Advertisement

(Ba,Sr)TiO3 Thin Films for Dram’s

Chapter
Part of the Electronic Materials: Science and Technology book series (EMST, volume 3)

Abstract

The DRAM (dynamic random access memory) has been the dominant solid state memory since it was patented in 1967 [1] and first mass marketed as a 4 Kb DRAM by Intel Corporation in 1972 [2]. The success of this memory device over its competitors was its simple and small cell design consisting of one transistor and one capacitor (1T-1C) per bit. A schematic diagram of a DRAM cell and array is shown in Figure 1. Data are stored in an array of capacitors at the intersection of columns of bit lines and rows of word lines. Applying a voltage to one row of word lines turns “on” a row of transistors, allowing a row of capacitors to discharge onto their individual bit lines. During a read operation, a “sense amplifier” at the end of each bit line determines if the capacitor was charged 1 or 0 and then rewrites that charge by applying the appropriate voltage prior to the word line turning “off”. Most DRAMs set the value of the ground electrode of the capacitor to half of the operating voltage of the chip (Vcc) and then a 1 or 0 is stored by applying either Vcc or OV to the capacitor. One advantage of this approach is that the voltage across the capacitor is only +/- Vcc/2. The minimum size of the cell capacitance is determined by the bit line capacitance, the leakage current through the transistor and the cell capacitor, and the charge collected from an α-particle traveling in the Si near the transistor. The α-particles are generated from the decay of naturally occurring isotopes such as Ur which are considered to be contaminants. Since the capacitors lose charge, the cells are recharged using a refresh operation; therefore, DRAM is a volatile memory device.

Keywords

Contact Resistance Leakage Current Diffusion Barrier Bottom Electrode Chemical Mechanical Polishing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. H. Dennard, United States Patent, 3387286, July 14, 1967 (1968).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. C. Fazan, Integrated Ferroelectrics, 4, 247–256 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    SIA, (1995).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. W. Teng, SSDM, (1995).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Watanabe, A. Sakai, T. Tatsumi and T. Niino, Solid State Technology, 30, 29–33 (1992).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. C. Fazan, C. Chan and V. K. Mathews, Semiconductor International,, 108–112 (1992).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Morihara, Y. Ohno, T. Eimori, T. Katayama, S. Satoh, T. Nishimura and H. Miyoshi, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33, 4570–4575 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Adler, J. K. Debrose, S. F. Geissler, S. J. Holmes, M. D. Jaffe, J. B. Johnson, C. W. Koburger III, J. B. Lasky, B. Lloyd, G. L. Miles, J. S. Nakos, W. P. Noble Jr., S. H. Voldman, M. Armacost and R. Ferguson, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 39, 167–188 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Nesbit, J. Alsmeer, J. Chen, J. DeBrosse, P. Fahey, M. Gall, J. Gambino, S. Gernhardt, H. Ishiuchi, R. Kleinhenz, J. Mandelman, T. Mii, M. Morikado, A. Nitayama, S. Parke, H. Wong and G. Bronner, International Electron Device Meeting,, 627–630 (1993).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. F. Tasch and L. H. Parker, Proceedings of the IEEE, 77, 374 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. K. H. Parker, Ph.D. Thesis, U.Texas at Austin, (1988).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. E. Gnade, S. R. Summerfeit and D. Crenshaw, Science and Technology of Electroceramic Thin Films,, 372–382 (1995).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. E. Kotecki, Integrated Ferroelectrics, Preprint (1995).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. C. Fazan, V. K. Mathews, N. Sandler, G. Q. Lo and D. L. Kwong, International Electron Device Meeting,, 263–266 (1992).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Kamiyama, H. Suzuki, H. Watanabe, A. Sakai, M. Oshida, T. Tatsumi, T. Tanigawa, N. Kasai and A. Ishitani, IEDM, 93-49, 3.4.1 (1993).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Shinriki, T. Kisu, S.-I. Kimura, Y. Nishioka, Y. Kawamoto and K. Mukai, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 37, 1939–1947 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Y. Lesaicherre, S. Yamamichi, H. Yamaguchi, K. Takemura, H. Watanabe, K. Tokashiki, K. Satoh, T. Sakuma, M. Yoshida, S. Ohnishi, K. Nakajima, K. Shibahara, Y. Miyasaka and H. Ono, IEEE International Electron Device Meeting, (1994).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Takemura, S. Yamachi, P.-Y. Lesaicherre, K. Tokashiki, H. Miyamoto, H. Ono, Y. Miyasaka and M. Yoshida, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5224–5229 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. R. Love, J. of the American Ceramic Society, 73, 323–328 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. E. Jones, P. D. Maniar, J. O. Olowolafe, A. C. Campbell and C. J. Mogab, Applied Physics Letters, 60, 1022–1024 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Carrano, C. Sudhama and J. Lee, in Electrical Reliability of Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) Ferroelctric Thin Films for DRAM Applications, 1989, p. 255.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. K. Dey and J.-J. Lee, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 39, 1607–1613 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Kim, R. Khamankar, C. Sudhama, B. Jiang, J. Lee, P. Maniar, R. Moazzami, R. Jones and C. J. Mogab, (1994).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. R. Udayakumar, J. Chen, P. J. Schuele, L. E. Cross, V. Kumar and S. B. Krupanidhi, Applied Physics Letters, 60, 1187–1189 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Waser, Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. S. Hwang, S. O. Park, C. H.-J., C. S. Kang, K. H.-K., S. I. Lee and M. Y. Lee, Applied Physics Letters, 67, 2819–2821 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Kuroiwa, Y. Tsunemine, T. Horikawa, T. Makita, J. Tanimura, N. Mikami and K. Sato, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33, 5187–5191 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Horikawa, N. Mikami, H. Ito, Y. Ohno, T. Makita and K. Sato, IEICE Trans. Electron., E77 C, 385–391 (1994).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Arlt, D. Hennings and G. de With, J. of Applied Physics, 58, 1619–1625 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. I. Kingon, S. K. Streiffer and S. Basceri, Personal Communication, (1996).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Basceri, S. K. Streiffer, A. I. Kingon, S. Bilodeau, R. Carl, P. C. Van Buskirk, S. R. Summerfelt, P. Mclntyre and R. Wasers, Materials Research Society Proceedings, To be published (1995).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. I. Kingon, S. K. Streiffer, C. Basceri and S. R. Summerfelt, Materials Research Bulletin, 21, 46–52 (1996).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. C. Osbond, N. I. Payne, N. M. Shorrocks, R. W. Whatmore and F. W. Ainer, IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectric,, 348–351 (1986).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Li, J. A. Eastman, Z. Li, A. Foster, R. E. Newnham and L. E. Cross, Physics Letters A, 212, 341–346 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. Eimori, Y. Ohno, H. Kimura, J. Matsufusa, S. Kishimura, A. Yoshida, H. Sumitani, T. Murayama, Y. Hayashide, K. Moriizumi, T. Katayama, M. Asakura, T. Horikawa, T. Shibano, H. Itoh, K. Sato, K. Namba, T. Nishimura, S. Satoh and H. Miyoshi, International Electron Device Meeting,, 631–634 (1993).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Horikawa, T. Makita, T. Kuroiwa and N. Mikami, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5478–5482 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. K. Streiffer, C. Basceri, A. I. Kingon, S. Lipa, S. Bilodeau, R. Carl and P. C. Van Buskirk, Materials Research Society Proceedings, (1995).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Waser, Science and Technology of Electroceramic Thin Films,, 223–248 (1995).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. W. Dietz and R. Waser, Integrated Ferroelectrics, preprint (1995).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Y. Fukuda, K. Numata, K. Aoki and A. Nishimura, International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, (1994).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    R. Tsu, H.-Y. Liu, W.-Y. Hsu, S. R. Summerfelt, K. Aoki and B. Gnade, Materials Research Society Proceedings, (1994).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. Horikawa, T. Makita, T. Koroiwa and N. Mikami, Extended abstract of 7th Japan-US seminar on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics, (1995).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. W. Dietz, W. Antpohler, M. Klee and R. Waser, J. of Applied Physics, 78, 6113–6121 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. Waser, T. Baiatu and K.-H. Härdtl, J. of the American Ceramic Society, 73, 1645–1653 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. Waser, T. Baiatu and K.-H. Härdtl, J. of the American Ceramic Society, 73, 1654–1662 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C. Basceri, M. A. Wells, S. K. Streiffer, A. I. Kingon, S. Bilodeau, R. Carl, P. C. van Buskirk, S. R. Summerfelt and P. Mclntyre, ISAF Submission, (1996).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. Waser and M. Klee, Proc. 3rd Inter. Symp. on Integrated Ferroelectrics,, 288–305 (1991).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. Numata, Y. Fukuda, K. Aoki and A. Nishimura, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5425–5429 (1995).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. Khamankar, B. Jiang, R. Tsu, W.-Y. Hsu, J. Nulman, S. R. Summerfelt, M. Anthony and J. Lee, VLSI Symposium, (1995).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. F. Scott, M. Azuma, C. A. Pa de Araujo, L. D. McMillan, M. C. Scott and T. Roberts, Integrated Ferroelectrics 4, 61 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. F. Scott, Science and Technology of Electroceramic Thin Films,, 249–259 (1995).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Bilodeau, R. Carl, P. Van Buskirk and P. Kirlin, Dry Process Symposium presentation, (1995).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Y. Kato, H. Yabuta, S. Sone, H. Yamaguchi, T. Iizuka, S. Yamamichi, P.-Y. Lesaicherre, S. Nishimoto and M. Yoshida, Spring MRS presentation, (1996).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    T. Kawahara, M. Yamamuka, T. Makita, A. Yuuki, N. Mikami and K. Ono, Materials Research Society Proceedings, preprint (1995).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    T. Kawahara, M. Yamamuka, T. Makita, K. Tsutahara, A. Yuuki, K. Ono and Y. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 33, 5897 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    T. Kawahara, M. Yamamuka, A. Yuuki and K. Ono, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5077–5082 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Kimura, H. Yamauchi, H. Machida and H. Kokubun, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 33, 5119 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. Yoshida, H. Yamaguchi, T. Sakuma, Y. Miyasaka, P.-Y. Lesaicherre and A. Ishitani, Electrochemical Society Meeting, 184th (1993).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    R. Gardiner, D. W. Brown, P. S. Kirlin and A. L. Rheingold, Chem. Mater., 3, 1053 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. S. Kirlin, D. W. Brown and R. A. Gardiner, United States Patent, 5225561, Sep. 12, 1990 (1993).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Y. Tasaki, R. Sakamoto, Y. Ogawa, S. Yoshizawa, J. Ishiai and S. Akase, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33, 5400–5403 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    I.-T. Kim, C.-H. Lee and S. J. Park, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33, 5125–5128 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    S. Matsumo, F. Uchikawa, S. Utsumomiya and S. Nakabayashi, Applied Physics Letters, 60, 2427–2429 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. A. Gardiner, P. Van Buskirk and P. S. Kirlin, United States Patent, 5362328, Jan. 7, 1994 (1994).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    P. S. Kirlin, R. L. Binder and R. A. Gardiner, United States Patent, 5204314, Dec. 13, 1991 (1993).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Z. Lu, R. S. Feigelson, R. K. Route, S. A. DiCarolis, R. Hiskes and R. D. Jacowitz, Journal of Crystal Growth, 128, 788–792 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. M. Bilodeau, J. Roeder, P. VanBuskirk and P. Kirlin, Proceedings CVD Technologies for Inter-level dielectrics and interconnects symposium at SEMICON/WEST, (1995).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    H. Yabuta, K. Takemura, H. Yamaguchi, S. Sone, T. Sakuma and M. Yoshida, Materials Research Society Proceedings, 361, 325–330 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    S. Bilodeau, J. Roeder, P. VanBuskirk, O. Boser and S. Pombrik, Materials Research Society Proceedings, FOILS (1994).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. F. Pinizzotto, E. G. Jacobs, Y. G. Rho, P. Pena, G. Wang and S. Bilodeau, Materials Research Society Proceedings, Presentation (1994).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    R. K. Sharma, N.-H. Chan and D. M. Smyth, J. of the American Ceramic Society, 64, 448–451 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. H. Han, H.-K. Ryu, C.-H. Chung, B.-G. Yu and S. H. Moon, J. of Electrochemical Society, 142, 3980–3984 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    P. C. Van Buskirk, J. F. Roeder and S. Bilodeau, Integrated Ferroelectrics, 10, 9–22 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    T. Kawahara, M. Yamamuka, T. makita, J. naka, A. Yuuki, N. Mikami and K. Ono, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33, 5129–5134 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Yamamuka, T. Kawahara, A. Yuuki and K. Ono, Dry Process Symposium,, 109–114 (1995).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    A. Yuuki, M. Yamamuka, T. Makita, T. Horikawa, T. Shibano, N. Hirano, H. Maeda, N. Mikami, K. Ono, H. Ogata and H. Abe, International Electron Device Meeting,, 115–118 (1995).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    S. Yamamichi, P.-Y. Lesaicherre, H. Yamaguchi, K. Takemura, S. Sone, H. Yabuta, K. Sato, T. Tamura, K. Nakajima, S. Ohnishi, K. Tokashiki, Y. Hayashi, Y. Kato, Y. Miyasaka, M. Yoshida and H. Ono, International Electron Device Meeting,, 119–122 (1995).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    P. Y. Lesaicherre, S. Yamamichi, K. Takemura, H. Yamaguchi, K. Tokashiki, Y. Miyasaka, M. Yoshida and H. Ono, Integrated Ferroelectrics, Preprint (1995).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    C. A. Crider and J. M. Poate, Applied Physics Letters, 36, 417–419 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    F. Nava, S. Valeri, G. Majni, A. Cembali, G. Pignatel and G. Queirolo, J. of Applied Physics, 52, 664–6646 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Y. S. Chang and M. L. Chou, J. of Applied Physics, 68, 2411–2414 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    C. S. Peterson, J. E. E. Baglin, J. J. Dempsey, F. M. d’Heurle and S. J. La Placa, J. of Applied Physics, 53, 4866–4883 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    K. Takemura, S. Matsubara, T. Sakuma, S. Yamamichi, H. Yamaguchi and Y. Miyasaka, 4th Inter. Symp. on Integrated Ferroelectrics,, 481–488 (1992).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. O. Olowolafe, R. E. Jones Jr., A. Campbell, C. R. I. Hegde, C. J. Mogab and R. B. Gregory, J. of Applied Physics, 73, 1764–1772 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. Grill, W. Kane, J. Viggiano, M. Brady and R. Laibowitz, J. of Materials Research, 7, 3260–3265 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Grill and M. J. Brady, Presentation Fall 1994 Fall MRS Meeting, (1994).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    T. Sakuma, S. Yamamichi, S. Matsubara, H. Yamaguchi and Y. Miyasaka, Applied Physics Letters, 57 (1990).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Y. Miyasaka, S. Matsubara and (NEC Corporation), United States Patent, 5053917 (1991).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    P. D. Hren, S. H. Rou, H. N. Al-Shareef, M. S. Ameen, O. Auciello and A. I. Kingon, Integrated Ferroelectrics, 2, 311–325 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    K. Aoki, Y. Fukuda, K. Numata and A. Nishimura, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5250–5253 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    B. Jiang, V. Balu, T.-S. Chen, S.-H. Kuah, J. C. Lee, P. Y. Chu, R. E. Jones, P. Zurcher, D. J. Taylor, M. L. Kottke and S. J. Gillespie, VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers,, 26–27 (1996).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    T. Nakamura, Y. Nakao, A. Kamisawa and H. Takasu, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5184–5187 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    V. S. Fomenko, Handbook of Thermionic Properties (Plenum Press Data Division, 1966).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    K. Takemura, T. Sakuma and Y. Miyasaka, Appl. Phys. Lett., 64, 2967 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    S. O. Park, C. S. Hwang, H.-J. Cho, C. S. Kang, J. H. Halm, W. J. Yoo, K. P. Lee, H. K. Kang, S. I. Lee and M. Y. Lee, International Electron Device Meeting, (1995).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Y. Shimada, A. Inoue, T. Nasu, K. Arita, Y. Nagano, A. Matsuda, Y. Uemoto, E. Fujii, M. Azuma, Y. Oishi, S.-i. Hayashi and T. Otsuki, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 35, 140–143 (1996). T. Hifumi, K. Muromoto, T. Kuroiwa, T. Kawahara, K. Nishikawa, T. Oomori, T. Fujino, S. Yamamoto, S. Uzawa, M. Kimata, M. Nunoshita and H. Abe, International Electron Device Meeting,, 36.1.1-4 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Y. Nishioka, K. Shiozawa, T. Oishi, K. Kanamoto, Y. Tokuda, H. Sumitanai, S. Aya, H. Yabe, K. Itoga, T. Hifumi, K. Muromoto, T. Kuroiwa, T. Kawahara, K. Nishikawa, T. Oomori, T. Fujino, S. Yamamoto, S. Uzawa, M. Kimata, M. Nunoshita and H. Abe, International Electron Device Meeting,, 36.1.1–4 (1995).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    S. Yamamichi, K. Takemura, T. Sakuma, H. Watanabe, H. Ono, K. Tokashiki, E. Ikawa and Y. Miyasaka, International Symposium on Application of Ferroelectrics, (1994).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    S. Saito and K. Kuramasu, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 31, 135–138 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    G. E. Runkle and M. B. Snipes, J. Aerosol Sei., 10, 431–435 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    N. I. Sax and R. J. Lewis Sr., Dangerous properties of industrial materials, Vol. III, Seventh ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    M. Taylor, Semiconductor International,, 162 (1996).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    I. K. Yoo and S. B. Desu, Materials Science and Engineering, B13, 319–322 (1992).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    C. E. Farrell, K. R. Milkove, C. Wang and D. E. Kotecki, Materials Research Society Proceedings, Preprint (1995).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    W. J. Yoo, J. H. Hahm, H. W. Kim, C. O. Jung, Y. B. Koh and M. Y. Lee, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 35, 2501–2504 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    T. Okudaira and T. Kuroiwa, (United States, 1995).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    H. Aoki, T. Hashimototo, E. Ikawa, T. Kikkawa, S. Yamamichi, T. Sakuma and Y. Miyasaka, Extended Abstracts of the 1992 International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials, Tsukuba,, 554–556 (1992).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    S. Yamamichi and Y. Miyasaka, United States Patent, 5530279, Jan. 9, 1995 (1996).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    W. J. Yoo, J. H. Hahm, C. S. Hwang, S. O. Park, Y. B. Koh and M. Y. Lee, Dry Process Symposium,, 191–194 (1995).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    D. P. Bouldin, J. of Electronic Materials, 10, 747–795 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    K. Numata, K. Aoki, Y. Fukuda, A. Nishimura and A. Schleisman, Electronics Letters, 29, 2099–2100 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    L. Krusin-Elbaum, M. Wittmer and D. S. Yee, Applied Physics Letters, 50, 1879–1881 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    E. Kolawa, F. C. T. So, E. T.-S. Pan and M.-A. Nicolet, Applied Physics Letters, 50, 854–855 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    E. Kolawa, C. W. Nieh, F. C. T. So and M.-A. Nicolet, J. of Electronic Materials, 17, 425–432 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    F. C. T. So, E. Kolawa, X.-A. Zhao, E. T.-S. Pan and M.-A. Nicolet, J. of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 5, 1748–1749 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    K. Yoshikawa, T. Kimura, H. Noshiro, S. Otani, M. Yamada and Y. Furumura, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33, L867–L869 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    F. Vamiere, B. Ea Kim, B. Agius, R. SBisaro, J. Olivier, G. Chevrier, H. Achard, H. Mace and L. Peccoud, Materials Research Society Proceedings, 361, 235–240 (1995).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    L. R. Velho and R. W. Bartlett, Metallurgical Transactions, 3, 65–72 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    H. G. Tompkins, J. of Applied Physics, 70, 3876–3880 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    M. Wittmer, J. Noser and H. Melchior, J. of Applied Physics, 52, 6659–6664 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    I. Suni, D. Sigurd, K. T. Ho and M.-A. Nicolet, J. of Electrochemical Society, 130, 1210–1214 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Y. Ohno, T. Horikawa, H. Shinkawa, K. Kashihara, T. Kuroiwa, T. Okudaira, Y. Hashizume, K. Fukumoto, T. Eimori, T. Shibano, K. Arimoto, H. Itoh, T. Nishimura and H. Miyoshi, VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers,, 149 (1994).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    G. S. Sandhu and P. C. Fazan, United States Patent, 5381302, Aug. 10, 1993 (1995).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    K. Kashihara, T. Okudaira, Y. Tsunemine, Y. Ohno, H. Itoh, T. Nishimura, M. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, T. Shibano and K. Horie, Preprint, (1995).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    K. Kashihara, T. Okudaira, Y. Tsunemine, Y. Ohno, H. Itoh and M. Hirayama, Presentation, (1995).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    K. Graff, Metal Impurities in Silicon-device fabrication, Vol. 24 (Springer, New York, 1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    S. Yamamichi, Y. Muramatsu, P.-Y. Lesaicherre and H. Ono, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 5188–5192 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    B. Deng, C. Shu and H. Kuwano, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, L879–L882 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    B. Deng, C. Shu and H. Kuwano, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 34, 2969–2973 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    A. G. Nassibian, D. Jordan, B. Golja and J. G. Simmons, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ED-28, 1014–1017 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    M. Takiyama, S. Ohtsuka, S. Hayashi and M. Tachimori, Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Silicon Materials Science and Technology, 94-10, 346–357 (1994).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    H. Wendt, H. Cerva, V. Lehmann and W. Pamler, J. of Applied Physics, 65, 2402–2405 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    L. Zhong and F. Shimura, Applied Physics Letters, 61, 1078–1080 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    P. W. Mertens, M. Meuris, H. F. Schmidt, S. Verhaverbeke, M. M. Heyns, P. Carr, D. Graf, A. Schnegg, M. Kubota, K. Dillnbeck and R. de Blank, (1992?).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    H. Kato, S. Mori and H. Kuwano, J. of Applied Physics, 56, 1160–1164 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    S. Wolf, Silicon Processing for the VLSI era, Volume 2: Process Integration (Lattice Press, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science LaboratoryTexas Instruments Inc.DallasUSA

Personalised recommendations