Molecular Aspects of Vasopressin Receptor Function
The molecular mechanisms governing the G protein coupling selectivity of different members of the vasopressin receptor family were studied by using a combined molecular genetic/biochemical approach. While the V1a and V1b vasopressin receptors are selectively linked to G proteins of the Gq/11 class, the V2 vasopressin receptor is preferentially coupled to Gs. Systematic functional analysis of V1a/V2 hybrid receptors showed that the second intracellular loop of the V1a receptor is required and sufficient for efficient coupling to Gq/11, whereas the third intracellular loop of the V2 receptor is required and sufficient for coupling to Gs. By using a strategy involving the coexpression of the wild type V1a receptor with chimeric G protein αs/αq subunits, two C-terminal αq/11, residues were identified that are critical for proper receptor recognition.
We previously demonstrated -in transiently transfected COS-7 cells-that selected mutant V2 vasopressin receptors (all of which have been identified in X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus patients) containing inactivating mutations in the C-terminal third of the receptor protein (including missense, frameshift, or nonsense mutations) can be functionally rescued by coexpression with a C-terminal V2 receptor fragment (V2-tail) spanning the region where the various mutations occur. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and a newly developed sandwich ELISA revealed that the V2-tail polypeptide directly interacts with the mutant V2 receptors thus creating a functional receptor protein. To study the potential therapeutic usefulness of these findings, CHO cell lines stably expressing low levels of functionally inactive mutant V2 vasopressin receptors (E242stop, Y280C, and W284stop) were created and infected with a recombinant adenovirus coding for the V2-tail polypeptide. Following adenovirus infection, arginine vasopressin (AVP) gained the ability to stimulate cAMP formation in CHO cell clones studied. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer also proved to be a highly efficient method to achieve expression of the V2-tail fragment (as well as of the wild type V2 vasopressin of receptor fragments in vivo may represent a novel strategy in the treatment of human diseases caused by inactivating mutations in distinct G protein-coupled receptors.
KeywordsMutant Receptor Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Mutant Versus Vasopressin Receptor Receptor Fragment
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