The Cardiome Project

An Integrated View of Cardiac Metabolism and Regional Mechanical Function
  • James B. Bassingthwaighte
  • Hong Qian
  • Zheng Li
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 471)


In this presentation the first goal is to give an idea of the broader aspects of the Physiome Project, its origins and its current state. The second goal is to give an example of the kind of approaches that will support the Physiome Project by contributing a component that is in the process of being developed into a functioning model and a database entry point: a piece of the Cardiome Project.


Regional Myocardial Blood Flow Finite Element Representation Coronary Arterial Tree Physiome Project Regional Myocardial Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achs, MJ and Garfinkel, D (1977) Computer simulation of energy metabolism in anoxic perfused rat heart. Am J Physiol 232 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 1):R164-R174.Google Scholar
  2. Arts, T, Prinzen, FW, Snoeckx, LHEH, Rijcken, JM, and Reneman, RS (1994) Adaptation of cardiac structure by mechanical feedback in the environment of the cell: A model study. Biophys J 66:953–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arts, T, Prinzen, FW, Snoeckx, LHEH, and Reneman, RS (1995) “A model approach to the adaptation of cardiac structure by mechanical feedback in the environment of the cell.” In: Molecular and Subcellular Cardiology: Effects of Structure and Function. (S Sideman and R Beyar, Eds.) Plenum. New York, pp. 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bassingthwaighte, JB and Reuter, H (1972) Calcium reversal potential in cardiac muscle. Biophys J 12:214a.Google Scholar
  5. Bassingthwaighte, JB and Goresky, CA (1984) “Modeling in the analysis of solute and water exchange in the microvasculature.” In: Handbook of Physiology. Sect. 2, The Cardiovascular System. Vol IV, The Microcirculation. (EM Renkin and CC Michel, Eds.) Am. Physiol. Soc. Bethesda, MD. pp. 549–626.Google Scholar
  6. Bassingthwaighte, JB, Noodleman, L, van der Vusse, GJ, and Glatz, JFC (1989) Modeling of palmitate transport in the heart. Mol Cell Biochem 88:51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bassingthwaighte, JB, Malone, MA, Moffett, TC, King, RB, Chan, IS, Link, JM, and Krohn, KA (1990) Molecular and particulate depositions for regional myocardial flows in sheep. Circ Res 66:1328–1344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bassingthwaighte, JB (1991) “The myocardial cell.” In: Cardiology: Fundamentals and Practice, 2nd Ed. (ER Giuliani, V Fuster, BJ Gersh, MD McGoon, and DC McGoon, Eds.) Mosby-Year Book Inc. St. Louis, MO. pp. 113–149.Google Scholar
  9. Bassingthwaighte, JB, R Friesner, B Honig, CF Starmer, and VZ Marmarelis. Modeling and Simulation. Bethesda MD: NIH/NCRR Workshop on Technologies for the Future: Biomedical Computing for Visualization, Modeling and Decision Support, April 12-13, 1991, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  10. Bassingthwaighte, JB (1992) Fractal vascular growth patterns. Acta Stereol 11 (Suppl. 1):305–319.Google Scholar
  11. Bassingthwaighte, JB (1995) “Toward modeling the human physionome.” In: Molecular and Subcellular Cardiology: Effects on Structure and Function. (S Sidema and R Beyar, Eds.) Plenum. New York. pp. 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bassingthwaighte, JB and Beard, DA (1995) Fractal 15O-water washout from the heart. Circ Res 77:1212–1221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bassingthwaighte, JB, Goresky, CA, and Linehan, JH editors. (1998) Whole organ approaches to cellular metabolism. Capillary permeation, cellular uptake and product formation. Springer Verlag. New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beeler, GW and Reuter, H (1977) Reconstruction of the action potential of ventricular myocardial fibres. J Physiol Lond 268:177–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bers, DM (1991) Excitation—Contraction Coupling and Cardiac Contractile Force. Kluwer Academic Publishers. London.Google Scholar
  16. Blei, ML, Conley, KE, and Kushmerick, MJ (1993) Separate measures of ATP utilization and recovery in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 465:203–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bronikowski, TA, Linehan, JH, and Dawson, CA (1980) A mathematical analysis of the influence of perfusion heterogeneity on indicator extraction. Math Biosci 52:27–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caldwell, JH, Martin, GV, Raymond, GM, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1994) Regional myocardial flow and capillary permeability-surface area products are nearly proportional. Am J Physiol 267 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 36):H654–H666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan, IS, Goldstein, AA, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1993) SENSOP: A derivative-free solver for non-linear least squares with sensitivity scaling. Ann Biomed Eng 21:621–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chase, PB and Kushmerick, MJ (1995) Effect of physiological ADP concentration on contraction of single skinned fibers from rabbit fast and slow muscles. Am J Physiol 268:C480–C489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chatham, JC, Forder, JR, Glickson, JD, and Chance, EM (1995) Calculation of absolute metabolic flix and the elucidation of the pathways of glutamate labeling in perfused rat heart by [C-13] NMR spectroscopy and nonlinear least squares analysis. J Biol Chem 270:7999–8008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ch’en, F, Clarke, K, Vaughan-Jones, R, and Noble, D (1997) “Modeling of internal pH, ion concentration, and bioenergetic changes during myocardial ischemia.” In: Analytical and Quantitative Cardiology. (S Sideman and R Beyar, Eds.) Plenum. New York. pp. 281–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deussen, A and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1996) Modeling [15O]oxygen tracer data for estimating oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol 270 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 39):H1115–H1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. DiFrancesco, D and Noble, D (1985) A model of cardiac electrical activity incorporating ionic pumps and concentration changes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 307:353–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glass, L, Hunter, P, and McCulloch, A (1991) Theory of Heart: Biomechanics, Biophysics, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Cardiac Function. Springer-Verlag. New York.Google Scholar
  26. Gustafson, LA and Kroll, K (1998) Downregulation of 5′nucleotidase in rabbit heart during coronary under-perfusion. Am J Physiol 214 (Heart Circ. Physiol 42):H529–H538.Google Scholar
  27. Hunter, P and Arts, T (1997) “Tissue remodeling with micro-structurally based material laws.” In: Analytical and Quantitative Cardiology. (S Sideman and R Beyar, Eds.) Plenum. New York. pp. 215–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hunter, PJ, McCulloch, AD, Nielsen, PMF, and Smaill, BH (1988) A finite element model of passive ventricular mechanics. ASME BED 9:387–397.Google Scholar
  29. Kassab, GS, Rider, CA, Tang, NJ, and Fung, YB (1993) Morphometry of pig coronary arterial trees. Am J Physiol 265 (Heart Circ. Physiol 34):H350–H365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kroll, K and Stepp, DW (1996) Adenosine kinetics in the canine coronary circulation. Am J Physiol 270 (Heart Circ. Physiol 39):H1469–H1483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kroll, K, Kinzie, DJ, and Gustafson, LA (1997) Open system kinetics of myocardial phosphoenergetics during coronary underperfusion. Am J Physiol 272 (Heart Circ. Physiol 41):H2563–H2576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kroll, K and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1998) “Ch. 11. Role of capillary endothelial cells in transport and mem-tabolism of adenosine in the heart: an example of the impact of endothelial cells on measures of metabolism.” In: Whole Organ Approaches to Cellular Metabolism. (JB Bassingthwaighte, CA Goresky, and JH Linehan, Eds.) Springer Verlag. New York. pp. 261–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuikka, J, Levin, M, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1986) Multiple tracer dilution estimates of D-and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by the heart. Am J Physiol 250 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 19):H29–H42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Landesberg, A and Sideman, S (1994) Mechanical regulation of cardiac muscle by coupling calcium kinetics with cross-bridge cycling: a dynamic model. Am J Physiol 267 (Heart Circ. Physio. 36):H779–H795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Landesberg, A and Sideman, S (1994) Coupling calcium binding to troponin C and cross-bridge cycling in skinned cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 266 (Heart Circ. Physio. 35):H1260–H1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Landesberg, A, Markhasin, VS, Beyar, R, and Sideman, S (1996) Effect of cellular inhomogeneity on cardiac tissue mechanics based on intracellular control mechanisms. Am J Physiol 270 (Heart Circ. Physio. 39):H1101–H1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Landesberg, A (1996) End-systolic pressure-volume relationship and intracellular control of contraction. Am J Physiol 270 (Heart Circ. Physio. 39):H338–H349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. LeGrice, IJ, Smaill, BH, Chai, LZ, Edgar, SG, Gavin, JB, and Hunter, PJ (1995) Laminar structure of the heart: Ventricular myocyte arrangement and connective tissue architecture in the dog. Am J Physiol 269 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 38):H571–H582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. LeGrice, IJ, Hunter, PJ, and Smaill, BH (1997) Laminar structure of the heart: a mathematical model. Am J Physiol 272:H2466–H2476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Li, Z, Yipintsoi, T, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1997) Nonlinear model for capillary-tissue oxygen transport and metabolism. Ann Biomed Eng 25:604–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Luo, CH and Rudy, Y (1994) A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential: II: Afterdepolarizations, triggered activity, and potentiation. Circ Res 74:1097–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luo, C and Rudy, Y (1994) A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential I. Simulations of ionic currents and concentration changes. Circ Res 74:1071–1096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCulloch, AD, Smaill, BH, and Hunter, PJ (1989) Regional left ventricular epicardial deformation in the passive dog heart. Circ Res 64:721–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCulloch, AD and Omens, JH (1991) Non-homogeneous analysis of three-dimensional transmural finite deformation in canine ventricular myocardium. J Biomech 24:539–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McCulloch, A, Bassingthwaighte, JB, Hunter, P, and Noble, D (1998) Computational Biology of the Heart: From Structure to Function Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology Volume 69, 151-572. Elsevier/Pergamon.Google Scholar
  46. McFarland, EW, Kushmerick, MJ, and Moerland, TS (1994) Activity of creatine kinase in a contracting mammalian muscle of uniform fiber type. Biophys J 67:1912–1924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Magnus, G and Keizer, J (1997) Minimal modeling of beta-cell mitochondrial Ca$sup 2 + $ handling. Am J Physiol 273 (Cell. Physiol. 42):C717–C733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Marmarelis, VZ, Bassingthwaighte, JB, D’Argenio, DZ, and Foster, DM (1994) Overview of NIH-funded biomedical modeling and simulation resources. Proc Int Fed Automat Control “Modeling and Control in Biomedical Sy stems”: 14-15.Google Scholar
  49. Noble, D (1995) The development of mathematical models of the heart. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 5:321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Randle, PJ and Tubbs, PK (1979) “Carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism.” In: Handbook of Physiology Section 2, The Cardiovascular System. (RM Berne and N Sperelakis, Eds.) Am. Physiol. Soc. Bethesda, MD. pp. 805–844.Google Scholar
  51. Regnier, M, Morris, C, and Homsher, E (1995) Regulation of the cross-bridge transition from a weakly to strongly bound state in skinned rabbit muscle fibers. Am J Physiol 269 (Cell. Physiol. 38):C1532–C1539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Regnier, M, Martyn, DA, and Chase, PB (1998) Calcium regulation of tension redevelopment kinetics with 2-deoxy-ATP or low [ATP] in rabbit skeletal muscle. Biophys J 74:2005–2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rudy, Y and Shaw, RM (1997) “Cardiac excitation: an interactive process of ion channels and gap junctions.” In: Analytical and Quantitative Cardiology. (S Sideman and R Beyar, Eds.) Plenum. New York. pp. 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Selkov, E, Basmanova, S, Gaasterland, T, Goryanin, I, Gretchkin, Y, Maltsev, N, Nenashev, V, Overbeek, R, Panyushkina, E, Pronevitch, L, Selkov, E jr, and Yunus, I (1996) The metabolic pathway collection from EMP: the enzymes and metabolic pathways database. Nucleic Acids Res 24:26–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Selkov, E, Galimova, M, Goryanin, I, Gretchkin, Y, Ivanova, N, Komarov, Y, Maltsev, N, Mikhailova, N, Nenashev, V, Overbeek, R, Panyushkina, E, Pronevitch, L, and Selkov, E jr (1997) The metabolic pathway collection: an update. Nucleic Acids Res 25:37–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shaw, RM and Rudy, Y (1995) The vulnerable window for unidirectional block in cardiac tissue: characterization and dependence on membrane excitability and cellular coupling. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 6:115–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. van Bavel, E and Spaan, JA (1992) Branching patterns in the porcine coronary arterial tree. Estimation of flow heterogeneity. Circ Res 71:1200–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. van Beek, JHGM, Roger, SA, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1989) Regional myocardial flow heterogeneity explained with fractal networks. Am J Physiol 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26):H1670–H1680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. van Bilsen, M and Chien, KR (1993) Growth and hypertrophy of the heart: towards an understanding of cardiac specific and inducible gene expression. Cardiovasc Res 27:1140–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. van der Vusse, GJ, Little, SE, Reneman, RS, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1999) Transfer of fatty acids across myocardial endothelium. Am J Physiol (Heart Circ. Physiol. in press).Google Scholar
  61. Wiseman, RW and Kushmerick, MJ (1995) Creatine kinase equilibration follows solution thermodynamics in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 270:12428–12438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yipintsoi, T, Dobbs, WA jr., Scanlon, PD, Knopp, TJ, and Bassingthwaighte, JB (1973) Regional distribution of diffusible tracers and carbonized microspheres in the left ventricle of isolated dog hearts. Circ Res 33:573–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Bassingthwaighte
    • 1
  • Hong Qian
    • 1
  • Zheng Li
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Washington SeattleWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations