Forensic Assessment

  • Robert A. Nicholson
Part of the Perspectives in Law & Psychology book series (PILP, volume 10)

Abstract

Our judicial system often relies on specialists to supply scientific and technical information to legal decision makers. Across disciplines, the application of principles gleaned from scientific investigation and professional experience to legal issues is commonly referred to as forensics, a term deriving from the Latin word forensis (of the forum—where courts were held in ancient Rome). Forensic psychological assessment, then, refers to the application of the principles and procedures of psychological assessment to address questions raised in legal contexts; it can be conceived as an interdisciplinary specialty within psychology that requires specialized training, experience, and scholarship (Golding, 1990). The purpose of this chapter is to survey and evaluate the state of this interdisciplinary specialty, including the status of professional practice as well as the conceptual and empirical foundation on which that practice is built.

Keywords

Depression Schizophrenia Marketing Neurol Sine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, M. J. (1995). Clinician’s guide to child custody evaluations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman, M. J., & Ackerman, M. C. (1997). Custody evaluation practices: A survey of experienced professionals (revisited). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 137–145.Google Scholar
  3. Ackerman, M. J., & Schoendorf, K. (1992). The Ackerman-Schoendorf Parent Evaluation of Custody Test (ASPECT). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  4. American Law Institute. (1962). Model Penal Code. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Arkes, H. R. (1989). Principles in judgment/decision making research pertinent to legal proceedings. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 7, 429–456.Google Scholar
  6. Ashford, J. B. (1988). Assessing treatability in drug offenders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6, 139–148.Google Scholar
  7. Bagby, R. M., & Nicholson, R. A. (1992). Psychometric evaluation of two scales for assessing fitness to stand trial. In F. Losel, D. Bender, & T. Bliesener (Eds.), Psychology and law: International perspectives (pp. 440–446). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  8. Bagby, R. M., Nicholson, R. A., Rogers, R., & Nussbaum, D. (1992). Domains of competency to stand trial: A factor analytic study. Law and Human Behavior, 16, 491–508.Google Scholar
  9. Barnard, G. W, Nicholson, R. A., Hankins, G. C, Raisani, K. K., Patel, N. R., Gies, D., & Robbins, L. (1992). Itemmetric and scale analysis of a new computer-assisted competency assessment instrument (CADCOMP). Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 419–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnard, G. W, Thompson, J. W., Freeman, W. C, Robbins, L., Gies, D., & Hankins, G. C. (1991). Competency to stand trial: Description and initial evaluation of a new computer-assisted assessment tool (CADCOMP). Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 19, 367–381.Google Scholar
  11. Barron, R. (1953). An ego-strength scale which predicts response to psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 327–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartko, J. J., & Carpenter, W T. (1976). On the methods and theory of reliability. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 163, 307–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Black, B. (1988). Evolving legal standards for the admissibility of scientific evidence. Science, 239, 1508–1512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blau, T. (1984). The psychologist as expert witness. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Bonnie, R., & Slobogin, C. (1980). The role of mental health professionals in the criminal process: The case for “informed speculation”, Vriginia Law Review, 66, 427–522.Google Scholar
  16. Bonnie, R. J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 291–316.Google Scholar
  17. Bonnie, R. J. (1993). The competence of criminal defendants: Beyond Dusky and Drope. University of Miami Law Review, 47, 539–601.Google Scholar
  18. Borum, R., & Grisso, T. (1995). Psychological test use in criminal evaluations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 465–473.Google Scholar
  19. Borum, R., Otto, R., & Golding, S. L. (1993). Improving clinical judgment and decision making in forensic evaluation. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 21, 35–76.Google Scholar
  20. Brakel, S. J. (1974). Presumption, bias, and incompetency in the criminal process. Wisconsin Law Review, 1974, 1105–1130.Google Scholar
  21. Bricklin, B. (1984). Bricklin Perceptual Scales: Child Perception of Parent Series. Furlong, PA: Village Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Bricklin, B. (1990a). Perception of relationships Test (PORT). Furlong, PA: Village Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Bricklin, B. (1990b). Parent awareness skills survey (PASS). Furlong, PA: Village Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of Personality, 54, 106–148.Google Scholar
  25. Brodsky, S. L. (1989). Advocacy in the guise of scientific objectivity: An examination of Faust and Ziskin. Computers in Human Behavior, 5, 261–264.Google Scholar
  26. Brodsky, S. L. (1991). Testifying in court: Guidelines and maxims for the expert witness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  27. Brodzinsky, D. M. (1993). On the use and misuse of psychological testing in child custody evaluations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 213–219.Google Scholar
  28. Bukatman, B. A., Foy, J. L., & DeGrazie, E. (1971). What is competency to stand trial? American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 1225–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Butcher, J. N., & Williams, C. L. (1992). Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  30. Carbonell, J. L., Heilbrun, K., & Friedman, F. L. (1992). Predicting who will regain trial competency: Initial promise unfulfilled. Forensic Reports, 5, 67–76.Google Scholar
  31. Chellsen, J. A. (1986). Trial competency among mentally retarded offenders: Assessment techniques and related considerations. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 14, 177–185.Google Scholar
  32. Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. (1991). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 655–665.Google Scholar
  33. Committee on Professional Practice and Standards. (1994). Guidelines for child custody evaluations in divorce proceedings. American Psychologist, 49, 677–680.Google Scholar
  34. Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cuneo, D. J., & Brelje, T. B. (1984). Predicting probability of attaining fitness to stand trial. Psychological Reports, 55, 35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Daniel, A. E., Beck, N. C, Herath, A., Schmitz, M., & Menninger, K. (1984). Factors correlated with psychiatric recommendations of incompetency and insanity. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 12, 527–544.Google Scholar
  37. Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 113 S. Ct. 2786 (1993).Google Scholar
  38. Dawes, R. M (1989). Experience and validity of clinical judgment: The illusory correlation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 7, 457–467.Google Scholar
  39. Dusky v. United States, 362 U.S. 402 (1960).Google Scholar
  40. Elwork, A. (Ed.). (1984a). Psycholegal assessment, diagnosis, and testimony [Special issue]. Law and Human Behavior, 8(3 & 4).Google Scholar
  41. Elwork, A. (1984b). Psycholegal assessment, diagnosis, and testimony: A new beginning. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 197–203.Google Scholar
  42. Everington, C. T., & Luckasson, R. (1992). Competence Assessment for Standing Trial for Defendants with Mental Retardation (CAST*MR) test manual. Columbus, OH: International Diagnostic Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 319–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ewing, C. P. (1990). Juveniles or adults? Forensic assessment of juveniles considered for trial in criminal court. Forensic Reports, 3, 3–13.Google Scholar
  45. Godinez v. Moran, 113 St. C. 2680 (1993).Google Scholar
  46. Farber, I. E. (1975). Sane and insane: Constructions and misconstructions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 589–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Faust, D. (1984). The limits of scientific reasoning. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  48. Faust, D. (Ed.). (1989a). Judgment and decision processes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 7(4).Google Scholar
  49. Faust, D. (1989b). Data integration in legal evaluations: Can clinicians deliver on their premises? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 7, 469–483.Google Scholar
  50. Faust, D., & Nurcombe, B. (1989). Improving the accuracy of clinical judgment. Psychiatry, 52, 197–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Faust, D., & Ziskin, J. (1988). The expert witness in psychology and psychiatry. Science, 241, 31–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Faust, D., & Ziskin, J. (1989). Forensic neuropsychology: Challenging the assessment of brain damage. Marina Del Rey, CA: Law and Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  53. Fein, R. A. (1984). How the insanity acquittal retards treatment. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 283–292.Google Scholar
  54. Fennig, S., Craig, T. J., Tanenberg-Karant, M., & Bromet, E. J. (1994). Comparison of facility and research diagnoses in first-admission psychotic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1423–1429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Finkel, N. J., & Sabat, S. R. (1984). Split-brain madness: An insanity defense waiting to happen. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 225–252.Google Scholar
  56. Frye v. United States. 293 F. 1013 (D.C. Cir., 1923).Google Scholar
  57. Fukunaga, K., Pasewark, R., Hawkins, M., & Gudeman, H. (1981). Insanity plea: Interexaminer agreement and concordance of psychiatric opinion and court verdict. Law and Human Behavior, 5, 325–328.Google Scholar
  58. Garb, H. N. (1992). The trained psychologist as expert witness. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 451–467.Google Scholar
  59. Golding, S. L. (1990). Mental health professionals and the courts: The ethics of expertise. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 13, 281–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Golding, S. L. (1992). Studies of incompetent defendants: Research and social policy implications. Forensic Reports, 5, 77–83.Google Scholar
  61. Golding, S. L., & Roesch, R. (1987). The assessment of criminal responsibility: A historical approach to a current controversy. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (pp. 395–436). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Golding, S. L., Roesch, R., & Schreiber, J. (1984). Assessment and conceptualization of competency to stand trial: Preliminary data on the Interdisciplinary Fitness Interview. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 321–334.Google Scholar
  63. Goldstein, J., Freud, A., & Solnit, A. J. (1973). Beyond the best interests of the child. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  64. Gordon, R., & Peek, L. (1987). The Custody Quotient. Dallas, TX: The Wilmington Institute.Google Scholar
  65. Gothard, S., Rogers, R., & Sewell, K. W. (1995). Feigning incompetency to stand trial: An investigation of the George Court Competency Test. Law and Human Behavior, 19, 363–373.Google Scholar
  66. Gothard, S., Viglione, D., Meloy, J. R., & Sherman, M. (1995). Detection of malingering in competency to stand trial evaluations. Law and Human Behavior, 19, 493–506.Google Scholar
  67. Graham, J. R. (1993). MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Greenland, C, & Rosenblatt, E. (1972). Remands for psychiatric examination in Ontario, 1969–1970. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 17, 387–401.Google Scholar
  69. Grisso, T. (1986). Evaluating competencies: Forensic assessments and instruments. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  70. Grisso, T. (1987). The economic and scientific future of forensic psychological assessment. American Psychologist, 42, 831–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Grisso, T. (1988). Competency to stand trial evaluations: A manual for practice. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.Google Scholar
  72. Grisso, T. (1991). A developmental history of the American Psychology-Law Society. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 213–231.Google Scholar
  73. Grisso, T. (1992). Five-year research update (1986–1990): Evaluations for competence to stand trial. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 0, 353–366.Google Scholar
  74. Grisso, T. (1996). Pretrial clinical evaluations in criminal cases: Past trends and future directions. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 90–106.Google Scholar
  75. Grisso, T., Cocozza, J. J., Steadman, H. J., Fisher, W. H., & Greer, A. (1994). The organization of pretrial forensic evaluation services: A national profile. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 377–394.Google Scholar
  76. Halleck, S. L., Hoge, S. K., Miller, R. D., Sadoff, R. L., and Halleck, N. H. (1992). The use of psychiatrie diagnoses in the legal process: Task force report of the American Psychiatric Association. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 481–499.Google Scholar
  77. Heilbrun, K. (1995). Child custody evaluation: Critically assessing mental health experts and psychological tests. Family Law Quarterly, 29, 63–78.Google Scholar
  78. Heilbrun, K., Bennett, W. S., Evans, J. H., Offutt, R. A., Reiff, H. J., & White, A. J. (1988). Assessing treatability in mentally disordered offenders: A conceptual and methodological note. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6, 479–486.Google Scholar
  79. Heilbrun, K., Bennett, W. S., Evans, J. H., Offutt, R. A., Reiff, H. J., & White, A. J. (1992). Assessing treatability in mentally disordered offenders: Strategies for improving reliability. Forensic Reports, 5, 85–96.Google Scholar
  80. Heilbrun, K., & Collins, S. (1995). Evaluations of trial competency and mental state at the time of the offense: Report characteristics. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 61–67.Google Scholar
  81. Heilbrun, K., Warren, J., Rosenfeld, B., & Collins, S. (1994). The use of third party information in forensic assessments: A two-state comparison. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 22, 399–406.Google Scholar
  82. Hoffman, B. E, & Spiegel, H. (1989). Legal principles in the psychiatric assessment of personal injury litigants. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 304–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Höge, S. K., Bonnie, R. J., Poythress, N., Monahan, J., Eisenberg, M., & Feucht-Haviar, T. (1997). The Mac Arthur Adjudicative Competence Study: Development and validation of a research instrument. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 141–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Höge, S. K., & Grisso, T. (1992). Accuracy and expert testimony. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 67–76.Google Scholar
  85. Howe, E. G. (1984). Psychiatric evaluation of offenders who commit crimes while experiencing dissociative states. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 253–282.Google Scholar
  86. Hustig, H. H., & Hafner, R. J. (1990). Persistent auditory hallucinations and their relationship to delusions and mood. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 264–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jackson, M. A. (1986). Psychiatric decision-making for the courts: Judges, psychiatrists, lay people? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 9, 507–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jackson v. Indiana. 406 U.S. 715 (1972).Google Scholar
  89. Jenkins v. United States. 307 R2d 637 (1962).Google Scholar
  90. Jenkins, P. H., & Howell, R. J. (1994). Child sexual abuse examinations: Proposed guidelines for a standard of care. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 22, 5–17.Google Scholar
  91. Johnson, W. G., & Mullett, N. (1987). Georgia Court Competency Test-R. In M. Hersen & A. S. Bellack (Eds.), Dictionary of behavioral assessment techniques. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  92. Johnson, W. G., Nicholson, R. A., & Service, N. (1990). The relationship of competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 165–189.Google Scholar
  93. Keilitz, I. (1984). A model process for forensic mental health screening and evaluation. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 355–369.Google Scholar
  94. Kurlychek, R. T. (1984). The contributions of forensic neuropsychology. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 2, 147–150.Google Scholar
  95. Laboratory of Community Psychiatry (1974). Competency to stand trial and mental illness. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  96. LaFortune, K. A., & Carpenter, B. N. (March, 1996). Attorneys’ perceptions of the usefulness of extrajudicial procedures and mental health evaluations in domestic court. Paper presented at the biennial convention of the American Psychology-Law Society, Hilton, Head, SC.Google Scholar
  97. Lidz, C, Meisel, A., Zerubavel, E., Carter, M., Sestak, R., & Roth, L. (1984). Informed consent: A study of decisionmaking in psychiatry. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  98. Lipsitt, P. D., Leios, D., & McGarry, A. L. (1971). Competency for trial: A screening instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 137–141.Google Scholar
  99. Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, 48, 518–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lowery, C. (1984). The wisdom of Solomon: Criteria for child custody from the legal and clinical points of view. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 371–380.Google Scholar
  101. Matarazzo, J. (1990). Psychological testing versus psychological assessment: Validation from Binet to the school, clinic, and courtroom. American Psychologist, 45, 999–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. McDonald, D. A., Nussbaum, D. N., & Bagby, R. M. (1991). Reliability, validity, and utility of the Fitness Interview Test. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 480–484.Google Scholar
  103. Meehl, P. E. (1977). Specific etiology and other forms of strong influence: Some quantitative meanings. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2, 33–53.Google Scholar
  104. Meloy, J. R. (1986). Review of Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 14, 99–100.Google Scholar
  105. Melton, G. B. (1994). Expert opinions: “Not for cosmic understanding” (pp. 59–96). In B. D. Sales & G. Van den Bos (eds.), Psychology in litigation and legislation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  106. Melton, G. B., Petrila, J., Poythress, N. G., & Slobogin, C. (1987). Psychological evaluations for the courts: A handbook for mental health professionals and lawyers. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  107. Melton, G. B., Weithorn, L. A., & Slobogin, C. (1985). Community mental health centers and the courts: An evaluation of community-based forensic services. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  108. Morse, S. J. (1978). Crazy behavior, morals, and science: An analysis of mental health law. Southern California Law Review, 51, 527–654.Google Scholar
  109. Nicholson, R. A. (August, 1992). Defining and assessing criminal competencies. Paper presented as part of a symposium, K. Heilbrun (Chair), Advances in forensic mental health assessment, at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  110. Nicholson, R. A, Barnard, G. W., Hankins, G. C., & Robbins, L. (1994). Predicting outcome of hospitalization for incompetent defendants. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 22, 367–377.Google Scholar
  111. Nicholson, R. A., Briggs, S. R., & Robertson, H. C. (1988). Instruments for assessing competency to stand trial: How do they work? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 383–394.Google Scholar
  112. Nicholson, R. A., & Johnson, W. G. (1991). Prediction of competency to stand trial: Contribution of demographics, type of offense, clinical characteristics, and psycholegal ability. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 14, 287–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Nicholson, R. A., & Kugler, K. E. (1991). Competent and incompetent criminal defendants: A quantitative review of comparative research. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 355–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Nicholson, R. A., LaFortune, K. A., Norwood, S., & Roach, R. L. (August, 1995). Quality of pretrial competency evaluations in Oklahoma: Report content and consumer satisfaction. Paper presented as part of a symposium, Assessing the content and quality of forensic evaluations, R. K. Otto, Chair, at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  115. Nicholson, R. A., & McNulty, J. L. (1992). Outcome of hospitalization for defendants found incompetent to stand trial. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 371–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nicholson, R. A., Roach, R. L., & LaFortune, K. A. (August, 1996). Assessing defendants’ competence to proceed: Validation of the CADCOMP. Paper presented as part of a symposium, Recent developments in the assessment of competence to proceed, R. A. Nicholson, Chair, at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar
  117. Nicholson, R. A., Robertson, H. C, Johnson, W. G., & Jensen, G. (1988). A comparison of instruments for assessing competency to stand trial. Law and Human Behavior, 12, 313–321.Google Scholar
  118. Nottingham, E. J., & Mattson, R. E. (1981). A validation study of the Competency Screening Test. Law and Human Behavior, 5, 329–335.Google Scholar
  119. Ogloff, J., Schweighofer, A., Turnbull, S., & Whittemore, K. (1992). How much do we really know? A review of the empirical research on the insanity defense. In J. R. P. Ogloff (Ed.), Law and psychology: The broadening of the discipline (pp. 171–207). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  120. Otto, R. K., Barnes, G., & Jacobson, K. (March, 1996). The content and quality of criminal forensic evaluations in Florida. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, Hilton Head, SC.Google Scholar
  121. Otto, R. K., & Collins, R. P. (1995). Use of the MMPI-2/MMPI-A in child custody evaluations. In Y. S. Ben-Porath, J. R. Graham, G. C. N. Hall, R. D. Hirschman, & M. S. Zaragoza (Eds.), Forensic applications of the MMPI-2 (pp. 222–252). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  122. Otto, R. K., Poythress, N. G., Nicholson, R. A., Edens, J. F., Monahan, J., Bonnie, R., Hoge, S. K., & Eisenberg, M. (In press). Psychometric properties of the Mac Arthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA). Psychological Assessment.Google Scholar
  123. Perlin, M. (1977). The legal status of the psychologist in the courtroom. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 5, 41–54.Google Scholar
  124. Parioff, M. (1980). Psychotherapy and research: An anaclitic depression. Psychiatry, 43, 279–293.Google Scholar
  125. Poythress, N. G., Otto, R. K., & Heilbrun, K. (1991). Pretrial evaluations for criminal courts. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 18, 198–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Poythress, N., G., & Stock, H. (1980). Competency to stand trial: A historical review and some new data. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 8, 131–146.Google Scholar
  127. Quinsey, V. L. (1975). Psychiatric staff conferences of dangerous mentally disordered offenders. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 7, 60–69.Google Scholar
  128. Quinsey, V. L., & Maguire, A. (1983). Offenders remanded for a psychiatric examination: Perceived treatability and disposition. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 6, 193–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Raifman, L. J. (1979, October). Interrater reliability of psychiatrists’ evaluation of criminal defendants’ competency to stand trial and legal sanity. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychology-Law Society, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  130. Randolph, J. J., Hicks, T., Mason, D., & Cuneo, D. J. (1982). The Competency Screening Test: A validation study in Cook County, Illinois. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 9, 495–500.Google Scholar
  131. Reppucci, N., Weithorn, L., Mulvey, E., & Monahan, J. (Eds.). (1984). Children, mental health, and the law. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  132. Robey, A. (1965). Criteria for competency to stand trial: A checklist for psychiatrists. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 616–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Roesch, R., & Golding, S. L. (1980). Competency to stand trial. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  134. Roesch, R., Jackson, M. A., Sollner, R., Eaves, D., Glackman, W., & Webster, C. D. (1984). The Fitness to Stand Trial Interview Test: How four professions rate videotaped fitness interviews. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 115–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Roesch, R., Webster, C. D., & Eaves, D. (1984). The Fitness Interview Test: A method for examining fitness to stand trial. Toronto, Ontario: Research report of the Centre for Criminology, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  136. Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Eaves, D., & Webster, C. D. (1998). The Fitness Interview Test-Revised. Burnaby: BC: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute. (Available from Ronald Roesch, Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, V5A 1S6.)Google Scholar
  137. Rogers, R. (1984a). Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  138. Rogers, R. (1984b). Towards an empirical model of malingering and deception. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 2, 93–111.Google Scholar
  139. Rogers, R. (1986). Conducting insanity evaluations. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  140. Rogers, R. (1992). Treatability of mentally disordered offenders: A commentary on Heilbrun et al. Forensic Reports, 5, 97–101.Google Scholar
  141. Rogers, R., & Ewing, C. P. (1989). Ultimate issue proscriptions: A cosmetic fix and plea for empiricism. Law and Human Behavior, 13, 357–374.Google Scholar
  142. Rogers, R., & Ewing, C. P. (1992). The measurement of insanity: Debating the merits of the R-CRAS and its alternatives. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 15, 113–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rogers, R., Seman, W., & Clark, C. C. (1986). Assessment of criminal responsibility: Initial validation of the R-CRAS with the M’Naghten and GBMI standards. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 9, 67–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rogers, R., Ustad, K. L., Sewell, K. W, & Reinhart, V. (August, 1996). Incompetency to stand trial: Dimensions of the GCCT and the Dusky standard. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  145. Rogers, R., Wasyliw, O. E., & Cavanaugh, J. L. (1984). Evaluating insanity: A study of construct validity. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 293–303.Google Scholar
  146. Rogers, R., & Webster, C. D. (1989). Assessing treatability in mentally disordered offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 13, 19–29.Google Scholar
  147. Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Savitsky, J. C, & Karras, D. (1984). Competency to stand trial among adolescents. Adolescence, 19, 349–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Schreiber, J., Roesch, R., & Golding, S. (1987). An evaluation of procedures for assessing competency to stand trial. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 15, 187–203.Google Scholar
  150. Shapiro, D. (1984). Psychological evaluations and expert testimony: A practical guide to forensic work. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  151. Shatin, L., & Brodsky, S. H. (1979). Competency for trial: The Competency Screening Test in an urban hospital forensic unit. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 46, 131–134.Google Scholar
  152. Silver, E. (1995). Punishment or treatment: Comparing the lengths of confinement of successful and unsuccessful insanity defendants. Law and Human Behavior, 19, 375–388.Google Scholar
  153. Silver, E., Cirincione, C, & Steadman, H. J. (1994). Demythologizing inaccurate perceptions of the insanity defense. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 63–70.Google Scholar
  154. Skeem, J. L., Golding, S. L., Cohn, N. B., & Berge, G. (In press). The logic and reliability of evaluations of competence to stand trial. Law and Human Behavior.Google Scholar
  155. Slobogin, C, Melton, G. B., & Showalter, C. R. (1984). The feasibility of a brief evaluation of mental state at the time of the offense. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 305–321.Google Scholar
  156. Spitzer, R. L. (1975). More on pseudoscience in science and the case for psychiatric diagnosis: A critique of D. L. Rosenhan’s “On being sane in insane places” and “The contextual nature of psychiatric diagnosis.” Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 459–470.Google Scholar
  157. Stangl, D., Pfohl, B., Zimmerman, M., Bowers, W., Corenthal, C. (1985). A structured interview for the DSM-III personality disorders: A preliminary report. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 591–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Steadman, H. J., McGreevy, M. A., Morrissey, J. P., Callahan, L. A., Robbins, P. C, & Cirincione, C. (1993). Before and after Hinckley: Evaluating insanity defense reform. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  159. Stone, A. A. (1984). Law, psychiatry, and morality: Essays and analysis. Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Press.Google Scholar
  160. Stone, A. A. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder and the law: Critical review of the new frontier. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 21, 23–36.Google Scholar
  161. Sweet, J. J., Moberg, P. J., & Westergaard, C. K. (1996). Five-year follow-up survey of practices and beliefs of clinical neuropsychologists. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 202–221.Google Scholar
  162. Tepper, A. M., & Elwork, A. (1984). Competence to consent to treatment as a psycholegal concept. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 205–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Thompson, J. S., Stuart, G. L., & Holden, C. E. (1992). Command hallucinations and legal insanity. Forensic Reports, 5, 29–43.Google Scholar
  164. Ustad, K. L., Rogers, R., Sewell, K. W., & Guarnaccia, C. A. (1996). Restoration of competency to stand trial: Assessment with the Georgia Court Competency Test and the Competency Screening Test. Law and Human Behavior, 20,131–146.Google Scholar
  165. Webster, C. D., Menzies, R., & Jackson, M. A. (1982). Clinical assessment before trial: Legal issues and mental disorder. Toronto: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  166. Weissman, H. N. (1985). Psycholegal standard and the role of psychological assessment in personal injury litigation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3,135–147.Google Scholar
  167. Wildman, R. W., II, Batchelor, E. S., Thompson, L., Nelson, F. R., Moore, J. T., Patterson, M. E., and de Laosa, M. (1978). The Georgia Court Competency Test: An attempt to develop a rapid, quantitative measure of fitness for trial. Unpublished manuscript, Forensic Services Division, Central State Hospital, Milledgeville, GA.Google Scholar
  168. Wildman, R. W., II, White, P. A., & Brandenburg, C. A. (1990). The Georgia Court Competency Test: The baserate problem. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 1055–1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1997). Assessing fitness to stand trial: A comparison of institution-based evaluations and a brief screening interview. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 16, 53–66.Google Scholar
  170. Ziskin, J. (1970). Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony. Marina del Rey, CA: Law and Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  171. Ziskin, J., & Faust, D. (1988). Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony (4th ed.). Marina del Rey, CA: Law and Psychology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Nicholson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TulsaTulsaUSA

Personalised recommendations