Advertisement

Programmed DNA Rearrangements in Cyanobacteria

  • James W. Golden

Abstract

Three developmentally programmed DNA rearrangements occur during hetero-cyst differentiation in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (Anabaena PCC 7120). All three rearrangements involve the excision of an element from the chromosome by site-specific recombination and each requires an element-encoded recombinase. Each element is harbored in a hetero-cyst-specific gene that is required for the production of a fully functional heterocyst. Precise excision of the elements is necessary to restore these genes. Elements similar to these Anabaena PCC 7120 elements have been found in a variety of heterocystous cyanobacterial strains.

Keywords

Heterocyst Differentiation Heterocyst Development nifD Gene NtcA Binding Site Upstream Start Codon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Apte, S. K., and N. Prabhavathi. 1994. Rearrangements of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in the heterocystous cyanobacteria. J. Biosci. 19(5):579–602.Google Scholar
  2. Brusca, J. S., C. J. Chastain, and J. W. Golden. 1990. Expression of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 xisA gene from a heterologous promoter results in excision of the nifD element. J. Bacteriol. 172(7):3925–3931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brusca, J. S., M. A. Hale, C. D. Carrasco, and J. W. Golden. 1989. Excision of an 11-kilobase-pair DNA element from within the nifD gene in Anabaena variabilis hetero-cysts. J. Bacteriol. 171(8):4138–4145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Buikema, W. J., and R. Haselkorn. 1993. Molecular genetics of cyanobacterial development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 44:33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carrasco, C. D., and J. W. Golden. 1995. Two heterocyst-specific DNA rearrangements of nif Optrons in Anabaena cylindrica and Nostoc sp. strain Mac. Microbiology, in press.Google Scholar
  6. Carrasco, C. D., K. S. Ramaswamy, T. S. Ramasubramanian, and J. W. Golden. 1994. Anabaena xisF gene encodes a developmentally regulated site-specific recombinase. Genes Dev. 8:74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrasco, C. D., J. A. Simon, and J. W. Golden. 1995. Programmed DNA rearrangement of a cyanobacterial hupL gene in heterocysts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:791–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chastain, C. J., J. S. Brusca, T. S. Ramasubramanian, T.-F. Wei, and J. W. Golden. 1990. A sequence-specific DNA-binding factor (VF1) from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 vegetative cells binds to three adjacent sites in the xisA upstream region. J. Bacteriol. 172(9):5044–5051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Douglas, S. E. 1994. Chloroplast origins and evolution, in The molecular biology of cyanobacteria, pp. 91–118. D. A. Bryant, eds. Kluwar Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elhai, J., and C. P. Wolk. 1990. Developmental regulation and spatial pattern of expression of the structural genes for nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Anabaena. EMBO J. 9(10):3379–3388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Finkel, S. E., and R. C. Johnson. 1992. The Fis protein: it’s not just for DNA inversion anymore. Mol. Microbiol. 6(22):3257–3265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frias, J. E., E. Flores, and A. Herrero. 1994. Requirement of the regulatory protein NtcA for the expression of nitrogen assimilation and heterocyst development genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Mol. Microbiol. 14(4):823–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frias, J. E., A. Merida, A. Herrero, J. Martin-Nieto, and E. Flores. 1993. General distribution of the nitrogen control gene ntcA in cyanobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 175(17):5710–5713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Golden, J. W., C. D. Carrasco, M. E. Mulligan, G. J. Schneider, and R. Haselkorn. 1988. Deletion of a 55-kilobase-pair DNA element from the chromosome during heterocyst differentiation of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J. Bacteriol. 170:5034–5041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Golden, J. W., M. E. Mulligan, and R. Haselkorn. 1987. Different recombination site specificity of two developmentally regulated genome rearrangements. Nature (London) 327:526–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golden, J. W., S. J. Robinson, and R. Haselkorn. 1985. Rearrangement of nitrogen fixation genes during heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena. Nature (London) 314:419–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Golden, J. W., L. L. Whorff, and D. R. Wiest. 1991. Independent regulation of nifHDK operon transcription and DNA rearrangement during heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. J. Bacteriol. 173(22):7098–7105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Golden, J. W., and D. R. Wiest. 1988. Genome rearrangement and nitrogen fixation in Anabaena blocked by inactivation of xisA gene. Science 242:1421–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haselkorn, R. 1992. Developmentally regulated gene rearrangements in prokaryotes. Annu. Rev. Genet. 26:113–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haselkorn, R., J. W. Golden, P. J. Lammers, and M. E. Mulligan. 1986. Developmental rearrangement of cyanobacterial nitrogen-fixation genes. Trends in Genetics: 2:255–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kunkel, B., R. Losick and P. Stragier. 1990. The Bacillus subtilis gene for the development transcription factor sigma K is generated by excision of a dispensable DNA element containing a sporulation recombinase gene. Genes Dev. 4(4):525–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lammers, P. J., J. W. Golden, and R. Haselkorn. 1986. Identification and sequence of a gene required for a developmentally regulated DNA excision in Anabaena. Cell 44:905–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lammers, P. J., S. McLaughlin, S. Papin, C. Trujillo-Provencio and A. J. Ryncarz II. 1990. Developmental rearrangement of cyanobacterial nif genes: nucleotide sequence, open reading frames, and cytochrome P-450 homology of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nifD element. J. Bacteriol. 172(12):6981–6990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Landy, A. 1989. Dynamic, structural, and regulatory aspects of lambda site-specific recombination. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58:913–949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matveyev, A. V., E. Rutgers, E. Soderback, and B. Bergman. 1994. A novel genome rearrangement involved in heterocyst differentiation of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. FEMS Microbiol. Let. 116:201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meeks, J. C., E. L. Campbell, and P. S. Bisen. 1994. Elements interrupting nitrogen fixation genes in cyanobacteria: presence and absence of a nifD element in clones of Nostoc sp. strain Mac. Microbiology 140:3225–3232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meeks, J. C., C. M. Joseph, and R. Haselkorn. 1988. Organization of the nif genes in cyanobacteria in symbiotic association with Azolla and Anthoceros. Arch. Microbiol. 150:61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mulligan, M. E., W. J. Buikema, and R. Haselkorn. 1988. Bacterial-type ferredoxin genes in the nitrogen fixation regions of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 170:4406–4410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mulligan, M. E., and R. Haselkorn. 1989. Nitrogen-fixation (nif) genes of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120: the niB-fdxN-nifS-nifU operon. J. Biol. Chem. 264(32): 19200–19207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ramasubramanian, T. S., T.-F. Wei, and J. W. Golden. 1994. Two Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 DNA-binding factors interact with vegetative cell-and heterocyst-specific genes. J. Bacteriol. 176(5): 1214–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sato, T., Y. Samori, and Y. Kobayashi. 1990. The cisA cistron of Bacillus subtilis sporulation gene spoIVC encodes a protein homologous to a site-specific recombinase. J. Bacteriol. 172(2): 1092–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Schopf, J. W. 1993. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence of the antiquity of life. Science 260:640–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stark, W. M., M. R. Boocock, and D. J. Sherratt. 1992. Catalysis by site-specific recombinases. Trends Genet. 8(12):432–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vega-Palas, M. A., E. Flores, and A. Herrero. 1992. NtcA, a global nitrogen regulator from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus that belongs to the Crp family of bacterial regulators. Mol. Microbiol. 6(13):1853–1859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wei, T.-F., T. S. Ramasubramanian, and J. W. Golden. 1994. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 ntcA gene required for growth on nitrate and heterocyst development. J. Bacteriol. 176(15):4473–4482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wei, T.-F., T. S. Ramasubramanian, F. Pu, and J. W. Golden. 1993. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 bifA gene encoding a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein cloned by in vivo transcriptional interference selection. J. Bacteriol. 175(13):4025–4035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolk, C. P., A. Ernst and J. Elhai. 1994. Heterocyst metabolism and development, in The molecular biology of cyanobacteria, D. A. Bryant, eds. pp. 769–823. Kluwar Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Golden

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations