Humoral and Cellular Immune Functions of Cytokine-Treated Schwann Cells
Until recently the peripheral nervous system (PNS) was thought to be one of the immune privileged sites, where no immune reaction can take place (Streilein, 1995). Thus this sensitive tissue could be protected from immune-mediated destruction. In the meantime it has become clear that cells of the immune system can cross the blood-nerve-barrier causing inflammation and damage of the nerve fibres and glial cells. When activated autoreactive T-cells enter the nervous system they can destroy the myelin sheath surrounding the axons, which is necessary for fast impulse conduction. Onset, progress, and consequences of the inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human peripheral nervous system, the Guillain-Barré-Syndrome (GBS), can be studied in its animal counterpart experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). EAN can be actively induced by immunization with the myelin proteins P2, PO, or peptides contained in them, or adoptively transferred by neuritogenic T-cells (AT-EAN).
KeywordsSciatic Nerve Schwann Cell Peripheral Nervous System Myelin Protein FasL Expression
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Hartung H.P, Stoll G., and Toyka K.V. (1993) Immune reactions in the peripheral nervous system. In: Peripheral neuropathy. Edited by P.J. Dyck, P.K. Thomas, J.W. Griffin, P.A. Low, and J.F. Poduslo. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. 418–4Google Scholar
- Kingston A.E., Bergsteinsdottir K., Jessen K.R., Van Der Meide PH., Colston M.J., and Mirsky R. (1989) Schwann cells co-cultured with stimulated T cells and antigen express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II determinants without interferon-gamma pretreatment: synergistic effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor on MHC class II induction. Eur J Immunol, 19, 177–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Streilein J.W. 1995 Unraveling immune privilige. Science 270 1158–1159Google Scholar