Advertisement

Tungsten pp 61-84 | Cite as

Tungsten History

From Genesis to the 20th Century Products
  • Erik Lassner
  • Wolf-Dieter Schubert

Abstract

Articles concerned with tungsten history usually start by describing the discovery of tungsten ores, compounds, and the element. In reality, however, the history of tungsten began with the formation of the tungsten atoms, a very long time ago.

Keywords

High Speed Steel Cement Carbide Solar Nebula Tungsten Deposit Tungstic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References for Chapter 2

  1. 2.1.
    R. Kippenhahn and A. Weigert, Stellar Structure and Evolution, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.2.
    S. Mitton, ed., Cambridge Enzyklopaedie der Astronomie, Orbis Verlag, Munchen (1989).Google Scholar
  3. 2.3.
    W. Hillebrandt and W. Ober, Naturwissenschaften 69 (1982), 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 2.4.
    N. N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw, The Chemistry of the Elements, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1984).Google Scholar
  5. 2.5.
    H. Palme, “Cosmetic Chemistry,” in: Reviews in Modern Astronomy (G. Klare, ed.), Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 2.6.
    E.R.D. Scott, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 39 (1978), 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 2.7.
    H.E. Newsom and H. Palme, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 69 (1984), 354–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 2.8.
    H. Palme and F. Wlotzka, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 33 (1976), 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 2.9.
    H. Palme and W. Rammensee, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. 12B (1981), 949–964.Google Scholar
  10. 2.10.
    H. Palme, “Chemical Abundances in Meteorites,” in: Review of Modern Astronomy (G. Klare, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg (1988).Google Scholar
  11. 2.11.
    Landolt Börnstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Group VI, Vol. 2, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Subvol. a (K. Schaifers and H. M. Voigt, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1981).Google Scholar
  12. 2.12.
    S.W.H. Yih and C.T. Wang, Tungsten, Sources, Metallurgy, Properties and Application, Plenum Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  13. 2.13.
    H.J. Rösler, Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig (1984).Google Scholar
  14. 2.14.
    V.F. Barbanov, Int. Geol. Rev. 13 (1971), 332–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 2.15.
    K.B. Krauskopf, “Tungsten,” in: Handbook of Geochemistry (K.H. Wedepohl, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1970).Google Scholar
  16. 2.16.
    H. Grundlach and W. Thormann, Z.Dtsch. Geol. Ges. 112 (1960) 1–35.Google Scholar
  17. 2.17.
    R.F. Horsnail, “The Geology of Tungsten,” in: Proc. 1st Int. Tungsten Symp., Stockholm, pp. 18–31, Mining Journal Books Ltd., London (1979).Google Scholar
  18. 2.18.
    A. Smith, in: Proc. 1st Int. Tungsten Symp., Stockholm, pp. 32–63, Mining Journal Books Ltd., London (1979).Google Scholar
  19. 2.19.
    F. Bender, in: Proc. 1st Int. Tungsten Symp., Stockholm, pp. 2–17, Mining Journal Books Ltd., London (1979).Google Scholar
  20. 2.20.
    Wu Weisun, in: Proc. 1st Int. Tungsten Symp., Stockholm, pp. 118–126, Mining Journal Books Ltd., London (1979).Google Scholar
  21. 2.21.
    R.F. Stevens, Tungsten, Bull. U.S.Bur. of Mines, Minerals, Facts, Problems p. 1161 (1980).Google Scholar
  22. 2.22.
    R.F. Stevens, Tungsten, Bull. U.S.Bur. of Mines, Minerals, Facts, Problems, p. 667 (1975).Google Scholar
  23. 2.23.
    The Economics of Tungsten, Roskill Information Services London (1990).Google Scholar
  24. 2.24.
    E. Lassner, W.D. Schubert, E. Lüdertiz, and H.U Wolf, “Tungsten, Tungsten Alloys, and Tungsten Compounds,” in: Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Vol. A27, pp. 229–266 (1996).Google Scholar
  25. 2.25.
    S. Engels and R. Stolz, ABC-Geschichte der Chemie, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig (1989).Google Scholar
  26. 2.26.
    I. Kappel, Chem. Ztg. 50 (1926), 969–971.Google Scholar
  27. 2.27.
    Gmelins Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, 8. Auflage, Syst. Nr. 54, Verlag Chemie, Berlin (1933).Google Scholar
  28. 2.28.
    V. Dufek, Lazarus Ercker von Schreckenfels, manuscript prepared for the Symposium on Science and Technology of Rudolfinian Time, National Technical Museum, Prague (1997).Google Scholar
  29. 2.29.
    J. Mathesius, Sarepa oder Bergpostill, Nürnberg (1564).Google Scholar
  30. 2.30.
    J.C. Bailar, Jr., H.J. Emeleus, R. Nyholm, and A.F. Trotman-Dickenson, eds., Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1973).Google Scholar
  31. 2.31.
    H. Pastor, in: Proc. of the 1996 European Conf. on Advances in Hard Materials Production, Stockholm, pp. 3–11, EPMA, Shrewsbury (1996).Google Scholar
  32. 2.32.
    H. Kolaska, “The Dawn of the Hard Metal Age,” Powder Metall. Int. 24 (1992), 311–314.Google Scholar
  33. 2.33.
    J. Gurland and J.D. Knox, “No Child of Chance…” —From Sintered Tungsten to Cemented Tungsten to Cemented Tungsten Carbide,” in: Tungsten and Refractory Metals 3 (A. Bose and R.J. Dowding, eds.), pp. 219–227, MPIF, Princeton (1996).Google Scholar
  34. 2.34.
    Wah Changs, “Unique Plant for Concentrating Tungsten,” Eng. Min. J. (Sept. 1944).Google Scholar
  35. 2.35.
    A.P. Newey, in: Proc. 3rd Int. Tungsten Symp., Madrid, pp. 19–33, MPR Publishing Services, Shrewsbury (1985).Google Scholar
  36. 2.36.
    ITIA Information; 119–123 Hackford Road, London SW9 0QT, UK.Google Scholar
  37. 2.37.
    P. Borchers and W. Müller, in: Proc. 5th Int. Tungsten Symp., Budapest, pp. 40–55, MPR Publishing Services, Shrewsbury (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik Lassner
    • 1
  • Wolf-Dieter Schubert
    • 1
  1. 1.Vienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations