Interdependence of Genetic and Epigenetic Factors in Determining Bone Strength

  • Janet Rubin
  • Clinton T. Rubin
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 3)


Bone is an elegant biologic structure that succeeds at withstanding extremes of functional loading while simultaneously serving as the organism’s principal reservoir of mineral. The strength of the skeleton is realized via a sophisticated structural and ultrastructural organization that has evolved to meet specific functional demands. Bone’s success as a structure cannot be quantified simply by density (Figure 1). Trabecular girth, orientation and connectivity, cell responsiveness to anabolic and catabolic agents, the distribution, organization and competence of the organic constituents, and even the neuromuscular (postural stability, falling reflex) and cardiovascular systems (metabolite distribution) are all critical to the structural success of the skeleton. The multifold functional demands on the skeleton and the need to continually sense and adjust to those demands suggest that a simple genetic template cannot be the sole determinant of skeletal morphology.


Bone Mineral Density Bone Mass Bone Density Black Woman Bone Strength 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet Rubin
  • Clinton T. Rubin

There are no affiliations available

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