Quality and Shelf-Life of Meat in Case-Ready Modified Atmosphere Packaging

  • K. W. McMillin
  • N. Y. Huang
  • C. P. Ho
  • B. S. Smith


Case-ready packaging of meat in a central location involves minimal package or product manipulation before retail sale. Dynamic gas exchange modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is the replacement of the package gaseous environments through passive or active means during storage or for display. Passive systems rely upon removal of external barrier materials or changes in film permeability to cause diffusion of different gases into the package. Active systems physically replace the package gases with mixtures of a different composition. Use of CO, increases inhibition of microorganisms more than vacuum techniques. Incorporation of O, into gas mixtures will cause formation of bloomed oxymyoglobin pigments, but microorganism growth and lipid stability may be influenced. Case-ready packaging using anoxic environments for storage of meat that are exchanged for those with higher levels of oxygen before retail display gives storage life generally equivalent to conventional systems of primal cut vacuum packaging while providing extended display life compared with air-permeable over-wrap packaging. Postmortem fabrication time, gas mixture compositions, and type of products influence the color, lipid stability, microorganism growth, drip loss, formation of radical oxidation initiator compounds, and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat in gas exchange MAP. This technique may also be useful for incorporation of aerosols or gases to inhibit or destroy pathogenic microorganisms on the surface of cuts or ground meats


Retail Store Modify Atmosphere Packaging Ground Beef Fresh Meat Lipid Stability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe, Y; Kondoh, Y. Oxygen absorbers. In Controlled/Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Packaging of Foods; Brody, A.L., Ed.; Food and Nutrition Press Trumbull, CT, 1989; Chapter 9, pp 149–158Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, H. A.; Marchello, J. A. Effect of gas atmosphere packaging on psychrotrophic growth and succession on steak surfaces. J. Food Sci. 1989, 54, 274–276, 310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J. L.; Follett, M. J.; Ratcliff, P. W. Postmortem changes in the oxygen uptake and ND content of lamb muscularis semimembranosus. Nature 1969, 223, 1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avery, S. M.; Hudson, J. A.; Penney, N. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on normal ultimate pH beef (pH 5.3–5.5) at abusive storage temperatures by saturated carbon dioxide controlled atmosphere packaging. J. Food Protect. 1994, 57, 331–333, 336Google Scholar
  5. Bartkowski, L.; Dryden, F. D.; Marchello, J. A. Quality changes of beef steaks stored in controlled gas atmospheres containing high or low levels of oxygen. J. Food Protect 1982, 45, 41–45Google Scholar
  6. Bendall, J. R.; Taylor, A. A. Consumption of oxygen by the muscles of beef animals and related species. II Consumption of oxygen by post-rigor muscle. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1972, 23, 707–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Yehoshua, S. Individual seal-packaging of fruit and vegetables in plastic film. In Controlled/Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Packaging of Foods; Brody, A. L., Ed.; Food and Nutrition Press: Trumbull, CT, 1989; Chapter 6, pp 101–117Google Scholar
  8. Brody, A. L. Introduction. In Controlled/Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Packaging of Foods; Brody, A. L., Ed.; Food and Nutrition Press: Trumbull, CT, 1989; Chapter I, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  9. Brody, A. L. Modified atmosphere/vacuum packaging of meat. In Controlled/Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Pack-aging of Foods; Brody, A. L., Ed.; Food and Nutrition Press: Trumbull, CT, 1989; Chapter 2, pp 17–37Google Scholar
  10. Butler, O. D.; Bratzler, L.J.; Mailman, W.L. The effect of bacteria on the color of prepackaged retail beef cuts. Food Technol. 1953, 7, 397–400Google Scholar
  11. Buys, E. M.; Kruger, J.; Nortje, G. L. Centralised bulk pre-packaging of fresh pork retail cuts in various gas atmospheres. Meat Sci. 1994, 36, 293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cain, B. P.; Powell, V. H The shelf life of meat during retail display. CSIRO Food Res. Quarterly 1986, 46, 49–56Google Scholar
  13. Christopher, F. M.; Seideman, S.C.; Carpenter, Z. L.; Smith, G. C.; Vanderzant, C. Microbiology of beef packaged in various gas atmospheres. J. Food Protect. 1980, 42, 240–244Google Scholar
  14. Clark, D. S.; Lentz, C. P. The effect of carbon dioxide on the growth of slime producing bacteria on fresh beef. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 1969, 2(2), 72–75Google Scholar
  15. Cocoma, G. J.; Cheng, C. S. A process for central prepackaging of fresh meat. Proc. Intl. Congress Meat Sci. and Technol. 1988, 34, 492–500Google Scholar
  16. Cliver, D. O. Research needs in food safety. Food Technol. 1993, 47, 10s-13s, 53sGoogle Scholar
  17. Cole, A. B., Jr. Retail packaging systems for fresh red meat cuts. Recip. Meat Conf. Proc. 1986, 39, 106–111Google Scholar
  18. Cutaia, A.J.; Ordal, Z. J. Pigment changes in anaerobically packaged ground beef. Food Technol. 1964, 18(5), 163–166Google Scholar
  19. Daun, H.; Solberg, M.; Franke, W.; Gilbert, S. Effect of oxygen-enriched atmospheres on storage quality of packaged fresh meat. J. Food Sci. 1971, 36, 1011–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davies, M. J. Direct detection of peroxyl radicals formed in the reactions of metmyoglobin and methaemoglobin with t-butyl hydroperoxide. Free Radical Res. Commun. 1989, 7(1), 27–32Google Scholar
  21. Diaper, E. W. J. Practical aspects of water and wastewater treatment by ozone. In Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment; Evans, F. L., Ed.; Ann Arbor Science Publ.: Ann Arbor, MI, 1972; p. 145Google Scholar
  22. Echevarne, C.; Renerre, M.; Labas, R. Metmyoglobin reductase activity in bovine muscles. Meat Sci. 1990, 27, 161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Enfors, S.-O.; Molin, G. Carbon dioxide evolution of refrigerated meat. Meat Sci. 1984, 10, 197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farber, J. M. Microbiological aspects of modified-atmosphere packaging technology: A review. J. Food Protect. 1991, 54, 58–70Google Scholar
  25. Faustman, C.; Cassens, R. G. The biochemical basis for discoloration in fresh meat: A review. J. Muscle Foods 1990, 1, 217–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Faustman, C.; Cassens, R. G. The effect of cattle breed and muscle type on discoloration and various biochemical parameters in fresh beef. J. Anim. Sci. 1991, 69, 184–193Google Scholar
  27. Faustman, C.; Cassens, R. G.; Schaefer, D. M.; Buege, D. R.; Williams, S. N.; Scheller, K.K. Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci. 1989, 54, 858–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fellers, D. A.; Wahba, I. J.; Caldano, J. C.; Ball, C. O. Factors affecting the color of packaged retail beef cuts- Origin of cuts, package type, and storage conditions. Food Technol. 1963 17, 1175–1179Google Scholar
  29. Fetner, R. H.; Ingols, F. S. A comparison of the bactericidal activity of ozone and chlorine against Escherichia coli at 1°. J. Gen. Microbiol. 1956, 15, 381–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Finne, G. Modified-and controlled-atmosphere storage of muscle foods. Food Technol. 1982, 36(2), 128–133Google Scholar
