Advertisement

Cancer and Bone Disease

  • Mark S. Nanes
  • Louisa Titus
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 3)

Abstract

Skeletal metastases cause extensive morbidity in half of all cancer patients (Coleman 87, 1). Thirty to 40% of patients who have bone metastases suffer from painful pathologic fractures that limit their independence during the period preceding death. In addition, 10–40% of cancer patients without skeletal lesions develop the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) (2, 3). Thus, the morbidity associated with the skeletal complications of malignancy is a frequent cause of pain and suffering, an antecedent to repeated hospitalization, and a contributor to increased health care costs. Our goal, as physicians and scientists, is to advance the understanding of skeletal pathophysiology in patients with malignancy so that metastases to bone are prevented, pain is reduced, and patient independence is maintained for as long as possible.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer Multiple Myeloma Bone Metastasis Skeletal Metastasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Coleman RE, Rubens RD 1987 The clinical course of bone métastases from breast cancer. Br J Cancer 55: 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Muggia FM 1990 Overview of cancer related hypercalcemia: Epidemiology and etiology. Semin Oncol 17(suppl. 5): 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mundy GR 1991 Mechanisms of osteolytic bone destruction. Bone 12(suppl. 1): S1–S6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abrams J, Doyle LA, Aisner J 1988 Staging, prognostic features and special considerations in small cell lung cancer. Semin Oncol 15: 261–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nielsen OS, Munro AJ, Tannock IF 1991 Bone metastases: pathophysiology and management policy. J Clin Oncol 9: 509–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gittes RF 1991 Carcinoma of the prostate. N Engl J Med 324: 236–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kanis JA 1996 Rationale for the use of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. Acta Oncol 35: 61–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parfitt AM 1995 Bone remodeling, normal and abnormal: a biological basis for the understanding of cancer-related bone disease and its treatment. Can J Oncol 5: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilkins GE, Granleese S, Hegele RG, Holden J, Anderson DW, Bondy GP 1995 Oncogenic osteomalacia: evidence for a humoral phosphaturic factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 1628–1634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Breslau NA, McGuire JL, Zerwekh JE, Frenkel EP, Pak CYC 1984 Hypercalcemia associated with three patients with lymphoma. Ann Int Med 100: 101.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rosenthal N, Insogna KL, Godsall JW, Smaldone L, Waldron JA, Stewart AF 1985 Elevations in circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in three patients with lymphoma associated hypercalcemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60: 29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Batson OV 1940 The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of metastases. Ann Surg 112: 138–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liotta LA 1986 Tumor invasion and metastases~role of the extracellular matrix. Cancer Res 46: 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kohno N, Kitazawa S, Fukase M, Sakoda Y, Kanbara Y, Furuya Y, Ohashi O, Ishikawa Y, Saitoh Y 1994 The expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in human breast cancer with skeletal metastases. Surg Today 24: 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nakai M, Mundy GR, Williams RJ, Boyce B, Yoneda T 1992 A synthetic antagonist to laminin inhibits the formation of osteolytic metastases by human melanoma cells in nude mice. Cancer Res 52: 5395–5399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davies J, Warwick J, Totty N, Philip R, Helfrich M, Horton M 1989 The osteoclast functional antigen, implicated in the regulation of bone resorption, is biochemically related to the vitronectin receptor. J Cell Biol 109: 1817–1826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Helfrich MH, Nesbitt SA, Dorey EL, Hoerton MA 1992 Rat osteoclasts adhere to a wide range of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide-containing proteins, including the bone sialoproteins and fibronectin, via a beta 3 integrin. J Bone Miner Res 7: 335–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ross FP, Chapel J, Alvarez JI, Sander D, Butler WT, Farach-Carson MC, MintzKA, Robey PG, Teitelbaum SL, Cheresh DA 1993 Interactions between bone matrix proteins osteopontin and bone sialoprotein and the osteoclast integrin alpha v beta 3 potentiate bone resorption. J Biol Chem 268: 9901–9907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van der Pluijm G, Mouthaan H, Baas C, de Groot H, Papapoulos S, Löwik C 1994 Integrins and osteoclastic resorption in three bone organ cultures: differential sensitivity to synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp peptides during osteoclasts formation. J Bone Miner Res 9: 1021–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burger R, Wendler J, Antoni K, Helm G, Kalden JR, Gramatzki M 1994 Interleukin-6 production in B-cell neoplasias and Castleman’s disease: evidence for an additional paracrine loop. Ann Hematol 69: 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liapis H, Flath A, Kitazawa S 1996 Integrin alpha V beta 3 expression by bone-residing breast cancer metastases. Diagn Mol Pathol 5: 127–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matsuura N, Puzon-McLaughlin W, Irie A, Morikawa Y, Kakudo K, Takada Y 1996 Induction of experimental bone metastasis in mice by transfection of integrin alpha 4 beta 1 into tumor cells. Am J Pathol 148: 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mbalaviele G, Dunstan CR, Sasaki A, Williams PJ, Mundy GR, Yoneda T 1996 E-cadherin expression in human breast cancer cells suppresses the development of osteolytic bone metastases in an experimental metastasis model. Cancer Res 56: 4063–4070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bellahcene A, Kroll M, Liebens F, Castronovo V 1996 Bone sialoprotein expression in primary human breast cancer is associated with bone metastases development. J Bone Miner Res 11: 665–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bellahcene A, Menard S, Bufalino R, Moreau L, Castronovo V 1996 Expression of bone sialoprotein in primary human breast cancer is associated with poor survival. Int J Cancer 69: 350–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bundred NJ, Walls J, Ratcliffe WA 1996 Parathyroid hormone-related protein, bone metastases and hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 78: 354–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kurebayashi J, Kurosumi M, Sonoo H 1996 A new human breast cancer cell line, KPL-3C, secretes parathyroid hormone-related protein and produces tumours associated with microcalcifications in nude mice. Br J Cancer 74: 200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coleman RE, Houston S, James I, Rodger A, Rubens RD, Leonard RC, Ford J 1992 Preliminary results of the use of urinary excretion of pyridinium crosslinks for monitoring metastatic bone disease. Br J Cancer 65: 766–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luparello C, Birch MA, Gallagher JA, Burtis WJ 1997 Clonal heterogeneity of the growth and invasive response of a human breast carcinoma cell line to parathyroid hormone-related peptide fragments. Carcinogenesis 18: 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Guise TA, Mundy GR 1996 Physiological and pathological roles of parathyroid hormonerelated peptide. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 5: 307–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iguchi H, Tanaka S, Ozawa Y, Kashiwakuma T, Kimura T, Hiraga T, Ozawa H, Kono A 1996 An experimental model of bone metastasis by human lung cancer cells: the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in bone metastasis. Cancer Res 56: 4040–4043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Iwamura M, di Sant’Agnese PA, Wu G, Benning CM, Cockett AT, Deftos LJ, Abrahamsson PA 1993 Immunohistochemical localization of parathyroid hormone-related protein in human prostate cancer. Cancer Res 53: 1724–1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 46.
    Kuno H, Kurian M, Hendy GD, White J, Deluca H, Nanes MS 1994 Tumor necrosis factor-a regulates nuclear protein-DNA binding at the vitamin D response element of the rat osteocalcin gene. Endocrinology 134: 2524–2531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 47.
    Vargas SJ, Gillespie MT, Powell GJ, Southby J, Danks JA, Moseley JM, Martin TJ 1992 Localization of parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA expression in breast cancer and metastatic lesions by in situ hybridization. J Bone Miner Res 7: 971–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 48.
    Luparello C, Ginty AF, Gallagher JA, Pucci-Minafra I, Minafra S 1993 Transforming growth factor-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3, urokinase and parathyroid hormone-related peptide expression in 8701-BC breast cancer cells and clones. Differentiation 55: 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 49.
    Relf M, LeJeune S, Scott PA, Fox S, Smith K, Leek R, Moghaddam A, Whitehouse R, Bicknell R, Harris AL 1997 Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial cellgrowth factor, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor growth factor beta-1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, placenta growth factor, and pleiotrophin in human primary breast cancer and its relation to angiogenesis. Cancer Res 57: 963–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 50.
    Crichton MB, Nichols JE, Zhao Y, Bulun SE, Simpson ER 1996 Expression of transcripts of interleukin-6 and related cytokines by human breast tumors, breast cancer cells, and adipose stromal cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 118: 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 51.
    Miyashiro I, Kaname T, Shin E, Wakasugi E, Monden T, Takatsuka Y, Kikkawa N, Muramatsu T, Monden M, Akiyama T 1997 Midkine expression in human breast cancers: expression of truncated form. Breast Cancer Res Treat 43: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 52.
    Quinn KA, Treston AM, Unsworth EJ, Miller MJ, Vos M, Grimley C, Battey J, Mulshine JL, Cuttitta F 1996 Insulin-like growth factor expression in human cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem 271: 11477–11483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 53.
    Ichinose Y, Iguchi H, Ohta M, Katakami H 1993 Establishment of lung cancer cell line producing parathyroid hormone-related protein. Cancer Lett 74: 119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 54.
    Stuart-Harris R, Ahern V, Danks JA, Gurney H, Martin TJ 1993 Hypercalcaemia in small cell lung cancer: report of a case associated with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Eur J Cancer 29A: 1601–1604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 55.
    Rizzoli R, Feyen JH, Grau G, Wohlwend A, Sappino AP, Bonjour JP 1994 Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production in a human lung squamous cell carcinoma line. J Endocrinol 143: 333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 56.
    Fischer JR, Darjes H, Lahm H, Schindel M, Drings P, Krammer PH 1994 Constitutive secretion of bioactive transforming growthfactor beta 1 by small cell lung cancer cell lines. Eur J Cancer 30A: 2125–2129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 57.
    Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Comley M, Kaklamanis L, Turley H, O’Byrne K, Harris AL, Gatter KC 1997 Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (thymidine phosphorylase) expression in lung cancer. J Pathol 181: 196–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 46.
    Kuno H, Kurian M, Hendy GD, White J, Deluca H, Nanes MS 1994 Tumor necrosis factor-a regulates nuclear protein-DNA binding at the vitamin D response element of the rat osteocalcin gene. Endocrinology 134: 2524–2531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 47.
    Vargas SJ, Gillespie MT, Powell GJ, Southby J, Danks JA, Moseley JM, Martin TJ 1992 Localization of parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA expression in breast cancer and metastatic lesions by in situ hybridization. J Bone Miner Res 7: 971–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 48.
    Luparello C, Ginty AF, Gallagher JA, Pucci-Minafra I, Minafra S 1993 Transforming growth factor-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3, urokinase and parathyroid hormone-related peptide expression in 8701-BC breast cancer cells and clones. Differentiation 55: 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 49.
    Relf M, LeJeune S, Scott PA, Fox S, Smith K, Leek R, Moghaddam A, Whitehouse R, Bicknell R, Harris AL 1997 Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial cellgrowth factor, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor growth factor beta-1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, placenta growth factor, and pleiotrophin in human primary breast cancer and its relation to angiogenesis. Cancer Res 57: 963–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Crichton MB, Nichols JE, Zhao Y, Bulun SE, Simpson ER 1996 Expression of transcripts of interleukin-6 and related cytokines by human breast tumors, breast cancer cells, and adipose stromal cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 118: 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 51.
    Miyashiro I, Kaname T, Shin E, Wakasugi E, Monden T, Takatsuka Y, Kikkawa N, Muramatsu T, Monden M, Akiyama T 1997 Midkine expression in human breast cancers: expression of truncated form. Breast Cancer Res Treat 43: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 52.
    Quinn KA, Treston AM, Unsworth EJ, Miller MJ, Vos M, Grimley C, Battey J, Mulshine JL, Cuttitta F 1996 Insulin-like growth factor expression in human cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem 271: 11477–11483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 53.
    Ichinose Y, Iguchi H, Ohta M, Katakami H 1993 Establishment of lung cancer cell line producing parathyroid hormone-related protein. Cancer Lett 74: 119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 54.
    Stuart-Harris R, Ahern V, Danks JA, Gurney H, Martin TJ 1993 Hypercalcaemia in small cell lung cancer: report of a case associated with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Eur J Cancer 29A: 1601–1604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 55.
    Rizzoli R, Feyen JH, Grau G, Wohlwend A, Sappino AP, Bonjour JP 1994 Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production in a human lung squamous cell carcinoma line. J Endocrinol 143: 333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 56.
    Fischer JR, Darjes H, Lahm H, Schindel M, Drings P, Krammer PH 1994 Constitutive secretion of bioactive transforming growthfactor beta 1 by small cell lung cancer cell lines. Eur J Cancer 30A: 2125–2129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis MI, Comley M, Kaklamanis L, Turley H, O’Byrne K, Harris AL, Gatter KC 1997 Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (thymidine phosphorylase) expression in lung cancer. J Pathol 181: 196–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 58.
    Bentley H, Hamdy FC, Hart KA, Seid JM, Williams JL, Johnstone D, Russell RG 1992 Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in human prostatic adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br J Cancer 66: 1159–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 59.
    Boden SD, Hair G, Titus L, Racine M, McCuaig K, Wozney JM, Nanes MS 1997 Glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-6. Endocrinology 138: 2820–2828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 60.
    Jackson MW, Bentel JM, Tilley WD 1997 Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 157: 2323–2328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 61.
    Barrack ER 1997 TGF beta in prostate cancer: a growth inhibitor that can enhance tumorigenicity. Prostate 31: 61–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 62.
    Gu ZJ, Costes V, Lu ZY, Zhang XG, Pitard V, Moreau JF, Bataille R, Wijdenes J, Rossi JF, Klein B 1996 Interleukin-10 is a growth factor for human myeloma cells by induction of an oncostatin M autocrine loop. Blood 88: 3972–3986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 63.
    Janicek MJ, Hayes DF, Kaplan WD 1994 Healing flare in skeletal metastases from breast cancer. Radiology 192: 201–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 64.
    Kream BE, Rowe DW, Gworek SC, Raisz LG 1980 Parathyroid hormone alters collagen synthesis and procollagen mRNA levels in fetal rat calvaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 5654–5658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 65.
    McCarthy TL, Centrella M, Canalis E 1989 Parathyroid hormone enhances the transcript and polypeptide levels of insulin-like growth factor I in osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone. Endocrinology 124: 1247–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    McCarthy TL, Centrella M, Canalis E 1989 Regulatory effects of insulin-like growth factors I and II on bone collagen synthesis in rat calvarial cultures. Endocrinology 124: 301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    McCarthy TL, Centrella M 1993 Regulation of IGF activity in bone. Adv Exp Med Biol 343: 407–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    McCarthy TL, Thomas MJ, Centrella M, Rotwein P 1995 Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I transcription by cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) in fetal rat bone cells through an element within exon 1: protein kinase A-dependent control without a consensus AMP response element. Endocrinology 136: 3901–3908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 69.
    Canalis E, Centrella M, Burch W, McCarthy TL 1989 Insulin-like growth factor I mediates selective anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in bone cultures. J Clin Invest 83: 60–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    Canalis E, McCarthy TL, Centrella M 1990 Differential effects of continuous and transient treatment with parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrp) on bone collagen synthesis. Endocrinology 126: 1806–1812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 71.
    Body JJ, Coleman RE, Piccart M 1996 Use of bisphosphonates in cancer patients. Cancer Treat Rev 22: 265–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 72.
    Hortobagyi GN, Theriault RL, Porter L, Blayney D, Lipton A, Sinoff C, Wheeler H, Simeone JF, Seaman J, Knight RD 1996 Efficacy of pamidronate in reducing skeletal complications in patients with breast cancer and lytic bone metastases. Protocol 19 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 335: 1785–1791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    Van Veldhuizen PJ, Sadasivan R, Cherian R, Wyatt A 1996 Urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in human prostate carcinomas. Am J Med Sci 312: 8–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 74.
    Koutsilieris M, Frenette G, Lazure C, Lehoux JG, Govindan MV, Polychronakos C 1993 Urokinase-type plasminogen activator: a paracrine factor regulating the bioavailability of IGFs in PA-III cell-induced osteoblastic metastases. Anticancer Res 13: 481–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 75.
    Achbarou A, Kaiser S, Tremblay G, Ste-Marie LG, Brodt P, Goltzman D, Rabbani SA 1994 Urokinase overproduction results in increased skeletal metastasis by prostate cancer cells in vivo. Cancer Res 54: 2372–2377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 76.
    Cramer SD, Chen Z, Peehl DM 1996 Prostate specific antigen cleaves parathyroid hormone-related protein in the PTH-like domain: inactivation of PTHrP-stimulated cAMP accumulation in mouse osteoblasts. J Urol Aug; 156(2 Pt 1): 526–531.Google Scholar
  76. 77.
    Wang DC, Kottamasu SR, Karvelis KC 1996 Scintigraphy in metabolic bone disease. In Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. Third ed. Murray J. Favus editor. New York. Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  77. 78.
    Soderlund V 1996 Radiological diagnosis of skeletal metastases. Eur Radiol 6: 587–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 79.
    Limouris GS, Voliotopoulos V, Stavraka A, Vlahos L 1997 99mTc-antigranulocyte bone marrow scintigraphy of breast and prostate skeletal metastases. Anticancer Res 17: 1615–1618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 80.
    Ryan PJ, Fogelman I 1997 Bone scintigraphy in metabolic bone disease. Semin Nucl Med 27: 291–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Gold RH, Bassett LW 1986 Radionuclide evaluation of skeletal metastases: practical considerations. Skeletal Radiol 15: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Vinholes J, Coleman R, Eastell R 1996 Effects of bone metastases on bone metabolism: implications for diagnosis, imaging and assessment of response to cancer treatment. Cancer Treat Rev 22: 289–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 83.
    Body JJ, Dumon JC, Gineyts E, Delmas PD 1997 Comparative evaluation of markers of bone resorption in patients with breast cancer-induced osteolysis before and after bisphosphonate therapy. Br J Cancer 75: 408–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 84.
    Perachino M, Di Ciolo L, Barbetti V, Puppo P 1996 Procollagen type I carboxyterminal extension peptide in serum: a reliable marker of bone metastatic disease in newly diagnosed prostate cancer? Eur Urol 29: 366–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 85.
    Akimoto S, Akakura K, Shimazaki J 1996 Clinical usefulness of serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen in patients with prostate cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol 26: 157–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 86.
    Wolff JM, Bares R, Jung PK, Buell U, Jakse G 1996 Prostate-specific antigen as a marker of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. Urol Int 56: 169–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 87.
    Wolff JM, Boeckmann W, Effert PJ, Handt S, Jakse G 1996 Clinical use of prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density in the staging of patients with cancer of the prostate. Eur Urol 30: 451–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 88.
    Lorente JA, Morote J, Raventos C, Encabo G, Valenzuela H 1996 Clinical efficacy of bone alkaline phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in the diagnosis of bone metastasis in prostate cancer. J Urol 155: 1348–1351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 89.
    Chen SS, Chen KK, Lin AT, Chang YH, Wu HH, Hsu TH, Chang LS. The significance of serum alkaline phosphatase bone isoenzyme in prostatic carcinoma with bony metastasis. Br J Urol 1997 Feb;79(2): 217–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 90.
    Ikeda I, Miura T, Kondo I 1996 Pyridinium cross-links as urinary markers of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. Br J Urol 77: 102–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    Hosoya Y, Arai K, Honda M, Sumi S, Yoshida K 1997 Serum levels of the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen as markers of bone metastases in patients with prostate carcinoma. Eur Urol 31: 220–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 92.
    Westerhuis LW, Delaere KP 1997 Diagnostic value of some biochemical bone markers for the detection of bone metastases in prostate cancer. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 35: 89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Plebani M, Bernardi D, Zaninotto M, De Paoli M, Secchiero S, Sciacovelli L 1996 New and traditional serum markers of bone metabolism in the detection of skeletal metastases. Clin Biochem 29: 67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 94.
    Bates T 1992 A review of local radiotherapy in the treatment of bone metastases and cord compression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 23: 217–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 95.
    Nanes MS, Kuno H, Demay MB, Kurian M, Hendy GN, DeLuca HF, Titus L, Rubin J 1994 A single upstream element confers responsiveness to 1,25(OH)2D3 and tumor necrosis factor-a in the rat osteocalcin gene. Endocrinology 134: 1113–1120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 96.
    Nielsen OS 1996 Palliative treatment of bone metastases. Acta Oncol 35(Suppl 5): 58–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Mercadante S 1997 Malignant bone pain: pathophysiology and treatment. Pain 69: 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 98.
    Twycross RG 1995 Management of pain in skeletal metastases. Clin Orthop 312: 187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 99.
    Portenoy RK 1996 Adjuvant analgesic agents. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 10: 103–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 100.
    Mercadante S 1994 Prevalence, causes and mechanisms of pain in home-care patients with advanced cancer. Pain Clin 7: 131–136.Google Scholar
  100. 101.
    Fleisch H 1997 Bisphosphonates in bone diseases. From laboratory to the patient. Third ed. New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  101. 102.
    Hughes DE, Wright KR, Uy HL, Sasaki A, Yoneda T, Roodman GD, Mundy GR, Boyce BF 1995 Bisphosphonates promote apoptosis in murine osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 10: 1478–1487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Martoni A, Guaraldi M, Camera P, Biagi R, Marri S, Beghe F, Pannuti F 1991 Controlled clinical study on the use of dichloromethylene diphosphonate in patients with breast carcinoma metastasizing to the skeleton. Oncology 48: 97–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Ernst DS, MacDonald RN, Paterson AH, Jensen J, Brasher P, Bruera E 1992 A double-blind, crossover trial of intravenous clodronate in metastatic bone pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 7: 4–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 105.
    Lahtinen R, Laakso M, Palva I, Virkkunen P, Elomaa I1992 Randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre trial of clodronate in multiple myeloma. Lancet. 340(8827): 1049–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 106.
    Paterson AHG, Powles TJ, Kanis JA, McCloskey E, Hanson J, Ashley S 1993 Double-blind controlled trial of oral clodronate in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 11: 59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 107.
    Van Holten-Verzantvoort AT, Kroon HM, Bijvoet OLM, Cleton FJ, Beex LV, Blijham G, Hermans J, Neijt JP, Papapoulos SE, Sleeboom HP, et-al 1993 Palliative pamidronate treatment in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 11: 491–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 108.
    Conte PF, Latreille J, Mauriac L, Calabresi F, Santos R, Campos D, Bonneterre J, Francini G, Ford JM 1996 Delay in progression of bone metastases in breast cancer patients treated with intravenous pamidronate: results from a multinational randomized controlled trial. The Aredia Multinational Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 14: 2552–2559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 109.
    Kanis JA, Powles T, Paterson AH, McCloskey EV, Ashley S 1996 Clodronate decreases the frequency of skeletal metastases in women with breast cancer. Bone 19: 663–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 110.
    Diener KM 1996 Bisphosphonates for controlling pain from metastatic bone disease. Am J Health Syst Pharm 53: 1917–1927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 111.
    Blomqvist C, Elomaa I 1996 Bisphosphonate therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Acta Oncol 35(Suppl. 5): 81–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 112.
    Kylmala T, Tammela T, Risteli L, Risteli J, Taube T, Elomaa I 1993 Evaluation of the effect of oral clodronate on skeletal metastases with type 1 collagen metabolites. A controlled trial of the Finnish Prostate Cancer Group. Eur J Cancer 29A: 821–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 113.
    Coleman RE, Purohit OP, Vinholes JJ 1996 The future of bisphosphonates in cancer. Acta Oncol 35(Suppl. 5): 23–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 114.
    Stewart AF, Horst R, Deftos LJ, Cadman EC, Lang R, Broadus AE 1980 Biochemical evaluation of patients with cancer-associated hypercalcemia: evidence for humoral and nonhumoral groups. N Engl J Med 303: 1377–1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 115.
    Mundy GR 1997 Malignancy and the Skeleton. Horm Met Res 29: 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 116.
    Walls J, Bundred N, Howell A 1995 Hypercalcemia and bone resorption in malignancy. Clin Orthop 312: 51–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 117.
    Vinholes J, Guo CY, Purohit OP, Eastell R, Coleman RE 1997 Evaluation of new bone resorption markers in a randomized comparison of pamidronate or clodronate for hypercalcemia of malignancy. J Clin Oncol 15: 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 118.
    Walne AJ, Jenkins PJ, James IT, Plowman PN 1997 Pyridinium crosslinks in the monitoring of patients with bone metastases from carcinoma of the breast. Clin Oncol R Coll Radiol 9: 30–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 119.
    Roux C, Ravaud P, Cohen Solal M, de Vernejoul MC, Guillemant S, Cherruau B, Delmas P, Dougados M. Amor B 1994 Biologic, histologic and densitometric effects of oral risedronate on bone in patients with multiple myeloma. Bone. 15: 41–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 120.
    Peest D, Deicher H, Fett W, Harms P, Braun HJ, Planker M, Kindler U, Klinkenstein C, Schafer E, Schumacher K, Siecke H 1996 Pyridinium cross-links in multiple myeloma: correlation with clinical parameters and use for monitoring of intravenous clodronate therapy— a pilot study of the German Myeloma Treatment Group (GMTG). Eur J Cancer 32A: 2053–2057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 121.
    Clarke NW, Holbrook IB, McClure J, George NJ. Osteoclast inhibition by pamidronate in metastatic prostate cancer: a preliminary study. Br J Cancer 1991; 63: 420–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 122.
    Takeuchi S, Arai K, Saitoh H, Yoshida K, Miura M 1996 Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline as potential markers of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. J Urol 156: 1691–1695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 123.
    van Zaanen HC, Koopmans RP, Aarden LA, Rensink HJ, Stouthard JM, Warnaar SO, Lokhorst HM, van Oers MH 1996 Endogenous interleukin 6 production in multiple myeloma patients treated with chimeric monoclonal anti-IL6 antibodies indicates the existence of a positive feed-back loop. J Clin Invest 98: 1441–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 124.
    Powell GJ, Southby J, Danks JA, Stillwell RG, Hayman JA, Henderson MA, Bennett RC, Martin TJ 1991 Localization of parathyroid hormone-related protein in breast cancer métastases: increased incidence in bone compared with other sites. Cancer Res 51: 3059–3061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 125.
    Lokhorst HM, Lamme T, de Smet M, Klein S, de Weger RA, van Oers R, Bloem AC 1994 Primary tumor cells of myeloma patients induce interleukin-6 secretion in long-term bone marrow cultures. Blood 84: 2269–2277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 126.
    Strang P 1996 Analgesic effect of bisphosphonates on bone pain in breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol 35(Suppl. 5): 50–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 127.
    Van der Pluijm G, Vloedgraven H, van Beek E, van der Wee-Pals L, Löwik C, Papapoulos S 1996 Bisphosphonates inhibit the adhesion of breast cancer cells to bone matrices in vitro. J Clin Invest 98: 698–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 128.
    Gudgeon CA, Werner ED, Dent DM 1996 A re-evaluation of isotope screening for skeletal metastases in node-negative breast cancer. S Afr Med J 86: 166–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 129.
    Centrella M, McCarthy TL, Canalis E 1988 Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity independently of its effect on deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in osteoblast-enriched bone cell cultures Endocrinology 123: 1442–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 130.
    Ferrer FA, Miller LJ, Andrawis RI, Kurtzman SH, Albertsen PC, Laudone VP, Kreutzer DL 1997 Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human prostate cancer: in situ and in vitro expression of VEGF by human prostate cancer cells. J Urol 157: 2329–2333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 131.
    Inoue M, Minami M, Fujii Y, Matsuda H, Shirakura R, Kido T 1997 Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6-producing lung cancer cell line, LCAM. J Surg Oncol 64: 347–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 132.
    Kohn EC, Liotta LA 1995 Molecular insights into cancer invasion: strategies for prevention and intervention. Cancer Res 55: 1856–1862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 133.
    Jaques G, Rotsch M, Wegmann C, Worsen U, Maasberg M, Havemann K 1988 Production of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor I and response to exogenous IGF-I in small cell lung cancer cell lines. Exp Cell Res 176: 336–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 134.
    Hoskin PJ 1995 Radiotherapy in the management of bone pain. Clin Orthop 312: 105–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 135.
    Morinaga Y, Fujita N, Ohishi K, Tsuruo T 1997 Stimulation of interleukin-11 production from osteoblast-like cells by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor cell factors. Int J Cancer 71: 422–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark S. Nanes
  • Louisa Titus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations