Typical and Atypical Manifestations of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

  • Donald O. Castell


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) usually presents with heartburn or regurgitation. These symptoms occur most commonly within two hours after eating or while in the recumbent position. In addition to this typical presentation, many so-called “atypical” forms of GERD also occur. This includes angina-like chest pain, asthma, chronic cough and chronic hoarseness of voice. Although some regard symptoms of GERD as mere an annoyance, in many this may have an important effect on the quality of life (1). Furthermore, up to 20% of patients have more serious complications such as ulcerative esophagitis, peptic stricture, or epithelial metaplasia (Barrett’s esophagus) with its premalignant potential (2). In most individuals, particularly those who present to a gastroenterologist, GERD is often a chronic relapsing condition. Therefore, long-term treatment is the essence of managing this condition.


Lower Esophageal Sphincter Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Reflux Esophagitis Antireflux Surgery Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald O. Castell
    • 1
  1. 1.Kimbel Professor and Chairman Department of MedicineAllegheny University Hospitals, GraduatePhiladelphiaUSA

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