  31. Fu, A-H.; Molins, R.A.; Sebranek, J. G. Storage quality of beef rib eye steaks packaged in modified atmospheres. Food Sci. 1992, 57, 283–287, 301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garwood, A. J. M. Thermoplastic skin packing means. U.S. Pat. 4840271, 1989Google Scholar
  33. Garwood, A. J. M. Packaging. U.S. Pat. 5129512, 1992aGoogle Scholar
  34. Garwood, A. J. M. Food packaging with gas between tensioned film & lid. U.S. Pat. 5155974, 1992bGoogle Scholar
  35. Georgala, D. L.; Davidson, C. M. 1970. Food Package. British Patent 1199998, 1970Google Scholar
  36. Giddings, G.G. The basis of color in muscle foods. J. Food Sci. 1977, 42, 288–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gill, C. O. The solubility of carbon dioxide in meat. Meat Sci. 1988, 22, 65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gill, C. O. Controlled atmosphere packaging of chilled meat. Food Control 1990, 1, 74–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gill, C. O. MAP and CAP of fresh, red meats, poultry and offals. In Principles of Modified-Atmosphere and Sous Vide Product Packaging; Farber, J. M., Dodds, K. L., Eds.; Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA. 1995; Chapter 5, pp 105–136Google Scholar
  40. Gill, C. O.; Harrison, J. C. L. The storage life of chilled pork packaged under carbon dioxide. Meat Sci. 1989, 26, 313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gill, C. O.; Jones, T. The display life of retail-packaged beef steaks after their storage in master packs under various atmospheres. Meat Sci. 1994, 38, 385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gill, C. O.; Newton, K. G. The ecology of bacterial spoilage of fresh meat at chill temperatures. Meat Sci. 1978, 2, 207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gill, C. O.; Penney, N. The effect of the initial gas volume to meat weight ratio on the storage life of chilled beef packaged under carbon dioxide. Meat Sci. 1988, 22, 53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gill, C. O.; McGinnis, C.; Tong, A. K. W. Consumer acceptance of display packs of beef stored under N, or CO, in master packs. Meat Sci. 1994, 38, 397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gill, C. O.; Tan, K. H. Effect of carbon dioxide on growth of meat spoilage bacteria. Appl. and Environ. Microbiol. 1980, 39, 317–319Google Scholar
  46. Gorlich, M.P. Dual Cover Package. U.S. Pat. 5439132, 1995aGoogle Scholar
  47. Gorlich, M.P. Method of Packaging a Food Product. U.S. Pat. 5447736, 1995bGoogle Scholar
  48. Gotoh, T.; Shikama, K. Generation of the superoxide radical during autoxidation of oxymyoglobin. J. Biochem. 1976, 80, 397–399Google Scholar
  49. Govindarajan, S.; Hultin, H. O.; Kotula, A. W. Myoglobin oxidation in ground beef: Mechanistic studies. J. Food Sci. 1977, 42, 571–577, 582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gray, J. I.; Pearson, A. M. Rancidity and warmed-over flavor. In Advances in Meat Research, Vol. 3 Restructured Meat and Poultry Products; Pearson, A. M., Dutson, T. R Eds.; AVI, Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, 1987; Chapter 6, pp 221–269Google Scholar
  51. Grau, F. H. Microbial ecology of meat and poultry. In Advances in Meat Research Volume 2 Meat and Poultry Microbiology; Pearson, A. M., Dutson, T. R Eds.; AVI Publishing Company: Westport, CT, 1986; Chapter 1, pp 1–47Google Scholar
  52. Greene, B. E. Lipid oxidation and pigment changes in raw beef. J. Food Sci. 1969, 34, 110–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Greer, G. G.; Dilts, B. D.; Jeremiah, L. E. Bacteriology and retail case-life of pork after storage in carbon dioxide. J. Food Protect. 1993, 56, 689–693Google Scholar
  54. Griffin, D. B.; Savell, J.W.; Smith, G. C.; Vanderzant, C.; Terrell, R. N.; Lind, K. D.; Galloway, D. E. Centralized packaging of beef loin steaks with different oxygen-barrier films: physical and sensory characteristics. J. Food Sci. 1982, 47, 1059–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hamilton, R. J. The chemistry of rancidity in foods. In Rancidity in Foods, 2nd ed,; Allen, J. C., Hamilton, R. J., Eds.; Elsevier Applied Science: London, 1989; Chapter 1, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  56. Hao, Y. Y.; Brackett, R. E. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in modified atmosphere. J. Food Protect. 1993, 56, 330–332Google Scholar
  57. Hedrick, H. B.; Aberle, E. D.; Forrest, J. C.; Judge, M. D.; Merkel, R. A. Properties of fresh meat. In Principles of Meat Science, 3rd ed.; Kendall-Hunt: Dubuque, 1994; Chapter 6, pp 123–131Google Scholar
  58. Hermansen, P. Comparison of modified atmosphere versus vacuum packaging to extend the shelf life of retail fresh meat cuts. Recip. Meat Conf. Proc. 1983, 35, 60–64Google Scholar
  59. Hintlian, C. B.; Hotchkiss, J. H. The safety of modified atmosphere packaging: A review. Food Technol. 1986, 40(12), 70–76Google Scholar
  60. Hirsch, A.; Spiegel, F. X.; Ramsbottom, J. M. Controlled atmosphere package. U.S. Pat. 4055672, 1977Google Scholar
  61. Ho, C. P. Effects of abuse temperature on the microfloral changes and quality of ground beef in gas exchange modified atmosphere packaging. In Biochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Ground Beef in Modified Atmosphere Packaging with Gas Exchange; Ph.D. Dissertation; Louisiana State University: Baton Rouge, LA, 1995; Chapter IV, pp 102–141Google Scholar
  62. Ho, C.-P.; McMillin, K.W.; Huang, N.-Y. Effects of distribution and display gas mixtures on shelf-life of ground beef in dynamic gas exchange modified atmosphere packaging systems. Intl. Congress Meat Sci. Technol. Proc. 1995, 41(Vol. II), 319–320Google Scholar
  63. Hood, D. E. Factors affecting the rate of metmyoglobin accumulation in pre-packaged beef. Meat Sci. 1980, 4, 247–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hood, D. E.; Riordan, E. B. Discoloration in pre-packaged beef: Measurement by reflectance spectrophotometry and shopper discrimination. J. Food Technol. 1973, 8, 333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hotchkiss, J. H. Advances in and aspects of modified atmosphere packaging in fresh red meats. Recip. Meat Conf. Proc. 1989, 42, 31–33Google Scholar
  66. Huang, N. Y. Interactions of myoglobin autoxidation and lipid peroxidation in myoglobin-liposome systems. In Myoglobin and Lipid Stability of Meat and Liposome Model Systems with Modified Atmosphere Packaging; Ph.D. Dissertation; Louisiana State University: Baton Rouge, LA, 1995; Chapter VI, pp 141–158Google Scholar
  67. Huang, N. Y.; McMillin, K. W.; Ho, C. P. Retail shelf-life of pork packaged in modified atmosphere with dynamic gas exchange., Inst. Food Technologists annual meeting: Chicago, IL, 1993a, paper 71. (Abstr.)Google Scholar
  68. Huang, N. Y.; McMillin, K. W.; Ho, C. R; Smith, B. S. Retail beef in dynamic exchange modified atmosphere packaging with different distribution storage temperature. Intl. Congress Meat Sci. Technol. Proc. 1993b, 39, S8P07Google Scholar
  69. Huffman, D. L.; Davis, K.A.; Marple, D. N.; McGuire, J. A. Effect of gas atmospheres on microbial growth, color and pH of beef. J. Food Sci. 1975, 40, 1229–1231Google Scholar
  70. Hunt, M. C.; Acton, J. C.; Benedict, R. C.; Calkins, C. R.; Cornforth, D. P.; Jeremiah, L. E.; Olson, D. G.; Salm, C. P.; Savell, J. W.; Shivas, S. D. Guidelines for color measurement. Reciprocal Meat Conf. Proc. 1991, 44, 233–249Google Scholar
  71. Hutchins, B. K.; Liu, T. H. P.; Watts, B. M. Effects of additives and refrigeration on reducing activity, metmyoglobin and malonaldehyde of raw ground beef. J. Food Sci. 1967, 32; 214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jeremiah, L. E.; Gill, C. O.; Penny, N. The effects on pork storage life of oxygen contamination in nominally anoxic packaging. J. Muscle Foods 1992, 3, 263–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jeremiah, L. E.; Gibson, L. L.; Arganosa, G. C. The influence of CO, level on the storage life of chilled pork stored at —1.5C. J. Muscle Foods,1996, 7, 139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kaess, G.; Weidemann, J. F. Ozone treatment of chilled beef. J. Food Technol. 1968, 3, 325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kanner, J. Oxidative processes in meat and meat products: Quality implications. Meat Sci. 1994, 36, 169–189Google Scholar
  76. Kanner, J.; German, J. B.; Kinsella, J. E. Initiation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1987, 25, 317–364Google Scholar
  77. Karel, M. Kinetics of lipid oxidation. In Physical Chemistry of Foods; Schwartzberg, H. G., Hertel, R.W., Eds.; Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, NY 1992; Chapter 15, pp 651–668Google Scholar
  78. Klein, T.; Knorr, D. Oxygen absorption properties of powdered iron. J. Food Sci. 1990, 55, 869–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kropf, D. H. Effects of retail display conditions on meat color. Recip. Meat Conf. Proc. 1980, 33, 15–32Google Scholar
  80. Kropf, D. H. Color stability. Meat Focus Intl. 1993, 2(6), 269–275Google Scholar
  81. Kropf, D. H. and M. C. Hunt. Effect of display conditions on meat color. Meat Industry Res. Conf. Proc. 1984, p. 158–176Google Scholar
  82. Labuza, T. R. Kinetics of lipid oxidation. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Technol. 1971, 2, 355–404Google Scholar
  83. Lanari, M. C.; Cassens, R.G. Mitochondrial activity and beef muscle color stability. J. Food Sci. 1991, 56, 1476–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Landrock, A. H.; Wallace, G. A. Discoloration of fresh red meat and its relation to film oxygen permeability. Food Technol. 1955, 4, 194–196Google Scholar
  85. Ledward, D. A. Metmyoglobin formation in beef stored in carbon dioxide enriched and oxygen depleted atmospheres. J. Food Sci. 1970, 35, 33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lillard, D. A. Oxidative deterioration in meat, poultry, and fish. In Warmed-Over Flavor of Meat; St. Angelo, A. J., Bailey, M. E., Eds.; Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1987; pp 41–67Google Scholar
  87. Love, J. Mechanism of iron catalysis of lipid oxidation in warmed-over flavor of meat. In Warmed-Over Flavor of Meat; St. Angelo, A. J. Bailey, M. E., Eds.; Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1987; pp 19–39Google Scholar
  88. Lynch, N. M.; Kastner, C. L.; Kropf, D. H. Consumer acceptance of vacuum packaged ground beef as influenced by product color and educational materials. J. Food Sci. 1986, 51, 253–255, 272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Madhavi, D. L.; Carpenter, C. E. Aging and processing affect color, metmyoglobin reductase and oxygen consumption of beef muscles. J. Food Sci. 1993, 58, 939–942, 947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Manu-Tawiah, W.; Ammann, L.L.; Sebranek, J. G.; Molins, R. A. Extending the color stability and shelf life of fresh meat. Food Technol. 1991, 45(3), 94, 96–98, 100–102Google Scholar
  91. Marriott, N. G.; Naumann, H. D.; Stringer, W. C.; Hedrick, H. B. Color stability of prepackaged fresh beef as influenced by pre-display environments. Food Technology 1967, 21, 1518–520Google Scholar
  92. McMillin, K. W. Gas-exchange systems for fresh meat in modified atmosphere packaging. In Modified Atmosphere Food Packaging; Brody, A. L., Ed.; Institute of Packaging Professionals: Herndon, VA, 1994; pp. 85–108Google Scholar
  93. McMillin, K. W. Initiation of oxidative processes in muscle foods. Reciprocal Meat Conf. Proc. 1996, 49, 53–64Google Scholar
  94. McMillin, K. W.; Huang, N.Y.; Ho, C. R; Smith, B.S. Beef traits with differing fabrication times and gases in modified atmosphere packaging. Intl. Congress Meat Sci. Technol. Proc. 1994a, 40, S-IIA.10Google Scholar
  95. McMillin, K. W.; Ho, C.P.; Huang, N.Y.; Smith, B.S. Characteristics of beef loin steaks in modified atmosphere packaging with different fabrication times, gases and gas exchange times. J. Anim. Sci. 1994b, 72(Suppl.1), 271. (abstr.)Google Scholar
  96. McMillin, K. W.; Wells, J. H.; Marshall, D. L.; Ingham, S. C.; Farr, A. J.; Salman, H. K.; Bidner, T. D.; Koh, K.C. Retail shelf-life of ground beef patties in modified atmosphere packaging with dynamic gas exchange. Inst. of Food Technologists annual meeting: Dallas, TX, 1991, paper 89. (Abstr.)Google Scholar
  97. McMillin, K. W.; Bidner, T. D.; Wells, J. H.; Koh, K.C.; Ingham, S. C. Increased shelf life of ground beef with modified atmosphere packaging. Louisiana Agriculture 1990, 33(3), 3–4, 8Google Scholar
  98. Miller, R. K. Quality characteristics. In Muscle Foods: Meat, Poultry and Seafood Technology; Kinsman, D. M.; Kotula, A. W.; Breidenstein, B. C., Ed.; Chapman and Hall: New York, NY 1994; Chapter 11, pp 296–332Google Scholar
  99. Mitchell, J. L. Method for Packaging Perishable Products. U.S. Pat. 4919955, 1990Google Scholar
  100. Mitchell, J. L. Method and Apparatus to Promote Gas Exchange from a Sealed Receptacle. U.S. Pat. 5481852, 1996Google Scholar
  101. Mitchell, J. L.; Farr, A. J.; McMillin, K. W.; Wells, J. H. In Situ Method for Processing a Perishable Product. U.S. Pat. 5352467, 1994Google Scholar
  102. Smith, B. S.; McMillin, K. W.; Wells, J. H.; Farr, A. J.; Mitchell, J. L. Method for Processing a Perishable Product. U.S. Pat. 5597599, 1997Google Scholar
  103. Morgan, J. B.; Savell, J. W.; Hale, D. S.; Miller, R. K.; Griffin, D. B.; Cross, H. R.; Shackelford, S. D. National beef tenderness survey. J. Anim. Sci. 1991, 69, 3274–3283Google Scholar
  104. National Live Stock and Meat Board. Enhancing meat case profitability. Facts from the Meat Board: Chicago, IL, 1991, series no. FS/M 004Google Scholar
  105. Nawar, W. W. Lipids. In Food Chemistry, 2nd ed.; O.R. Fennema, O. R., Ed.; Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York, 1985; Chapter 4, pp 139–244Google Scholar
  106. Nelson, B. The use of ozonated ice to extend the shelf life of fresh Alaskan fish. Final Report to Alaska Dept. of Commerce and Economic Development: Anchorage, AL, 1982. 39 pGoogle Scholar
  107. Nottingham, P. M. Microbiology of carcass meats. In Meat Microbiology; Brown, M.H., Ed.; Applied Science Publishers: London, 1982; Chapter 2, pp 13–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. O’Keeffe, M.; Hood, D. E. Anoxic storage of fresh beef. 1: Nitrogen and carbon dioxide storage atmospheres. Meat Sci. 1980–81, 5, 27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Keeffe, M.; Hood, D.E. Biochemical factors influencing metmyoglobin formation on beef from muscles of differing colour stability. Meat Sci. 1982, 7, 209–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ordonez, J. A.; Ledward, D. A. Lipid and myoglobin oxidation in pork stored in oxygen-and carbon dioxide-enriched atmospheres. Meat Sci. 1977, 1, 41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pearson, A. M.; Dutson, T. R. Quality Attributes and Their Measurement in Meat, Poultry and Fish Products. Ad-vances in Meat Research Series, Vol. 9. Blackie Academic and Professional: London, 1994; 505 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Penney, N.; Bell, R. G. Effect of residual oxygen on the colour, odour and taste of carbon dioxide-packaged beef, lamb and pork during short term storage at chill temperatures. Meat Sci. 1993, 33, 245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pierson, M. D.; Collins-Thompson, D. L.; Ordal, Z. J. Microbiological, sensory, and pigment changes of aerobi-cally and anaerobically packaged beef. Food Technol. 1970, 24(10), 1171–1175Google Scholar
  114. Porter, N.A. The chemistry of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 1984, 105, 273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Prince, T.A. Modified atmosphere packaging of horticultural commodities. In Controlled/ Modified Atmosphere/Vacuum Packaging of Foods; Brody A.L., Ed.; Food and Nutrition Press: Trumbull, CT, 1989; Chapter 5, pp 67–100Google Scholar
  116. Reddy, I. M.; Carpenter, C. E. Determination of metmyoglobin reductase activity in bovine skeletal muscles. J. Food Sci. 1991, 56, 1161–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Renerre, M.; Labadie, J. Fresh red meat packaging and meat quality. Proc. Intl. Congress Meat Sci. and Technol. 1993, 39, 361–387Google Scholar
  118. Renerre, M.; Labas, R. Biochemical factors influencing metmyoglobin formation in beef muscles. Meat Sci. 1987, 19, 151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Restaino, L.; Frampton, E. W.; Hemphill, J. B.; Palnikar, P. Efficacy of ozonated water against various food-related microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1995, 61, 3471–3475Google Scholar
  120. Rhee, K.S. Enzymic and nonenzymic catalysis of lipid oxidation in muscle foods. Food Technol. 1988, 42(6), 127–132Google Scholar
  121. Rizvi, S. S. H. Requirements for foods packaged in polymeric films. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1981, 14, 111Google Scholar
  122. Robach, D. L.; Costilow, R.N. Role of bacteria in the oxidation of myoglobin. Appl. Microbiol. 1961, 9, 529–533Google Scholar
  123. Savell, J. W.; Smith, G. C.; Hanna, M. O.; Vanderzant, C. Packaging of beef loin steaks in 75% OZ plus 25% CO,.I. Physical and sensory properties. J. Food Prot. 1981, 44, 923–927Google Scholar
  124. Scholtz, E. M.; Jordaan, E.; Kruger, J.; Nortje, G. L.; Naude, R. T. 1992. The influence of different centralised prepackaging systems on the shelf-life of fresh pork. Meat Sci. 1992, 32, 11–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sebranek, J. G. `Meat is dynamic’- factors in controlled atmosphere packs. Natl. Provisioner 1986, 194(19), 10–16Google Scholar
  126. Seideman, S. C.; Durland, P. R. The utilization of modified gas atmosphere packaging for fresh meat: A review. J. Food Qual. 1984, 6, 239–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Seideman, S. C.; Vanderzant, C.; Smith, G. C.; Dill, C. W.; Carpenter, Z. L. Appearance of beef, pork and lamb stored in vacuum or modified gas atmospheres. J. Food Prot. 1980. 43, 252–259Google Scholar
  128. Seideman, S. C.; Cross, H. R.; Smith, G. C.; Durland, P. R. Factors associated with fresh meat color: A review. J Food Quality 1984, 6, 211–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Seideman, S. C.; Carpenter, Z. L.; Smith, G. C.; Hoke, K. E. Effect of degree of vacuum and length of storage on the physical characteristics of vacuum packaged beef wholesale cuts. J. Food Sci. 1976, 41, 732–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shahidi, F. Assessment of lipid oxidation and off-flavour development in meat and meat products. In Flavor of Meat and Meat Products; Shahidi, F., Ed.; Blackie Academic & Professional: London, 1994; Chapter 14,pp 247–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sheldon, B.W.; Brown, A. L. Efficacy of ozone as a disinfectant for poultry carcasses and chill water. ‘J. Food Sci. 1986, 51, 305–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Silliker, J. H.; Wolfe, S. K. Microbiological safety considerations in controlled-atmosphere storage of meats. Food Technol. 1980, 34(3), 59–63Google Scholar
  133. Silliker, J. H.; Woodruff, R. E.; Lugg, J. R.; Wolfe, S. K.; Brown, W. D. Preservation of refrigerated meats with controlled atmospheres: Treatment and posttreatment effects of carbon dioxide on pork and beef. Meat Sci. 1977, 1, 195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Smith, B. S.; McMillin, K. W.; Lyon, W. J.; Beyer, A. J.; Fuselier, D. B.; Stringer, T. A. Influence of ozone concentration and exposure time on survival of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas. Reciprocal Meat Conf. Proc. 1996, 49: 187Google Scholar
  135. Smith, B. S.; McMillin, K. W.; Wells, J. H.; Farr, A. J.; Mitchell, J. L Method for Processing a Perishable Product. U.S. Pat. 5597599, 1997Google Scholar
  136. Smith, J. P.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Simpson, B. K. Developments in food packaging technology. Part II: Storage aspects. Trends in Food Sci. and Technol. 1990, 1(5), I11–118Google Scholar
  137. Stanley, D.W. Biological membrane deterioration and associated quality losses in food tissues. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1991, 30, 487–553Google Scholar
  138. Stiles, M. E. Modified atmosphere packaging of meat, poultry and their products. In Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Food; Ooraikul, B., Stiles, M. E., Eds.; Ellis Horwood Limited: Chichester, England, 1991; Chapter 5, pp 118–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sutherland, J. P.; Varnam, A. Fresh meat processing. In Meat Microbiology; Brown, M.H., Ed.; Applied Science Publishers: London, 1982; Chapter 4, pp 103–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sweeten, M. K.; Cross, H. R.; Smith, G. C.; Smith, S. B. Subcellular distribution and composition of lipids in muscle and adipose tissues. J. Food Sci. 1990, 55, 43–45, 118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Taylor, A. A. Retail packaging systems for fresh meat. In Meat Science and Technology International Symposium Proceedings; Franklin, K. R., Cross, H. R., Eds.; National Live Stock and Meat Board, Chicago, IL, 1982; pp 353–366Google Scholar
  142. Taylor, A. A. Packaging fresh meat. In Developments in Meat Science-3; Lawrie, R Ed.; Elsevier Applied Science: London, 1985; Chapter 4, pp 89–113Google Scholar
  143. Vanderzant, C.; Hanna, M. O.; Ehlers, J G.; Savell, J. W.; Smith, G. C.; Griffin, D. B.; Terrell, R.N.; Lind, K. D.; Galloway, D. E. 1982. Centralized packaging of beef loin steaks with different oxygen-barrier films: microbiological characteristics. J. Food Sci. 1982, 47, 1070–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Warburton, D. J; Gill, C. O. A new chilled atmosphere packaging system for extending the shelf life of red and white meat. Pack Alimentaire `89 Conf. Proc. 1989, Session A-4Google Scholar
  145. Yang, P. P. W.; Chen, T. C. Effects of ozone treatment on microflora of poultry meat. J. Food Proc. and Preserv. 1979, 3, 177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yin, M. C.; Faustman, C. Influence of temperature, pH, and phospholipid composition upon the stability of myoglobin and phospholipid: A liposome model. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1993, 41, 853–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yin, M. C.; Faustman, C.; Riesen, J. W.; Williams, S. N. a-Tocopherol and ascorbate delay oxymyoglobin and phospholipid oxidation in vitro. J Food Sci. 1993, 58,1273–1276, 1281Google Scholar
  148. Zhao, Y.; Wells, J. H.; McMillin, K. W. Applications of dynamic modified atmosphere packaging systems for fresh red meats: A review. J. Muscle Foods 1994, 5, 299–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zhao, Y.; Wells, J H.; McMillin, K. W. Dynamic changes of headspace gases in CO, and N2 packaged fresh beef. J. Food Sci. 1995, 60, 571–575, 591Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. W. McMillin
    • 1
  • N. Y. Huang
    • 2
  • C. P. Ho
    • 3
  • B. S. Smith
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceLouisiana State University Agricultural CenterBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Meat Export FederationTaipeiTaiwan R.O.C
  3. 3.Hung-Yuan FoodsTaipeiTaiwan R.O.C
  4. 4.Central Soya CompanyFort WayneUSA

Personalised recommendations