Ecotoxicology pp 381-403 | Cite as

Impact of insecticides on herbivore-natural enemy communities in tropical rice ecosystems

  • K. L. Heong
  • K. G. Schoenly


Today, rice pest management in tropical Asia is strongly influenced by the agrochemical era of the 1960s and 1970s. Prophylactic insecticide campaigns were components of rice production intensification programmes, like Masagana 99 in the Philippines (Alix, 1978) and BIMAS in Indonesia (Adjid, 1983). Through agricultural subsidy and loan schemes, farmers were encouraged to apply insecticides on regular schedules (Kenmore et al., 1987; Conway and Barbier, 1990; Conway and Pretty, 1991). The agrochemical industry, through its aggressive advertising and marketing campaigns, also played a role in encouraging pesticide use.


Natural Enemy Brown Planthopper Insecticide Spray Food Chain Length Rice Ecosystem 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. L. Heong
  • K. G. Schoenly

There are no affiliations available

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