Biomarkers of Environmental Exposure and Multivariate Approaches for Assessment and Monitoring

  • Susan M. Cormier
  • Richard N. Racine


This paper presents a rationale for the use of biomarkers in detecting early stages of environmental stress and describes the greater responsiveness of biomarkers to varied and multiple stressors. A set of biomarkers from different biological levels is much more desirable than a single measure. Examples of multivariate approaches for data reduction and analysis of sets of biomarkers are suggested.


Reference Site Polluted Site Environmental Toxicology Lewis Publisher Discriminant Function Analysis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan M. Cormier
    • 1
  • Richard N. Racine
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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