Engineering Enzymes and Microorganisms for the Transformation of Synthetic Compounds
The biotransformation of synthetic chemicals that enter the environment is dependent on the capacity of microbial enzymes to recognize xenobiotic substrates and catalyze reactions with stable structural elements, such as carbon-halogen bonds. The range of compounds that can be enzymatically degraded strongly influences the environmental fate of many potentially harmful compounds. Environmental recalcitrance thus is, in part, a problem of enzyme activity and specificity. This can be well illustrated with the halogenated aliphatics, which are frequently encountered as environmental pollutants due to losses and emissions during their use in industry and agriculture. Halogenated aliphatic compounds are used as blowing agents (methylchloride), cooling liquids (ethylchloride), soil fumigants (1,3-dichloropropylene, methylbromide), insecticides (hexachlorocyclohexane), intermediates in chemical synthesis (1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride, chloroacetates) and as solvents (trichloroethanes, tri- and tetrachloroethene). Several related structures (e.g., chlorinated alkanes, ethers and alcohols) occur as wastes or contaminants of products.
KeywordsMethane Mono Oxygenase Active Site Cavity Soil Fumigant Hydrolase Fold Engineer Enzyme
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