ARQ and Interleaving Techniques

  • Irving S. Reed
  • Xuemin Chen
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 508)


Modern communication systems usually need some form of error control to achieve a low bit-error rate and to guarantee a stipulated constant quality of service. All of the error-control systems discussed in the preceding eight chapters can be used on channels in which the message flow is in only one direction. Such error-control systems are called forward error-correcting (FEC) systems. However, in many applications data flow is bi-directional. In such cases messages are sent over the “forward” channel and acknowledgment signals are sent back from the “return” channel. The simplest error control for channels with feedback is the technique, called automatic repeat-request (ARQ) protocol[2]. In these protocols the transmitted data are encoded for error detection; detected errors at the receiver result in the generation of a retransmission request. ARQ provides the best performance on pure-burst channels with memory while most FEC schemes work efficiently only on memoryless channels.


Network Layer Convolutional Code Trellis Diagram Block Interleaver Retransmission Request 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irving S. Reed
    • 1
  • Xuemin Chen
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.General Instrument CorporationSan DiegoUSA

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