The New American Evolution



A quiet evolution has revolutionized the American economy. At the time of the 1992 presidential election one of the main issues in the public debate was competitiveness. A common perception was that U.S. industry was losing the global economic race and that if government didn’t respond, living standards would suffer. In that recession year, Under-Secretary of Commerce Jeffrey E. Garten summed up the conventional economic thinking about our state of affairs (1992, p. 221): “Relative to Japan and Germany, our economic prospects are poor and our political influence is waning. Their economic underpinnings — trends in investment, productivity, market share in high technology, education, and training — are stronger. Their banks and industry are in better shape; their social problems are far less severe than ours” (see also 60Tyson, 1992;57Thurow, 1992).


Small Business Small Firm Large Firm Firm Startup Small Business Economic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acs, Z.J. (1984). The Changing Structure of the U.S. Economy. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  2. Acs, Z.J., ed. (1996). Small Firms and Economic Growth (vols. 1-2). Cheltenam: Elgar.Google Scholar
  3. Acs, Z.J., and C. Armington. (1998). “Longitudinal Establishment and Enterprise Microdata (LEEM) Documentation.” Working Paper 1998-10. Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Acs, Z.J., C. Armington, and A. Robb. (1998). “Job Creation and Destruction in the U.S. Economy.” Working Paper 1998, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Acs, Z.J., and D.B. Audretsch. (1988). “Innovation in Large and Small Firms.” American Economic Review, 78, 678–690.Google Scholar
  6. Acs, Z.J., and D.B. Audretsch. (1993). Small Firms and Entreprtneurship: An East-West Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Acs, Z.J., B. Carlsson, and C. Karlsson. (1999). Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, and the Macroeconomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Acs, Z.J., and D.S. Evans. (1995). “The Determinants of Variation in Self-Employment Rates Across Countries and Over Time.” Working Paper, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  9. Acs, Z.J., and B. Yeung. (1999). Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Global Economy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  10. Acs, Zoltan J., and David, B. Audretsch. (1990). The Economics of Small Firms, Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  11. Admiraal, PH., ed. (1996). Small Business in the Modern Economy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Aimeida P., and B. Kogut. (1997). “The Exploration of Technological Diversity and Geographic Localization in Innovation: Start-up Firms in the Semiconductor Industry.” Small Business Economics, 9(1), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bates, T. (1997). Race, Self-Employment, and Upward Mobility: An Elusive American Dream. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Becker, Gary S. (1998). “Make the World Safe for Creative Destruction.” Business Week. February 23, 20.Google Scholar
  15. Birch, D. (1981). “Who Creates Jobs?” The Public Interest, 65, 3–14.Google Scholar
  16. Blanchflower, D., and A. Oswald. (1998). “What Makes a Young Entrepreneur?” Journal of Labor Economics, 16(1), 26–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brock, W.A., and D.S. Evans. (1986). The Economics of Small Firms. New York: Holmes and Meier.Google Scholar
  18. Brock, W.A, and D.S. Evans. (1989). “Small Business Economics.” Small Business Economics, 1(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, C., J. Hamilton, and J. Medoff. (1990). Employers: Large and Small. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Butler, J.S., (Forthcoming). “Review Essay,” Small Business Economics.Google Scholar
  21. Caballero, R.J., and L. Hammour, (1996). “On the Timing and Efficiency of Creative Destruction.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111(3) (August), 805–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlsson, B. (1992). “The Rise of Small Business: Causes and Consequences.” In W.J. Adams (ed.), Singular Europe: Economy and Polity of the European Community After 1992. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Committee of Inquiry on Small Firms. (1971). Bolton Report. Cmnd 4811. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  24. Coase, R. (1937). “The Nature of the Firm.” Economica, 4, 386–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cressey, R.C. (1996). “Are Business Startups Debt-Rationed?” Economic Journal, 106, 1253–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis, S. (1990). “The Distribution of Employees by Establishment Size: Patterns of Change and Co-Movement in the United States, 1962-1985.” Working Paper, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, S., and J. Haltiwanger. (1992). “Gross Job Creation, Gross Job Destruction and Employment Reallocation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(3), 819–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis, S., J. Haltiwanger, and S. Schuh. (1996). Job Creation and Destruction. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. De Jong, H.W. (1989). “Free Versus Controlled Competition.” In B. Carlsson (ed.), Industrial Dynamics: Technological, Organizational, and Structural Changes in Industries and Firms. Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  30. Freear, J., J.E. Sohl, and W.E. Wetzel. (1996). “Creating New Capital Markets for Emerging Ventures.” Prepared for the U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, Contract SBAHQ-95-m-1062, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Frishkoff, Patricia A., and Alicja, M. Kostecka. (1991). “Business Contributions of Community Service,” Office of advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  32. Galbraith. J.K. (1956). American Capitalism: The Concept of Countervailing Power, 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  33. Garten, Jeffery E. (1992). A Cold Peace: America, Japan, Germany, and the Struggle for Supremacy. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  34. Harrison, Bennett (1994). Lean and Mean, New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Hebert, R.F., and A.N. Link. (1989). “In Search of the Meaning of Entrepreneurship.” Small Business Economics, 1(1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joel Popkin and Company. (1997). “Small Business Share of Private, Nonfarm Gross Domestic Product.” Prepared for the U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, Contract SBAHQ-95-C-0021, February, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  37. Kirchhoff, B. (1994). Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capitalism. London: Praeger.Google Scholar
  38. Lazerson, M. (1988). “Organizational Growth of Small Firms: An Outcome of Markets and Hierarchies?” American Sociological Review, 53(3), 330–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lerner, J. (1996). “The Government as Venture Capitalist.” Working Paper 96-038, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  40. Loveman, G., and W. Sengenberger. (1991). “The Re-emergence of Small-Scale Production: An International Comparison.” Small Business Economics, 3(1), 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lusgarten, Steve. (1994). “The Role of Small Firms in the Uward Mobility of New Immigrants.” Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, Contract SBA-8139-OA-94, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  42. Lynch, P., and John Rothchild. (1996). Learn to Earn. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  43. OECD. (1996). SMEs: Employment, Innovation and Growth. Washington Workshop. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  44. Oppenheimer, Michael, E. (1985). The Effect of Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Corporate strategy in High-Technology Sectors,” Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  45. Piore, M.J., and C.F. Sabel. (1984). “Possibilities for Prosperity: International Keynesianism and Flexible Specialization.” In The Second Industrial Divide (pp. 251–280). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  46. Pratten, C. (1991). The Competitiveness of Small Firms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Robb, Alicia and Bruce D. Phillips, New Data for Analysis of Small Business Job Creation. Washington, DC: U.S. Small Business Administration, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  48. Saxenian, A. (1991). “The Origins and Dynamics of Production Networks in Silicon Valley.” Research Policy, 20, 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schumacher, E.F. (1973). Small Is Beautiful. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  50. Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Schumpeter, J.A. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  52. Smith, A. (1776). The Wealth of Nations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  53. “Startups to the Rescue.” (1998). Business Week. March 23, p. 50.Google Scholar
  54. Steindl, J. (1945). Small and Big Business. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  55. Storey, DJ. (1994). Understanding the Small Business Sector. London: Roudedge.Google Scholar
  56. Thurow, Lester. (1992). Head to Head: The Coming Battle Among Japan, Europe, and America. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  57. “Ties That Lead to Prosperity, The” (1997). Business Week. December 15, 153.Google Scholar
  58. Trueheart, Charles. (1997). “French Proudly Hold Fast to Benevolent Central Rule.” Washington Post. July 14, p. A1.Google Scholar
  59. Tyson, Laura D’ Andrea. (1992). Who’s Bashing Whom? Trade Conflict in High Technology Industries. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  60. “U.S. Sails on Tranquil Economic Seas.” (1996). Washington Post. December 2, 1.Google Scholar
  61. U.S. Small Business Administration. (1994). “Health Insurance Coverage: A Profile of the Uninsured by Firm Size and Employment Size” in The State of Small Business: A Report of the President, 65–108. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  62. U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy Statistics of U.S. Business (SUSB), prepared under contract by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, table 9S.Google Scholar
  63. Vozikis, George. (1979). “A Strategic Disadvantage Profile of the Stages of Development and the Stages of the Exporting Process: the Experiences of the Small Business Exporters in Georgia,” Washington DC, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration.Google Scholar
  64. Weiss, Leonard W. (1979). “The Structure-Performance Paradigm and Antitrust.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 127 (April), 1104–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. You, J. (1995). “Small Firms in Economic Theory.” Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19, 441–462.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.S. Burean of the Census and University of BaltimoreBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations