Markers of Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in a California Population
Because of the distinctive geographic pattern of breast cancer, which generally increases with increasing latitude and consequently decreasing ultraviolet B light, it was proposed that vitamin D may alter breast cancer risk [1, 2]. The geographic pattern of breast cancer incidence and mortality [1, 2] was noted to be strikingly similar to that of colon cancer, for which dietary intake of vitamin D has been reported to be protective. A study of serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations showed an inverse association with colon cancer incidence . Animal studies have supported a possible protective effect of dietary vitamin D in mammary tumor development . Milk is fortified with vitamin D in the United States, although it it has not been fortified in Europe, except in some northern countries. A case-control study in an area with some vitamin D added to milk found that consumption of 3 or more 8-oz. glasses a day of milk was associated with a 23 per cent reduction in risk of breast cancer . These lines of evidence led to this prospective study which examined the association of milk consumption, the primary source of dietary vitamin D in the U. S. diet, and breast cancer incidence. The study was performed in a cohort of elderly women who were followed for 16 years in Rancho Bernardo, California, USA.
KeywordsBreast Cancer Breast Cancer Incidence Dietary Vitamin Milk Consumption Mammary Tumorigenesis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Garland C, Comstock G, Garland F. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: eight-year study. Lancet 1990;2:1176–8.Google Scholar