Effectiveness of Lytic Enzymes in Isolation of Protoplasts from Trichoderma Harzianum

  • S. Kaur
  • K. G. Mukerji

Abstract

Research into the biological control of plant diseases has arisen from a need to reduce dependence on chemical pesticides whose misuse in many crop systems has led to negative effects on the environment and health. Moreover, the use of chemical pesticides and fungicides is a relatively short term measure. On the other hand biological control of plant diseases offers an answer to many persistent problems in agriculture including problems of resource limitation, non-sustainable agricultural systems and over-reliance on pesticides (Cook and Baker, 1983). Bioprotectants provide unique opportunities for crop protection because they grow and proliferate and can colonize and protect newly formed plant parts to which they were not initially applied (Harman, 1990).

Keywords

Pseudomonas Cellulase Streptomyces Microbe Chitin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abd-El Moity, T.H., Papavizas, G.C. and Shatla, M.N., 1982, Induction of new isolates of Trichoderma harzianum tolerant to fungicides and their experimental use for control of white rot of onion, Phytopath. 72: 396–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, R., 1989, Some perspectives on the application of molecular approaches to biocontrol problems, in: Biotechnology of Fungi for Improving Plant Growth (J.M. Whipps and R.D. Lumsden, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, R., 1991., Induction of rizosphere competence in the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma, in: The Rhizosphere and Plant Growth (D.L. Keister and P.B. Cregan, eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  4. Chet, I., Barak, Z. and Oppenheim, A., 1993, Genetic engineering of microorganisms for improved biocontrol activity, in: Biotechnology in Plant Disease Control (I. Chet, ed.), Willey-Liss Inc., USA.Google Scholar
  5. Cook, R..J. and Baker, K.F., 1983, The Nature and Practice of Biological Control of Plant Pathogens, 2nd ed.,American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Harman, G.E., 1990, Deployment tactics for biocontrol agents in plant pathology, in: New Directions in Biological Control, Alternative for Suppressing Agricultural Pests and Diseases (R.R. Baker and P.E. Dunn, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Harman, G.E., 1991, Seed treatment for biological control of plant diseases, Crop Prot. 10:166–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harman, G.E., Taylor, A.G. and Stasz, T.E., 1989, Combining effective strains of Trichoderma harzianum and solid matrix priming to improve biological seed treatment, Plant Dis. 73: 631–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hocart, M.J. and Peberdy, J.F., 1989, Protoplast technology and strain selection, in: Biotechnology of Fungi for Improving Plant Growth (J.M. Whipps and R.D. Lumsden, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Howell, C.R. and Sipanovic, R.D., 1983, Gliovirin, a new antibiotic from Gliocladium virens and its role in the biological control of Phythium ultimum, Can. J Microbiol. 29: 321–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hubbard, J.P., Harman, G.E. and Hadar, Y., 1983, Effect of soilborne Pseudomonas spp. on the biocontrol agent, Trichoderma hamatum, on the pea seeds, Phytopath. 73: 655–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kitamato, Y., Mori, N., Yamamoto, M., Ohiwa, T. and Ichikawa, Y., 1988, A simple method for protoplast formation and improvement of protoplast regeneration from various fungi using an enzyme from Trichoderma harzianum, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28: 445–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar, R.N., Upadhyay, R.K. and K.G. Mukerji, 1997, Strategies in biological control of plant diseases, in: IPM System in Agriculture, Vol. 2., Biocontrol in Emerging Biotechnology, (R.K. Upadhyay, K.G. Mukerji and R.L. Rajak, eds.), Aditya Books, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  14. Kumari, J.A. and Panda, T., 1992, Studies on critical analysis of factors influencing improved production of protoplasts from Trichoderma reesei mycelium, Enz. Microbiol. Technol. 14: 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lalithakumari, D., Mrinalini, C., Chandra, A.B. and Annamalai, P., 1996, Strain improvement by protoplast fusion for enhancement of biocontrol potential integrated with fungicide tolerance in Trichoderma spp., Zeitschrift ftfr Pflanzenkrankeiten und Pflanzenschutz 103: 206–212.Google Scholar
  16. Lumsden, R.D. and Lewis, J.A., 1989, Problems and progress in the selection, production, formulation and commercial use of plant disease control fungi, in: Biotechnology of Fungi for Improving Plant Growth (J.M. Whipps and R.D. Lumsden, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  17. Lynch, P.T., Collin, H.A. and Issac, S., 1985, Use of autolytic enzyme for isolation of protoplasts from Fusarium tricinctum hyphae, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 84: 473–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mukerji, K.G. and Garg, K.L., 1988a, Biocontrol of Plant Diseases, Vol.1,CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  19. Mukerji, K.G. and Garg, K.L., 1988b, Biocontrol of Plant Diseases, Vol II, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  20. Mukerji K.G., Tewari, J.P., Arora, D.K. and Saxena, G., 1992, Recent Developments in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases, Aditya Books, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  21. Musilkova, M., Fencl Z. and Seichertova, O., 1969, Release of Aspergillus niger protoplasts by Penicillium purpurogenum enzyme, Folia Microbiol. 14: 47–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oberma, H., Stobinska, H. and Kregiel, D., 1990, Obtaining and regeneration of Trichosporon cutaneum TrNu 18 protoplasts, Acta Aliment. Pol. 16: 83–96.Google Scholar
  23. Ogawa, K., Brown, J.A. and Wood, T.M., 1987, Intraspecific hybridization of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 by protoplast fusion using colour mutants, Enz. Microb. Technol. 9: 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ogawa, K., Tsuchimochi, M., Taniguchi, K. and Nakatsu, S., 1989, Interspecific hybridization of Aspergillus usamii mut shirousamii and Aspergillus niger by protoplast fusion, Agric. Biot. Chem. 53: 2873–2880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Papavizas, G.C., 1987, Genetic manipulation to improve the effectiveness of biocontrol fungi for plant diseases control, in: Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control (I. Chet, ed.), John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Peberdy, J.F., 1985, Mycolytic enzymes, in: Fungal Protoplasts: Application in Biochemistry and Genetics (J.F. Peberdy and L. Ferenezy, eds.), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  27. Pe’er, S. and Chet, I., 1990, Trichoderma protoplast fusion: a tool for improving biocontrol agents, Can. J. Microbiol. 36: 6–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reyes, F., Perez-Leblic, M.I., Martinez, M.J. and Lahoz, R., 1984, Protoplast production from filamentous fungi with their own autolytic enzymes., FEMS Microbiol. Let. 24: 281–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh, J. and Faull, J.L., 1988, Antagonism and biological control, in: Biocontrol of Plant Diseases. Vol.11. (K.G. Mukerji and K.L. Garg, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  30. Sivan, A. and Harman, G.E., 1991, Improved rhizosphere competence in a protoplast fusion progeny of Trichoderma harzianum, J Gen. Microbiol. 137: 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stasz, T.E., Harman, G.E. and Weeden, N.F., 1988, Protoplast preparation and fusion in two biocontrol strains of Trichoderma harzianum, Mycologia 80: 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Upadhyay, R.K., Mukerji, K.G. and Rajak, R.L., 1996, IPM System in Agriculture, Vol. 1: Principles and Perspective, Aditya Books, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  33. Upadhyay, R.K., Mukerji, K.G. and Rajak, R.L, 1997, 1PM System in Agriculture, Vol. 2: Biocontrol in Emerging Biotechnology, Aditya Books, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  34. Upadhyay, R.K., Mukerji, K.G. and Rajak, R.L., 1998a, IPM System in Agriculture, Vol. 3: Cereals, Aditya Books, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  35. Upadhyay, R.K., Mukerji, K.G. and Rajak, R.L., 1998b, IPM System in Agriculture, Vol. 4: Pulses, Aditya Books, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  36. Upadhyay, R.K., Mukerji, K.G., Chamola, B.P. and Dubey, O.P., 1998c, Integrated Pest and Disease Management, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  37. Villanueava, J.R. and Garcia Acha, I., 1971, Production and use of fungal protoplasts, in: Methods in Microbiology, Vol IV (C.Booth, ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Wilson C.L. and Pusey, P.L., 1985, Potential for biological control of post harvest plant diseases, Plant Dis. 69: 375–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Znidarsic, P., Pavko, A. and Komel, R., 1992, Laboratory-scale biosynthesis of Trichoderma mycolytic enzymes for protoplast release from Cochliobolus lunatus, J. Ind. Microbiol. 9: 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kaur
    • 1
  • K. G. Mukerji
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Mycology Laboratory Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations