• Satish S. C. Rao


Constipation affects 5-20% of the population and is more common in females. Each year, it accounts for more than 2.5 million patient visits to physicians [1,2]. In 1994, $840 million was spent on laxatives [3] and in 1985, $354 million was spent on health care services for patients with constipation [4]. Today, the expenditure is likely to be much higher because of escalating health care costs, an increasing array of diagnostic tests and an increasing recognition of this problem. However, in the community, many patients self-treat their “constipation”, often successfully, using either home remedies or laxatives. Hence, those who seek medical help merely constitute the tip of the “constipation iceberg”. Most of these patients have a significant problem, which merits further evaluation.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Anal Sphincter External Anal Sphincter Colon Transit Pelvic Floor Dysfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satish S. C. Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Iowa College of MedicineUniversity of Iowa Hospitals and ClinicsIowa CityUSA

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