Skip to main content

Composting processes

  • Chapter

Abstract

Newly heightened concerns or realizations about climate change, depletion of stratospheric ozone, environmental pollution, wildlife, shrinking bio-diversity, health, food safety, land degradation, pressures on nonrenewable resources and intergenerational justice, have vindicated the sustainable development ethos expressed by the Brundtland Commission in its report, ‘Our Common Future’. In practical terms, the new paradigm promoted the 4R strategy of Reduce, Re-use, Recover and Recycle wastes to conserve resources and reduce pollution by emulating, adopting and maximizing beneficial processes of an ecosystem. An ecosystem is maintained in essence by the cycling of carbon and mineral nutrients so that the losses of nutrients from the system are not greater than the relevant mineral ions gained through soil weathering and the nitrogen fixed by biological agents or the electrochemical force in lightning.

Keywords

  • Waste Material
  • Compost Process
  • Wood Waste
  • Elsevier Apply
  • Mature Compost

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-5821-7_4
  • Chapter length: 40 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4615-5821-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Acharya, C.N. (1954) Indian Farming, 4, 9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Acharya, C.N., Sabnis, C.V. and Menezes, F.G.T. (1945) Ind. J. Agric. Sci., 15, 214–21.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander, M. (1977) Introduction to Soil Microbiology, John Wiley, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Altieri, M.A. (1987) Agroecology: The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture. IT Publications, London, p. 227.

    Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee, R.K. and Srinivasan, K.V. (1983) Agric. Wastes, 7, 209.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barrington, S.F., Scheupp, P., Cap, R. and Blanchette, J. (1990) Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes, Chicago, IL, American Society for Agricultural Engineering Publication #05–90, pp. 434–441.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bellamy, K., Smith, D.K., Meadd, E., Varangu, L. and Buggelin, R.G. (1992) In Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting, Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 101–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Biddlestone, A.J., Gray, K.R. and Day, C.A. (1987) In Environmental Biotechnology (eds C.F. Forster and D.A.J. Wase), Ellis Horwood, Chichester, p. 136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bollen, G.J. (1985) In Composting of Agricultural Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 282.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chance, B. (1957) Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. Fed. Proc., 16, 671–80.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, Y. and Hadar, Y. (1987) In Compost: Production, Quality and Use (eds M. DeBertoldi, M.P. Ferranti, P. L’Hermite and F. Zucconi), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, J.M. and Warman, P.R. (1993) Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting, Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 247–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • CWC (The Clean Washington Centre) (1993) Best Management Practices Manual for Compost Produce Waste and Wax Coated Cardboard Using a Low Technology Approach, Report No. B8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dalzell, H.W., Biddlestone, A.J., Gray, K.R. and Thurairajan, K. (1987) FAO Bull., 56, 177.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Bertoldi, M., Vallini, G. and Pera, A. (1985) In Composting of Agricultural and Other Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 27.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Bertoldi, M., Ferranti, M.P., L’Hermite, P. and Zucconi, F. (eds) (1987) Compost: Production, Quality and Use. Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 853.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Bertoldi, M., Rutili, A., Citterio, B. and Civilini, M. (1988) Waste Man. Res., 6, 239–59.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Derikx, P.J.L., Op den Camp., H.J.M., van der Drift, C., van Griensven, L.J.L.D. and Vogels, G.D. (1990) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 56, 176–80.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Devleeschauwer, D., Verdonk, O. and Van Assche, P. (1981) Biocycle, 22, 446.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diaz, L.F. (1987) Biocycle, 28, 54–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, C.A., Burrows, I., Fletcher, K.E. and Jones, B.A. (1985) In Composting of Agriculture and Other Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 229.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, P., Polprasert, C., Pacharaprakiti, C., Rajput, V.S. and Suthirawut, S. (1983) Agriculture, 32, 409.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, L.F., Schuman, G.E. and Viets, F.G.; Jr (1971) Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., 35, 752.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, E., Willson, G.B., Burge, W.D., Mullen, D.C. and Nekri, N.K. (1976) J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 48, 688.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finstein, M.S. and Miller, M.C. (1985) In Composting of Agricultural and Other Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finstein, M.S., Miller, F.C., Strom, P.F., MacGregor, S.T. and Psarianos, K.M. (1983) Biotechnology, 1, 347–53.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gotaas, H.B. (1956) Composting Sanitary Disposal and Reclamation of Organic Wastes. World Health Organization, Monograph Series, No. 31, WHO, Geneva.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grant, C.D. and Groenvelt, P.H. (1993) In Canadian Society of Soil Science (ed. M.R. Carter), Lewis Publishers, Ottawa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gray, K.R., Biddlestone, A.J. and Clark, R. (1973) Process Biochem., 8 (10), 11.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haug, R.T. (1986) Biocycle, October, 53–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haug, R.T. (1990) Biocycle, October, 60–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hay, J.C. and Kuchenrither, R.D. (1990) J. Environ. Eng., 116, 746–63.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, L.A., Richards, R. and Mathur, S.P. (1993) Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, p. 135–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hogan, J.A., Miller, F.C. and Finstein, M.S. (1989) Appt. Environ. Microbiol., 55, 1082–92.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoitink, H.A.J. and Kuter, G.E. (1984) Biocycle, May/June, 40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoitink, H.A.J., Chen, W., Trillas-Gay, M.I. and Chung, Y.R. (1987) In Compost: Production, Quality, and Use (eds M. De Bertoldi, M.P. Ferranti, P. L’Hermit and F. Zucconi), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 414.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard, A. (1943) An Agricultural Testament, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howard, A. and Wad, Y.D. (1931) The Waste Products of Agriculture: Their Utilization as Humus, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyatt, G.W. and Richard, T.L. (1992) Biomass Bioenergy, 3, 121–5.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Inbar, Y., Chen, Y., Hadar, Y. and Hoitink, H.A.J. (1990) Biocycle, December, 64–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ishii, H., Tanaka, K., Aoki, M., Murakami, T. and Yamada, M. (1991) Water Sci. Technol., 23, 1979–89.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacob, M.T. (1993) Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 275–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeris, J.S. and Regan, R.W. (1973) Compost Sci., 14, 10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jiminez, E.I. and Garcia, V.P. (1989) Biol. Wastes, 27, 115–42.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keeling, A.A., Mullett, J.A. and Paton, I.K. (1994) Soil Biol. Biochem., 26, 773–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, F.H. (1911) Farmers of Forty Centuries or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan, Harcourt Brace and Co., New York, p. 441.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kissel, J.C., Henry, C.L. and Harrison, R.B. (1992) Biomass Bioenergy, 3, 181–94.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Koe, L.K. and Ng, W. (1987) Water Air Soil Pollution, 33, 199–204.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Konoпova, M.M. (1966) Soil Organic Matter, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishna Murthy, R. (1978) A Manual on Compost and Other Organic Manures, Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuchenrither, R.D., Martin, W.J., Smith, D.G. and Williams, D.W. (1985) J. Water Pollution Cont. Fed., 57, 217–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leger, D.A. Patnki, N.K. and Ho, S.K. (1991) Proceedings of a National Workshop on Land Application of Animal Manure, Canadian, Agriculture Research Council, Ottawa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leton, T.G. and Stentiford, E.I. (1990) Waste Man. Res., 8, 299–306.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lindau, C.W., Patrick, W.H., Jr and DeLaune, R.D. (1993) In Agricultural Ecosystem Effects on Trace Gases and Global Climate Change. American Society of Agronomy, Special Publication, Vol. 55, pp. 157–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linteau, J.-P. and Beauregard, B. (1992) Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting, Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 193–230.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lopez-Real, J. and Foster, M. (1985) In Composting of Agricultural and Other Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 291.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, N.J. and Cherry, R.S. (1996) Compost Sci. Util., 4, 44–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahoney, E.M. and MacFarlane, S. (1992) Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting, Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 129–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, A.M. and Patel, T.R. (1991) In Bioconversion of Waste Materials to Industrial Products (ed. A.M. Martin) 1st edn, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 417–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. (1982) Transactions of the 12th Congress of the International Society for Soil Science, Vol. 1, p. 125.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. (1991) In Bioconversion of Waste Materials to Industrial Products (ed. A.M. Martin), 1st edn, Elsevier, London, New York, pp. 147–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. (1992) Second Annual Meeting of The Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, Environment Canada, pp. 387–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. (1993) Proceedings 1993, Newfoundland Peat Opportunities - An International Conference, Corner Brook, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador Peat Association, paper #17, p. 20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. (1994) Proceedings of the 4th Annual Meeting of the Composting Council of Canada, Toronto, Environment Canada, pp. 259–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. (1995) Composting Technologies and Practices. A Guide for Decision Makers. The Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.Р. and Farnham, R.S. (1985) In Humic Substances in Soil Sediment and Water (eds G.R. Aiken, D.M. McNights, R.L. Warshaw and P. MacCarthy), John Wiley, New York, p. 53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. and Johnson, W.M. (1987) Biol. Agric. Hort., 4, 235.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. and Voisin, B. (1996) The Use of Compost as a Greenhouse Media, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, PIBS 3458E, Queens Printer for Ontario, p. 37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Daigle, J.-Y., Levesque, M. and Dinel. H. (1986) Biol. Agric. Hort., 4, 27.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Proulx, J.G., Levesque, M. and Sanderson, R.B. (1987) In Agrogeology in Africa. Commonwealth Science Council, Technical Publication Series no. 226, p. 129.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P. Daigle, J.-Y., Brooks, J.L., Levesque, M. and Arsenault, J. (1988a). Biocycle, 29, 44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Patni, N.K. and Levesque, M.P. (1988b) Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineering Annual Meeting, Paper no. 88–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Proulx, J.G. and Daigle, J.-Y. (1989) Proceedings of the 1989 International Peat Society Sumposium, Québec City (eds R.P. Overend and J.K. Jeglum), International Peat Society, Helsinki.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Patni, N.K. and Levesque, M.P. (1990a) Biol. Waste, 34, 323.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Schnitzer, M. and Schuppli, P. (1990b) Biol. Agric. Hort., 7, 153–63.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Dinel, H., Owen, G., Schnitzer, M. and Dugan, J. (1993a) Biol. Agric. Hort., 10, 87–108.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Owen, G., Dinel, H. and Schnitzer, M. (1993b) Biol. Agric. Hort., 10, 65–85.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur, S.P., Owen, G., Dinel, H. and Schnitzer, M. (1993b) Biol. Agric. Hort., 10, 65–85.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCauley, R. and Shell, B.J. (1956) Proceedings of the 11th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University, USA, p. 4536–453.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyboom, P. (1993) Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, F.C. (1989) Microb. Ecol., 18, 59–71.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, F.C. and Macauley, B.J. (1988) Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 28, 553–60.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, F.C., Harper, E.R. and Macauley, B.J. (1989) Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 29, 741–50.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, F.C., Harper, E.R., Macauley, B.J. and Gulliver, A. (1990) Austral. J. Exp. Aric., 287–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miner, J.R. and Hazen, T.E. (1969) Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng., 12, 772.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miner, J.R. and Hazen, T.E. (1977) In Soils for Management of Organic Wastes and Waste Waters (eds L.F. Elliott and F.J. Stevenson), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, p. 379.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakasaki, K., Nakano, Y., Akiyama, T., Shoda, M. and Kubota, H. (1987) Ferment. Technol., 65, 43–8.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • NESFI-ACA (New England Small Farms Institute and the Agricultural Composting Association of America), Belchertown, MA (1993), p. 25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Op den Camp, H.J.M. (1987) De Champignoncultuur, 31, 513–19. [Cited by Miller et al. (1989).]

    Google Scholar 

  • Paul, E.A. and Clark, F.E. (1989) Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry, Academic Press, San Diego.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poincelot, S.P. (1975) Biochemistry and Methodology of Composting. Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 754.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston, C.M., Ripmeester, J.A., Mathur, S.P. and Levesque, M. (1986) Can. J. Spectrosc., 63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pudelski, T. (1987) In Compost: Production, Quality and Use (eds M. De Bertoldi, M.P. Ferranti, P. L’Hermite and F. Zucconi), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reddy, K.R. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1975) Soil Biol. Biochem., 7, 87–94.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Richard, J.L. (1992) Biomass Bioenergy, 3, 163–80.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rynk, R. (ed.) (1992) On-farm Composting Handbook. Cooperative Extension, Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, NRAES #54, Ithaca, NY, p. 186.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schnitzer, M., Dinel, H., Mathur, S.P., Schulten, H.R. and Owen, G. (1993) Biol. Agric. Hort., 10, 109–23.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schroder, H. (1985) Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 14, 279.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, J.E. (1986) M.Sc. thesis, University of Guelph.

    Google Scholar 

  • Summer, W. (1971) Odour Pollution of Air: Causes and Control, CRC Press, p. 310.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, G.R., Dudley, E.G. and Williamson, K.R. (1980) In Handbook or Organic Waste Conversion (ed. M.W.M. Bewirk), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 281.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thostrup, P. (1985) In Composting of Agricultural and Other Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 167.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thostrup, P., Jespersen, L.M. and Jensen, P.E.B. (1987) In Compost Production, Quality and Use (eds. M. de Bertoldi, M.P. Ferranti, P. L’Hermite and F. Zucconi), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 147.

    Google Scholar 

  • University of California (1953) Reclamation of Municipal Refuse by Composting. Technical Bulletin no. 9, Berkeley, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van der Hoek, K.W. and Ooesthoek, J. (1985) In Composting of Agricultural and Other Wastes (ed. J.K.R. Gasser), Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 271.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voorburg, J.H. (1988) Pig production and environment. Institute of Agricultureal Engineer-ing, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Xnr 11890, 14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waksman, S.A. (1938) Humus, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walker, J.W.M. (1991) Biocycle, September, 50–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiley, J.S. (1957) In Proceedings of the 12th Industrial Wastes Conference, Purdue University, USA, Engineering Bulletin, Vol. 17, 596.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiley, J.S. and Spillane, J.T. (1962) Compost Sci., 2, 18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, T.O. and Miller, F.C. (1992a) Biocycle, October, 72–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, T.O. and Miller, F.C. (1992b) Biocycle, November, 75–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Witter, E. and Lopez-Real, J.M. (1987) Biol. Agric. Hort., 5, 1.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Witter, E. and Lopez-Real, J.M. (1988) Biol. Wastes, 23, 279–4.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhan, W., Fernandes, L., Patni, N. and Jui, P. (1992) Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Meeting of the Composting Council of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 233–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zucconi, F. and De Bertoldi, M. (1987) In Compost: Production, Quality and Use (eds M. De Bertoldi, M.P. Ferranti, P. L’Hermite and F. Zucconi), Elsevier Science, London, p. 30.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1998 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Mathur, S.P. (1998). Composting processes. In: Martin, A.M. (eds) Bioconversion of Waste Materials to Industrial Products. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5821-7_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5821-7_4

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4613-7668-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-5821-7

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive