On the use of the (E,2E) Technique as a Surface Probe

  • D. W. Essex
  • Colm T. Whelan
Part of the Physics of Atoms and Molecules book series (PAMO)


The (e,2e) technique has been successfully applied to study bulk states of matter for many years. In 19721, (e,2e) was used in transmission mode to study the inner shells of carbon atoms. The same technique has been extensively used to study the valence bands of different bulk targets2. Transmission mode experiments are difficult to perform because of the need to construct very thin free-standing films. The first successful (e,2e) experiments on surfaces in reflection mode were performed in Halle in 19923. Since then, the (e,2e) community has been aware of the possibility of extending the coincidence technique to the study of atomic clusters, thin films, surfaces and adsorbates. In other words, we would like to establish the (e,2e) technique as a surface probe.


Surface Probe Scattered Electron Incident Electron Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Graphite Surface 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Essex
    • 1
  • Colm T. Whelan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland

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