α-Galactosyl-Bearing Epitopes as Potent Immunogens in Chagas’ Disease and Leishmaniasis

  • José Luis Avila
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 32)


Anti-α-galactosyl (anti-Gal) is a human natural antibody which constitutes as much as 1% of circulating IgG and which interacts specifically with the carbohydrate epitope Galα 1–3 Galβ1– 4GlcNac-R (termed the α-gal epitope). This natural antibody is unique among known human natural antibodies because of its unusually high concentration in the serum (30–100 μg/ ml)( Avila et al., 1989; Davin et al., 1987; Galili et al., 1984), and is presence in all humans (Galili et al., 1984). The only other mammals producing anti-Gal are Old World monkeys and apes (Galili et al., 1987b).


Visceral Leishmaniasis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Trypanosoma Cruzi Normal Human Serum Variant Surface Glycoprotein 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Luis Avila
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de BiomedicinaCaracasVenezuela

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