workshop. North Pacific International Chapter, American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, Maryland

    Google Scholar 

  • Levings, C.D., C.C. McAllister, and E.D. Chang. 1986. Differential use of the Campbell River Estuary, British Columbia, by wild and hatchery-reared juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 1386–1397.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li, H.W. and P.B. Moyle. 1981. Ecological analysis of species introductions into aquatic systems. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110: 772–782.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li, H.W., C.S. Schreck, C.E. Bond, and E. Rexstad. 1987. Factors influencing changes in fish assemblages of Pacific Northwest streams, pp. 193–202. In W.J. Matthews and D.C. Heins (eds.), Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lonzarich, D.C. 1994. Stream fish communities in Washington: patterns and processes. PhD dissertation, University of Washington. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ludwig, D., R. Hilborn, and C. J. Walters. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17, 36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macdonald, P.D.M., H.D. Smith, and L. Jantz. 1987. The utility of Babine smolt enumerations in management of Babine and other Skeena River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks, pp. 280–295. In H.D. Smith, L. Margolis, and C.C. Wood (eds.). Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Population Biology and Future Management. Canadian Special Publication in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marnell, L. 1986. Impacts of hatchery stocks on wild fish populations, pp. 339–347. In R.H. Stroud (ed.), Fish Culture in Fisheries Management. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, S.W., A.E. Viola, and M.L. Schuck. 1993. Investigations of the interactions among hatchery-reared summer steelhead, rainbow trout, and wild spring chinook salmon in southeast Washington. Washington Department of Wildlife, Fisheries Management Division Report #93–4. Olympia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mason, J.C. and D.W. Chapman. 1965. Significance of early emergence, environmental rearing capacity, and behavioral ecology of juvenile coho salmon in stream channels. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 22: 173–190.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCabe, G.T., Jr., W.D. Muir, R.L. Emmett, and J.T. Durkin. 1983. Interrelationships between juvenile salmonids and non-salmonid fish in the Columbia River estuary. Fishery Bulletin 81: 815–826.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCart, P. 1967. Behavior and ecology of sockeye salmon fry in the Babine River. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 24: 375–428.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McDonald, J. and J.M. Hume. 1984. Babine Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) enhancement program: testing some major assumptions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 70–92.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meacham, C.P. and J.H. Clark. 1979. Management to increase anadromous salmon production, pp. 377–386. In H. Clepper (ed.), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management. Sport Fishing Institute, Washington DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mead, R.W. and W. Woodall. 1968. Comparison of sockeye salmon fry produced by hatcheries, artificial channels, and natural spawning areas. International Pacific Salmon Fish Commission, Progress Report No. 20. New Westminster, British Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meffe, G.K. 1992. Techno-arrogance and halfway technologies: salmon hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America. Conservation Biology 6: 350–354.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mesa, M.G. 9191. Variation in feeding, aggression, and position choice between hatchery and wild cutthroat trout in an artificial stream. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120: 723–727.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mesa, M.G. 1994. Effects of multiple acute stressors on the predator avoidance ability and physiology of juvenile chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 123: 786–793.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mesa, M.G., T.P. Poe, D.M. Gadomski, and J.H. Petersen. 1994. Are all prey created equal? A review and synthesis of differential predation on prey in substandard condition. Journal of Fish Biology 45(Supplement A): 81–96.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moyle, P.B. 1976. Fish introductions in California: history and impact on native fishes. Biological Conservation 9: 101–118.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moyle, P.E. 1977. In defense of sculpins. Fisheries 2: 20–23.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moyle, P.B., H.L. Li, and B.A. Barton. 1986. The Frankenstein effect: impacts of introduced fishes on native fishes in North America, pp. 415–426. In R.H. Stroud (ed.), Fish Culture in Fisheries Management. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neave, F. 1953. Principles affecting the size of pink and chum populations in British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 9: 450–491.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nehlsen, W., J.E. Williams, and J.A. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries 16: 4–21.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nichols, F.H., J.K. Thompson, and L.E. Schemel. 1990. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. II. Displacement of a former community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 66: 95–101.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nickelson, T.E. 1986. Influences of upwelling, ocean temperature, and smolt production on marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Oregon production area. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 527–535.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nickelson, T.E., J.D. Rogers, S.L. Johnson, and M.F. Solazzi. 1992. Seasonal changes in habitat use by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon coastal streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 783–789.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nickelson, T. E., M. F. Solazzi, and S.L. Johnson. 1986. Use of hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to rebuild wild populations in Oregon coastal streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 2443–2449.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, J.D., G.H. Geen, and D. Bottom. 1985. Estuarine growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) as inferred from otolith microstructure. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 899–908.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, J.L. 1992. Microhabitat-specific foraging behavior, diet, and growth of juvenile coho salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121: 616–634.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen, J.L. 1994. Invasive cohorts-impacts of hatchery-reared coho salmon on the trophic, developmental, and genetic ecology of wild stocks, pp. 361–385. In D.J. Stouder, K.L. Fresh, and R. Feller (eds.). Theory and Application in Fish Feeding Ecology. The Belle Baruch Library in Marine Science, University of South Carolina, Belle Baruch Press. Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Northcote, T.G. 1991. Success, problems, and control of introduced mysid populations in lakes and reservoirs. American Fisheries Society Symposium 9: 5–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olesiuk, P.F. 1993. Annual prey consumption by harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Fishery Bulletin 91: 491–515.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olesiuk, P.F., M.A. Bigg, and G.M. Ellis. 1990a. Recent trends in the abundance of harbour seals, Phoca vitulina, in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 992–1003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Olesiuk, P.F., M.A. Bigg, G.M. Ellis, S.J. Crockford, and R.J. Wigen. 1990b. An assessment of the feeding habits of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, based on scat analysis. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1730.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olson, D.E., B.C. Cates, and D.H. Diggs. 1995. Use of a national fish hatchery to complement wild salmon and steelhead production in an Oregon stream. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15: 317–328.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker, R.R. 1968. Marine mortality schedules of pink salmon of the Bella Coola River, central British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 25: 757–794.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patten, B.G. 1971. Predation by sculpins on fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, fry of hatchery origin. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report Fisheries No. 621. Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Patten, B.G. 1972. Predation, particularly by sculpins, on salmon fry in freshwaters of Washington. National Technical Information Service No. COM-72–10527.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearcy, W.G. 1992. Ocean Ecology of North Pacific Salmonids. Washington Sea Grant Program, Seattle and London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pearcy, W.G. and J.P. Fisher. 1988. Migrations of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during their first summer in the ocean. Fishery Bulletin 86: 173–195.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perry, E.A. 1995. Salmon stock restoration and enhancement: strategies and experiences in British Columbia. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15: 152–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterman, R.M. 1982. Non-linear relation between smolts and adults in Babine Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and implications for other salmon populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39: 904–913.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peterman, R.M. 1984. Density-dependent growth in early ocean life of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 1825–1829.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peterman, R.M. 1987. Review of the components of recruitment of Pacific salmon. American Fisheries Society Symposium 1: 417–429.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, N.P. 1982. Immigration of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) into riverine ponds. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39: 1308–1310.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petrosky, C.E., and T.C. Bjornn. 1988. Response of wild rainbow (Salmo gairdneri) and cutthroat trout (S. clarki) to stocked rainbow trout in fertile and infertile streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 2087–2105.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Poe, T.P., R.S. Shively, and R.A. Tabor. 1994. Ecological consequences of introduced piscivorous fishes in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers, pp. 347–360. In D.J. Stouder, K.L. Fresh, and R. Feller (eds.), Theory and Application in Fish Feeding Ecology. The Belle Baruch Library in Marine Science, University of South Carolina, Belle Baruch Press. Columbia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raymond, H.L. 1988. Effects of hydroelectric development and fisheries enhancement on spring and summer chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 8: 1–24.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reeves, G.H., F.H. Everest, and J.D. Hall. 1987. Interactions between the redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus) and the steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) in western Oregon: the influence of water temperature. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 1602–1613.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reeves, G.H., F.H. Everest, and J.R. Sedell. 1993. Diversity of juvenile salmonid assemblages in coastal Oregon basins with different levels of timber harvest. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122: 309–317.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ricker, W.E. 1976. Review of the rate of growth and mortality of Pacific salmon in saltwater and non-catch mortality caused by fishing. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 33: 1483–1524.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rieman, B.E. and R.C. Beamesderfer. 1990. Dynamics of a northern squawfish population and the potential to reduce predation on juvenile salmonids in a Columbia River reservoir. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 10: 228–241.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rieman, B.E., R.C. Beamesderfer, S. Vigg, and T.P. Poe. 1991. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120: 448–458.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson, I. 1974. The food of nesting double-crested and pelagic cormorants at Mandrate Island, British Columbia with notes on feeding ecology. Condor 76: 346–348.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, D.E. 1977. Collection and analysis of biological data from the Wood River Lake System, Nushagak, Bristol Bay, Alaska. Will fertilization increase growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon in the Wood River Lakes? University of Washington, College of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Institute, FRI-UW-7617C. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, D.E., L. Gilbertson, and D. Eggers. 1972. Predator-prey relationship between Arctic char and sockeye smolts at the Agulowak River, Lake Aleknagik, in 1971. University of Washington, College of Fisheries, Fisheries Research Institute, Circular No. 72–7. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, D.E. and G.T. Ruggerone. 1993. Factors affecting marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon. Fisheries Research 18: 89–104.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, S. T. 1991. Mechanisms structuring stream fish assemblages: are there lessons from introduced species? Environmental Biology of Fishes 30: 359–368.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ruggerone, G.T. 1986. Consumption of migrating juvenile salmonids by gulls foraging below a Columbia River Dam. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 736–742.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ruggerone, G.T. and D.E. Rogers. 1992. Predation on sockeye salmon fry by juvenile coho salmon in the Chignik Lakes, Alaska: implications for salmon management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12: 87–102.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scott, J.B., C.R. Steward, and Q.J. Stober. 1986. Effects of urban development on fish population dynamics in Kelsey Creek, Washington. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 555–567.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seiler, D. 1989. Differential survival of Grays Harbor basin anadromous salmonids: water quality implications, pp. 123–135. In C.D. Levings, L.B. Holtby, and M.A. Henderson (eds.), Proceedings of the National Workshop on effects of Habitat Alteration on Salmonid Stocks. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic and Sciences 105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Semko, R.S. 1954. A method for determining the consumption of predators of the young Pacific salmon during early stages of development. Trudy Soveshchaniya 6: 124–134. (Fisheries Research Board Canada, Translation No. 215.)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sholes, W.H. and R.J. Hallock. 1979. An evaluation of rearing fall-run chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, to yearlings at Feather River Hatchery with a comparison of returns from hatchery and downstream releases. California Fish and Game 65: 239–255.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simenstad, C.A., D. Jay, and C.R. Sherwood. 1992. Impacts of watershed management on land-margin ecosystems: The Columbia River estuary, pp. 266–306. In R.J. Naiman (ed.), Watershed Management: Balancing Sustainability and Environmental Change. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simenstad, C.A., W.J. Kinney, S.S. Parker, E.O. Salo, J.R. Cordell, and H. Buechner. 1980. Prey community structure and trophic ecology of outmigrating juvenile chum and pink salmon in Hood Canal, Washington. A synthesis of three years’ studies, 1977–1979. Fisheries Research Institute Report FRI-UW-8026, University of Washington, College of Fisheries. Seattle.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simenstad, C.A., B.S. Miller, C.F. Nybalde, K. Thornburgh, and L.J. Bledsoe. 1979. Food web relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. A synthesis of available knowledge. US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-600/7–79–259.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spaulding, J.S., T.W. Hillman, and J.S. Griffith. 1989. Habitat use, growth, and movement of chinook salmon and steelhead in response to introduced coho salmon, pp. 157–208. In Summer and Winter Ecology of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Don Chapman Consultants, Inc., Boise, Idaho.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, D.E. 1966. Food habits of striped bass, Roccus saxatilis, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, pp. 68–96. In J.L. Turner and D. W. Kelly (eds.), Ecological Studies of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. California Fish and Game Bulletin 136. Sacramento.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, D.E., H.K. Chadwick, and R.E. Painter. 1987. American shad and striped bass in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, p. 66–78. In M.J. Dadswell, R.J. Klanda, C.M. Moffitt, R.L. Saunders, R.A. Rulifson, and J.E. Cooper (eds.) Common Strategies of Anadromous and Catadromous Fishes. American Fisheries Society Symposium 1. Bethesda, Maryland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steward, C.R. and T.C. Bjornn. 1990. Supplementation of salmon and steelhead stocks with hatchery fish: a synthesis of published literature. Part 2. Analysis of salmon and steelhead supplementation. US Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Tech Rep. 90–1. Portland, Oregon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swain, D.P., B.E. Riddell, and C.B. Murray. 1991. Morphological differences between hatchery and wild populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): environmental versus genetic origin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 1783–1791.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tabor, R.A., R.S. Shively, and T.P. Poe. 1993. Predation on juvenile salmonids by smallmouth bass and northern squawfish in the Columbia River near Richland, Washington. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13: 831–838.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E.B. 1991. A review of local adaptation in Salmonidae, with particular reference to Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 98: 185–207.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E.B., and J.D. McPhail. 1985. Burst swimming and size-related predation of newly emerged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114: 546–551.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, J.N., W.R. Courtney, Jr., and J.A. McCann. 1984. Known impacts of exotic fishes in the continental United States, p. 322–373. In W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.), Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, G.L. and O.A. Mathisen. 1993. Biological interactions of natural and enhanced stocks of salmon in Alaska. Fisheries Research 18: 1–18.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tripp, D. and P. McCart. 1983. Effects of different coho stocking strategies on coho and cutthroat trout production in isolated headwater streams. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Technical Report 1212.

    Google Scholar 

  • Uremovich, B.L., S.P. Cramer, C.F. Willis, and C.O. Junge. 1980. Passage of juvenile salmonids through the ice-trash sluiceway and squawfish predation at Bonneville Dam. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fisheries Division, Progress Report. Clackamas.

    Google Scholar 

  • Varoujean, D.H. and D.R. Mathews. 1983. Distribution, abundance, and feeding habits of seabirds off the Columbia River, May-June, 1982. University of Oregon, Institute of Marine Biology, Report No. OIMB 83–1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walters, C.J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walters, C.J., R. Hilborn, R.M. Peterman, and M.J. Staley. 1978. Model for examining early ocean limitation of Pacific salmon production. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 35: 1301–1315.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wendler, H.O. 1967. The American shad of the Columbia River with a recommendation for management of the fishery. Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood, C.C. 1987a. Predation of juvenile Pacific salmon by the common merganser (Mergus merganser) on eastern Vancouver Island. I: Predation during the seaward migration. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 941–949.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, C.C. 1987b. Predation of juvenile Pacific salmon by the common merganser (Mergus merganser) on eastern Vancouver Island. II: Predation of stream-resident juvenile salmon by merganser broods. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 950–959.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, C.C., N.B. Hargreaves, D.T. Rutherford, and B.T. Emmett. 1993. Downstream and early marine migratory behaviour of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts entering Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 1329–1337.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • The Wilderness Society. 1993. Pacific salmon and federal lands. The Wilderness Society. Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1997 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Fresh, K.L. (1997). The Role of Competition and Predation in the Decline of Pacific Salmon and Steelhead. In: Stouder, D.J., Bisson, P.A., Naiman, R.J. (eds) Pacific Salmon & their Ecosystems. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6375-4_16

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6375-4_16

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4613-7928-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-6375-4

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive