Markers of Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in a California Population

  • Edward D. Gorham
  • Cedric F. Garland
  • Frank C. Garland

Abstract

Because of the distinctive geographic pattern of breast cancer, which generally increases with increasing latitude and consequently decreasing ultraviolet B light, it was proposed that vitamin D may alter breast cancer risk [1, 2]. The geographic pattern of breast cancer incidence and mortality [1, 2] was noted to be strikingly similar to that of colon cancer, for which dietary intake of vitamin D has been reported to be protective. A study of serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations showed an inverse association with colon cancer incidence [3]. Animal studies have supported a possible protective effect of dietary vitamin D in mammary tumor development [4]. Milk is fortified with vitamin D in the United States, although it it has not been fortified in Europe, except in some northern countries. A case-control study in an area with some vitamin D added to milk found that consumption of 3 or more 8-oz. glasses a day of milk was associated with a 23 per cent reduction in risk of breast cancer [5]. These lines of evidence led to this prospective study which examined the association of milk consumption, the primary source of dietary vitamin D in the U. S. diet, and breast cancer incidence. The study was performed in a cohort of elderly women who were followed for 16 years in Rancho Bernardo, California, USA.

Keywords

Europe Anthracene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Garland F, Garland C, Gorham E, Young J, Jr. Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prey Med 1990;19:614–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gorham E, Garland F, Garland C. Sunlight and breast cancer incidence in the USSR. Int J Epidemiol 1990;18:820–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garland C, Comstock G, Garland F. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: eight-year study. Lancet 1990;2:1176–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jacobson E, James K, Newmark H, Carroll K. Effects of dietary fat, calcium, and vitamin D on growth and mammary tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethlybenz(a)anthracene in female SpragueDawley rats. Cancer Res 1989;49:6300–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Pukkala E, Aromaa A. Intake of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer. Bri J Cancer 1996;73:687–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward D. Gorham
    • 1
  • Cedric F. Garland
    • 1
  • Frank C. Garland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Family and Preventive MedicineUniversity of California, San Diego, and the Naval Health Research CenterSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations