Genesis and Progression of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma

  • Ming-Qing Du
  • Peter G. Isaacson


MALT lymphomas typically arise in extranodal tissues, such as the stomach, which are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue but which have acquired MALT as the result of a chronic inflammatory disorder. In the stomach this process is exemplified by chronic gastritis caused by infection with H. pylori. The lymphoma is at first confined to the mucosa and later progresses with deeper invasion of the gastric wall, local and systemic dissemination and finally, transformation to high grade lymphoma. In its early phase the growth of gastric MALT lymphoma is stimulated by H. pylori specific T-cells and to a lesser extent, by an autoantigen. It is in this phase that eradication of H pylori may result in clinical regression of the lymphoma. Molecular genetic studies have suggested that early events in the evolution of gastric MALT lymphoma from “acquired” MALT include “genetic instability” as indicated by replication error phenotype, t(ll;14), trisomy 3, partial p53 inactivation, and c-myc mutation. Later molecular events include, probably t(l;14) and other uncharacterised, which cause complete malignant transformation and result in escape of T-cell dependency. Finally, further genetic events such as complete inactivation of the tumour suppressor genes p53and p16, and possible activation of c-myc oncogene by translocation or other undetermined abnormalities can result in high grade transformation.


gastric MALT lymphoma biology pathogenesis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Isaacson P, Wright DH: Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. A distinctive type of B-cell lymphoma. Cancer 52: 1410, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Isaacson P, Wright DH: Extranodal malignant lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Cancer 53: 2515. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hyjek E, Smith WJ, Isaacson PG: Primary B-cell lymphoma of salivary glands and its relationship to myoepithelial sialadenitis. Hum Pathol 19: 766, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Addis BJ, Hyjek E, Isaacson PG: Primary pulmonary lymphoma: a re-appraisal of its histogenesis and its relationship to pseudolymphoma and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology 13: 1, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hyjek E, Isaacson PG: Primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid and its relationship to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Hum Pathol 19: 1315, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wotherspoon AC, Diss TC, Pan LX, Schmid C, Kerr Muir MG. Lea SH. Isaacson PG: Primary low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the conjunctiva: a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma. Histopathology 23: 417, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Isaacson PG, Banks PM, Best PV, McLure SP, Muller Hermelink HK, Wyatt JI: Primary low-grade hepatic B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type. Am J Surg Pathol 19: 571, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wotherspoon AC, Ortiz Hidalgo C, Falzon MR, Isaacson PG: Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma [see comments]. Lancet 338: 1175. 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isaacson PG, Spencer J: Gastric lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori. Important Adv Oncol: 111, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Isaacson PG: Recent developments in our understanding of gastric lymphomas. Am J Surg Pathol 20 Suppl 1: SI, 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Isaacson PG, Norton AJ: Extranodal lymphomas. Edinburgh, London, Madrid, Melbourne, New York, and Tokyo: Churchill Livergstone, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wotherspoon AC, Doglioni C, Isaacson PG: Low-grade gastric B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT): a multifocal disease. Histopathology 20: 29, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Du MQ, Diss TC. Xu CF, Wotherspoon AC, Pan LX, Isaacson PG: Clonal origin of micro-lymphomas in low grade B-cell gastric MALT lymphoma. J Pathol 181S: A57, 1997 (abstr).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du MO, Diss TC, Dogan A, Wotherspoon AC, Doglioni C, Pan LX, Isaacson PG: Clone specific PCR reveals wide dissemination of gastric MALT lymphoma to the gastrointestinal mucosa. J Pathol 182S: A12, 1997 (abstr).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoshida Y, Kusakabe H, Furukawa H, Kasugai T, Miwa H, Ishiguro S, Aozasa K: Reassessment of gastric lymphoma in light of the concept of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: analysis of 53 patients. Cancer 80: 1151, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diss TC, Wotherspoon AC, Pan LX, Isaacson PG: PCR detection of tumour clones in local lymph nodes in low grade B-cell gastric MALT lymphoma. J Pathol 176: A33, 1995 (abstr).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Du MQ, Xu CF, Diss TC, Peng HZ, Wotherspoon AC, Isaacson PG, Pan LX: Intestinal dissemination of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Blood 88: 4445, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Du MQ, Peng HZ, Dogan A, Diss TC, Liu H, Pan LX, Mosley RP, Briskin MJ, Chan JK, Isaacson PG: Preferential dissemination of B-cell gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to the splenic marginal zone. Blood 90: 4071, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chan JK, Ng CS, Isaacson PG: Relationship between high-grade lymphoma and low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) of the stomach. Am J Pathol 136: 1153, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peng H, Du M, Diss TC, Isaacson PG, Pan L: Genetic evidence for a clonal link between low and high-grade components in gastric MALT B-cell lymphoma. Histopathology 30: 425, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Isaacson PG, Spencer J: Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Histopathology 11: 445, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qin Y, Greiner A, Trunk MJ, Schmausser B, Ott MM, Muller Hermelink HK: Somatic hypermutation in low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type B-cell lymphoma. Blood 86: 3528, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Du MQ, Diss TC, Xu CF, Peng HZ, Isaacson PG, Pan LX: Ongoing mutation in MALT lymphoma immunoglobulin VH gene suggests that antigen stimulation plays a role in the clonal expansion. Leukemia 10: 1190, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunn Walters DK, Isaacson PG, Spencer J: Analysis of mutations in immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes of microdissected marginal zone (MGZ) B cells suggests that the MGZ of human spleen is a reservoir of memory B cells. J Exp Med 182: 559, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dunn Walters DK, Isaacson PG, Spencer J: Sequence analysis of rearranged IgVH genes from microdissected human Peyer’s patch marginal zone B cells. Immunology 88: 618, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Negrini R, Lisato L, Zanella I, Cavazzini L, Gullini S, Villanacci V, Poiesi C, Albertini A, Ghielmi S: Helicobacter pylori infection induces antibodies cross-reacting with human gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology 101: 437, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hussell T, Isaacson PG, Crabtree JE, Dogan A, Spencer J: Immunoglobulin specificity of low grade B cell gastrointestinal lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Am J Pathol 142: 285, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chapman CJ, Dunn Walters DK, Stevenson FK, Hussell T, Isaacson PG, Spencer J: sequence analysis of immunoglobulin variable region genes which encode autoantigenes expressed by lymphomas of mucosa-asociated lymphoid tissue. J Clin Pathol-Clin Mol Pathol 49: M29, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thiede C, Alpen B, Morgner A, Ritter M, Wundisch T, Ehninger G, Bayerdorffer E, Stolte M, Neubauer A: Biased VH-gene usage and ongoing somatic mutation after Helicobacter pylori eradication in gastric low grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT. Blood 90S: 414a, 1997 (abstr).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pan L, Diss TC, Cunningham D, Isaacson PG: The bcl-2 gene in primary B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Am J Pathol 135: 7, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Isaacson PG, Wotherspoon AC, Diss T, Pan LX: Follicular colonization in B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Am J Surg Pathol 15: 819, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Isaacson PG, Androulakis Papachristou A, Diss TC, Pan L, Wright DH: Follicular colonization in thyroid lymphoma. Am J Pathol 141: 43, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Qin Y, Greiner A, Hallas C, Haedicke W, Muller Hermelink HK: Intraclonal offspring expansion of gastric low-grade MALT-type lymphoma: evidence for the role of antigen-driven high-affinity mutation in lymphomagenesis. Lab Invest 76: 477, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jacob J, Kelsoe G, Rajewsky K, Weiss U: Intraclonal generation of antibody mutants in germinal centres [see comments]. Nature 354: 389, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hussell T, Isaacson PG, Spencer J: Proliferation and differentiation of tumour cells from B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in vitro. J Pathol 169: 221, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hussell T, Isaacson PG, Crabtree JE, Spencer J: The response of cells from low-grade B-cell gastric lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue to Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 342: 571, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hussell T, Isaacson PG, Crabtree JE, Spencer J: Helicobacter pylori-specific tumour-infiltrating T cells provide contact dependent help for the growth of malignant B cells in low-grade gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [see comments]. J Pathol 178: 122, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greiner A, Knorr C, Qin Y, Sebald W, Schimpl A, Banchereau J, Muller Hermelink HK: Low-grade B cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type) require CD40-mediated signaling and Th2-type cytokines for in vitro growth and differentiation. Am J Pathol 150: 1583, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wotherspoon AC, Doglioni C, Diss TC, Pan L, Moschini A, de Boni M, Isaacson PG: Regression of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 342: 575, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wotherspoon AC: Gastric MALT lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori. Yak J Biol Med 69: 61, 1997.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thiede C, Morgner A, Alpen B, Wundisch T, Herrmann J, Ritter M, Ehninger G, Stolte M, Bayerdorffer E, Neubauer A: What role does Helicobacter pylori eradication play in gastric MALT and gastric MALT lymphoma? gastroenterology 113: s61, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bayerdorffer E, Neubauer A, Rudolph B, Thiede C, Lehn N, Eidt S, Stolte M: Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection. MALT Lymphoma Study Group. Lancet 345: 1591, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Neilsen H, Andersen LP: Activation of human phagocyte oxidative metabolism by Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 103: 1747, 1992.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Crabtree JE, Spencer J: Immunologic aspects of Helicobacter pylori infection and malignant transformation of B cells. Semin Gastrointest Dis 7: 30, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cerutti PA, Trump BF: Inflammation and oxidative stress in carcinogenesis. Cancer Cells 3: 1, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rushton PJ, Hooley R, Lazarus CM: Aleurone nuclear proteins bind to similar elements in the promoter regions of two gibberellin-regulated alpha-amylase genes. Plant Mol Biol 19: 891, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peng HZ, Ranaldi R, Diss TC, Issacson PG, Bearzi I, Pan LX: High grequency of CagA+ Helicobacter pylori infection in high grade gastric MALT B-cell lymphomas. J Pathol 1997 185: 409, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    de Jong D, van der Hulst RW, Pals G, van Dijk WC, van der Ende A, Tytgat GN, Taal BG, Boot H: Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue are not associated with more aggressive Helicobacter pylori strains as identified by CagA [see comments]. Am J Clin Pathol 106: 670, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Eck M, Schmausser B, Haas R, Greiner A, Czub S, Muller Hermelink HK: MALT-type lymphoma of the stomach is associated with Helicobacter pylori strains expressing the CagA protein. Gastroenterology 112: 1482, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jiricny J: Colon cancer and DNA repair: have mismatches met their match? Trends Genet 10: 164, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leach FS, Nicolaides NC, Papadopoulos N, Liu B, Jen J, Parsons R, Peltomaki P, Sistonen P, Aaltonen LA, Nystrom Lahti M, et al: Mutations of a mutS homolog in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Cell 75: 1215, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Parsons R, Li GM, Longley MJ, Fang WH, Papadopoulos N, Jen J, de la Chapelle A, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Modrich P: Hypermutability and mismatch repair deficiency in RER+ tumor cells. Cell 75: 1227, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Peng H, Chen G, Du M, Singh N, Isaacson PG, Pan L: Replication error phenotype and p53 gene mutation in lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Am J Pathol 148: 643, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chong JM, Fukayama M, Hayashi Y, Hishima T, Funta N, Koike M, Matsuya S, Konishi M, Miyaki M: Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in gastric lymphoma. Lab Invest 77: 639, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Simpson AJG: The natural somatic mutation frequency and human carcinogenesis. Advances in cancer research 71: 209, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wotherspoon AC, Pan LX, Diss TC, Isaacson PG: Cytogenetic study of B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 58: 35, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wotherspoon AC, Finn TM, Isaacson PG: Trisomy 3 in low-grade B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Blood 85: 2000, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dierlamm J, Pittaluga S, Wlodarska I, Stul M, Thomas J, Boogaerts M, Michaux L, Driessen A, Mecucci C, Cassiman JJ, et al: Marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of different sites share similar cytogenetic and morphologic features [see comments]. Blood 87: 299, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brynes RK, Almaguer PD, Leathery KE, McCourty A, Arber DA, Medeiros LJ, Nathwani BN: Numerical cytogenetic abnormalities of chromasomes 3,7, and 12 in marginal zone B-cell lymphomas. Hum Pathol 9: 995, 1996.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ott G, Katzenberger T, Greiner A, Kalla J, Rosenwald A, Heinrich U, Ott MM, Muller Hermelink HK: The t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation is a frequent and specific aberration in low-grade but not high-grade malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-) type. Cancer Res 57: 3944, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Auer IA, Gascoyne RD, Connors JM, Cotter FE, Greiner TC, Sanger WG, Horsman DE: (l 1;18)(q21;q21 ) is the most common translocation in MALT lymphomas. Ann Oncol 8: 979, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Levine EG, Arthur DC, Machnicki J, Frizzera G, Hurd D, Peterson B, Gajl Peczalska KJ, Bloomfield CD: Four new recurring translocations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 74: 1796, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Horsman D, Gascoyne R, Klasa R, Coupland R: ( 11; 18)(q21;q21.1 ): a recurring translocation in lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)? Genes Chromosom Cancer 4: 183, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Griffin CA, Zehnbauer BA, Beschorner WE, Ambinder R, Mann R: (11;18)(q21;q21) is a recurrent chromosome abnormality in small lymphocytic lymphoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 4: 153, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Leroux D, Seite P, Hillion J, Le Marc’Hadour F, Pegourie Bandelier B, Jacob MC, Larsen CJ, Sotto JJ: (11;18)(q21;q21) may delineate a spectrum of diffuse small B-cell lymphoma with extranodal involvement. Genes Chromosom Cancer 7: 54, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kristoffersson U, Heim S, Olsson H, Akerman M, Mitelman F: Cytogenetic studies in non-Hodgkin lymphomas-results from surgical biopsies. Hereditas 104: 1, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kastan MB, Onyekwere O, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Craig RW: Participation of p53 protein in the cellular response to DNA damage. Cancer Res 51: 6304, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lane DP: Cancer. p53, guardian of the genome [news; comment]. Nature 358: 15, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cross SM, Sanchez CA, Morgan CA, Shimke MK, Ramel S, Idzerda RL, Raskind WH, Reid BJ: A p53-dependent mouse spindle checkpoint. Science 267: 1353, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ishizaki K, Nishizawa K, Mimaki S, Aizawa S: UV-induced mutations of supF gene on a shuttle vector plasmid in p53-deficient mouse cells are qualitatively different from those in wild-type cells. Mutat Res 364: 43, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morgan SE, Kastan MB: p53 and ATM: cell cycle, cell death, and cancer. Adv Cancer Res 71: 1, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Imamura J, Miyoshi I, Koeffler HP: p53 in hématologie malignancies. Blood 84: 2412, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hall PA, Lane DP: Tumor suppressors: a developing role for p53? Curr Biol 7: R144, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Du M, Peng H, Singh N, Isaacson PG, Pan L: The accumulation of p53 abnormalities is associated with progression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Blood 86: 4587, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Evan GI, Littlewood TD: The role of c-myc in cell growth. Curr Opin Genet Dev 3: 44, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Eick D, Berger R, Polack A, Bornkamm GW: Transcription of c-myc in human mononuclear cells is regulated by an elongation block. Oncogene 2: 61, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zajac Kaye M, Levens D: Phosphorylation-dependent binding of a 138-kDa myc intron factor to a regulatory element in the first intron of the c-myc gene. J Biol Chem 265: 4547, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Johnston JM, Carroll WL: c-myc hypermutation in Burkitt’s lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 8: 431, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yu BW, Ichinose I, Bonham MA, Zajac Kaye M: Somatic mutations in c-myc intron I cluster in discrete domains that define protein binding sequences. J Biol Chem 268: 19586, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hann SR: Regulation and function of non-AUG-initiated proto-oncogenes. Biochimie 76: 880, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Korsmeyer SJ: Chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancies reveal novel proto-oncogenes. Annu Rev Immunol 10: 785, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yano T, Jaffe ES, Longo DL, Raffeld M: MYC rearrangements in histologically progressed follicular lymphomas. Blood 80: 758, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Peng HZ, Diss TC, Isaacson PG, Pan LX: C-myc gene abnormalities in mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. J Pathol 181: 381–6, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    van Krieken JH, Raffeld M, Raghoebier S, Jaffe ES, van Ommen GJ, Kluin PM: Molecular genetics of gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: unusual prevalence and pattern of c-myc rearrangements in aggressive lymphomas. Blood 76: 797, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hunter T, Pines J: Cyclins and cancer. II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age [see comments]. Cell 79: 573, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hall M, Peters G: Genetic alterations of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cdk inhibitors in human cancer. Adv Cancer Res 68: 67, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Neumeister P, Hoefler G, Beham Schmid C, Schmidt H, Apfelbeck U, Schaider H, Linkesch W, Sill H: Deletion analysis of the pl6 tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Gastroenterology 112: 1871, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming-Qing Du
    • 1
  • Peter G. Isaacson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistopathologyUniversity College London Medical SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations