Production of Betalains by Hairy Root Cultures of Beta Vulgaris L

  • Usha Mukundan
  • Vaishali Bhide
  • Himanshu Dawda


Hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris L. produce betalains similar to roots in planta. These root cultures have shown stability in biomass and pigment production for several generations. The concentration of betalains in these root cultures is affected by various physical and chemical factors. Some of the factors which can be used for increasing the productivity of these root cultures are light, media constituents and elicitors. Thus, beet hairy root cultures can serve as a model system for studying betalain biosynthesis and also have potential for development of large-scale production of betalains for use as a food color.


Hairy Root Root Culture Hairy Root Culture Pigment Production Storage Root 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bianco-Colomas, J.; Hugues, M. Establishment and characterization of a betacyanin producing cell line of Amaranthus tricolor: inductive effects of light and cytokinin. Journal of Plant Physiology 1990, 136, 734–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bohm, H.; Rink, E. Betalains. In Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants. Vol 5; Vasil, I. K., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, 1988; pp 449–463.Google Scholar
  3. Chilton, M. D.; Tepfer, D.; Petit, A.; David, D.; Casse-Delbart, F; Tempe, J. Agrobacterium rhizogenes inserts T-DNA into the genomes of host plant cells. Nature 1982, 295, 432–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Constabel, F.; Nassif-Makki, H. Betalainbildung in Beta calluskrultiren. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 1971, 84, 629–636.Google Scholar
  5. Dilorio, A. A.; Chetham, R. D.; Weathers, P. J. Growth of transformed root cultures in a nutrient mist bioreactor: reactor performance and evaluation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1992, 37, 457–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eilert U. Elicitation: methodology and aspects of application. In Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants. Vol.4.; Vasil, I. K., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, 1987; pp 153–195.Google Scholar
  7. Flores, H. E. Use of plant cells and organ culture in the production of biological chemicals. In Biotechnology In Agricultural Chemistry. LeBaron, H. M., Mumma, R. O., Honeycutt, R. C., Duesing, J. H., Phillips, J. F., Haas, M. J., Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., 1987; pp 66–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Girod, P.A.; Zryd, J. P. Studies of the regulation of betalain biosynthesis in red beet cells in cultures: competence for light induction. Experientia 1986, 42, 653–654.Google Scholar
  9. Girod, P.A.; Zryd, J. P. Clonal variability and light induction of betalain biosynthesis in red beet cell cultures. Plant Cell Reports 1987, 6, 27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Girod, P. A; Zryd, J. P. Secondary metabolism in cultured beet (Beta vulgaris, L.) cells: differential regulation of betaxanthin and betacyanin biogenesis. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 1991, 25, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamill, J. D.; Parr, A. J.; Robins, R. J.; Rhodes, M. J. C. Secondary product formation by cultures of Beta vulgaris and Nicotiana rustica transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant Cell Reports 1986, 5, 111–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leathers, R. R.; Davin, C.; Zryd, J. P. Betalain producing cell cultures of Beta vulgaris L. var. bikores monogerm (red beet). In Vitro Cell Developmental Biology 1992, 28, 39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mukandan, U.; Carvalho, E., Curtis, W. R. Growth and pigment production by hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris L. in a bubble column reactor. Biotechnology Letters 1998, in press.Google Scholar
  14. Nilsson, T. Studies into the pigments in beet root. Lantbrukshogskolans Annaler 1970, 36, 179–219.Google Scholar
  15. Piatelli, M. Betalains: chemistry and biosynthesis and chemical taxonomy. In The Biochemistry of Plants. Vol. 7; Conn, E. E., Ed.; Academic Press: New York, 1976; pp 557–575.Google Scholar
  16. Taya, M.; Mine, K.; Kino-Oka, M..; Tone, S; Itchi, T. Production and release of pigments by culture of transformed hairy root of red beet. Journal of Fermentation Bioengineering 1992, 73, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Taya, M.; Yakura K.; Kino-Oka, M..; Tone, S; Itchi, T. Influence of medium constituents on enhancement of pigment production by batch culture of red beet hairy roots. Journal of Fermentation Bioengineering 1994, 77, 215–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Threfall, D. R.; Whitehead, I. M. Aspects of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin formation in elicited cell suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum -accumulation, metabolism and enzymology. In Manipulating Secondary Metabolism in Culture; Robins, R. J.; Rhodes, M. J. C., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: New York, 1988; pp 41–50.Google Scholar
  19. Vincent, K. R.; Scholz, R. G. Separation and quantification of red beet betacyanins and betaxanthins by high pressure liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1978, 28, 540–543.Google Scholar
  20. Watson, J. F.; Gabelman,•W. H. Seasonal changes and cultivar differences in pigment concentrations and percent dissolved solids in roots of table beets. Journal of American Horticultural Science 1982, 105, 713–716.Google Scholar
  21. Zryd, J. P.; Bauer, J.; Wyler, H.; Lavanchy, P. Pigment biosynthesis and precursor metabolism in red beet semi-continuous cell suspension cultures. In Plant Tissue Culture; Fujiwara, A. Ed.; Maruzen: Tokyo, 1982; pp 387–390.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usha Mukundan
    • 1
  • Vaishali Bhide
    • 1
  • Himanshu Dawda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesR. J. College University of BombayBombayIndia

Personalised recommendations