Public Technology Procurement and Innovation Theory

  • C. Edquist
  • L. Hommen
Part of the Economics of Science, Technology and Innovation book series (ESTI, volume 16)


Public technology procurement (PTP) occurs when a public agency places an order for a product or system which does not exist at the time, but which could (probably) be developed within a reasonable period. Additional or new technological development work is required to fulfil the demands of the buyer. This is the ‘ideal type’ of public technology procurement.


Product Innovation Innovation Theory Vertical Integration Innovation Policy Public Procurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akerlof, G. (1970). The market for lemons: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3) 488–500.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, R C (1983). Collective invention. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 4(1-24).Google Scholar
  3. Anchordoghy, M. (1988). Mastering the market: Japanese government targeting of the computer industry. International Organization, 42, 509–543.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, E.-S. (1992). Approaching national systems of innovation. In B.- Å. Lundvall (Ed.), National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning (pp. 95–115). London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Arrow, K. (1962). The economic implications of learning by doing. Review of Economic Studies, XXIX(80).Google Scholar
  6. Arrow, K. (1974). The limits of organization. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  7. Arrow, K. J. (1985). The economics of agency. In J. W. Pratt & R. J. Zeckhauser (Eds.), Principal and agents: The structure of business (pp. 37–51). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  8. Arthur, W. B. (1988). Competing technologies: An overview. In G. Dosi, C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg, & L. Soete (Eds.), Technical change and economic theory. London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Baldwin, R. (1987). Preferential government purchasing policies. In K. Jones & J. Kenen (Eds.), Handbook of international economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  10. Baldwin, W., & Scott, I. (1987). Market structure and technological change. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Bannock, G., Baxter, R. E., & Rees, R. (1986). Penguin dictionary of economics. (Third ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  12. Barfield, C. (1994). Flat panel displays — A second look. Issues in Science and Technology, 1994-1995(Winter), 21–25.Google Scholar
  13. Bergström, E. (1980). Projektorientierad marknadsföring. Malmö: Liber Läromedel.Google Scholar
  14. Blume, S. (1981). Science policy research - The state of the art and implications for policy. Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämden.Google Scholar
  15. Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. (1961). The management of innovation. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  16. Burton, J. (1983). Picking losers? The political economy of industrial policy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  17. Business International Ltd. (1991). Public procurement in Europe: How EC rules will open up new cross-border markets. London: Business International Ltd.Google Scholar
  18. Carlsson, B. (Ed.). (1995). Technological systems and economic performance: The case of factory automation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Carlsson, B., & Stankiewicz, R. (1995). On the nature, function and composition of technological systems. In B. Carlsson (Ed.), Technological systems and economic performance: The case of factory automation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Choffray, J.-M., & Lilien, G. (1978). Assessing response to industrial marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing, 42(2),20–31.Google Scholar
  21. Clark, K. B. (1985). The interaction of design hierarchies and market concepts in technological evolution. Research Policy, 14, 235–251.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, L. R., & Noll, R. G. (1991). The technology pork barrel. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, W., & Levin, R. (1989). Empirical studies of innovation and market structure. In R. Schmalensee & R. Willing (Eds.), Handbook of industrial organization. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(March), 128–152.Google Scholar
  25. Cohendet, P., & Lebeau, A. (1987). Choix stratégiques et grands programmes civils. Paris: É conomica.Google Scholar
  26. Cohendet, P., & Llerena, P. (1997). Learning, technical change and public policy: How to exploit and create diversity. In C. Edquist (Ed.), Systems of innovation: Technologies,organizations and institutions ((In Press.) ed.,). London: Pinter Publishers/Casell Academic.Google Scholar
  27. Cook, L., & Surrey, J. (1982). Government policy for the offshore supplies industry (Occasional Papers Series). Sussex: Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  28. Cowan, R. (1995). The informatisation of government: From choice of technology to economic opportunity. STI Review(16) 195–223.Google Scholar
  29. Dahmén, E. (1970). Entrepreneurial activity and the development of Swedish industry, 1919–1939. Homewood: American Economic Association Translation Series.Google Scholar
  30. Dahmén, E. (1988). ‘Development blocks’ in industrial economics. Scandinavian Economic History Review, 1. Google Scholar
  31. Dalpé, R. (1987). Politique d’achat et développement technologique. Quebec: Conseil de la science et de la technologie, Quebec.Google Scholar
  32. Dalpé, R. (1994). Effects of government procurement on industrial innovation. Technology in Society, 16(1)65–83.Google Scholar
  33. Dalpé, R., & DeBresson, C. (1988). Le secteur public comme premier utilisateur d’innovations (88–10). Montréal: Centre for Research on Development of Industry and Technology.Google Scholar
  34. Dertoutzos, M. L., Lester, R. K., & Solow, R. M. (1989). Made in America. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. Dosi, G. (1982). Technological paradigms and technological trajectories. Research Policy,11, 147–163.Google Scholar
  36. Eads, G., & Nelson, R. R. (1971). Government support of advanced civilian technology: Power reactors and the supersonic transport. Public Policy. Google Scholar
  37. Edquist, C. (1994). Technology policy: The interaction between governments and markets. In G. Aichholzer & G. Schienstock (Eds.), Technology policy: Towards an integration of social and ecological concerns (pp. 67–91). New York: Walter De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  38. Edquist, C. (1996). Government technology procurement as an instrument of technology policy. In M. Teubal & Associates (Eds.), Technological infrastructure policy ((In Press.) ed.,). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Edquist, C. (1997). Systems of Innovation approaches: Their emergence and characteristics. In C. Edquist (Ed.), Systems of innovation: Technologies, organisations and institutions ((In Press.) ed.,). London: Pinter Publishers/Casell Academic.Google Scholar
  40. Edquist, C., & Hommen, L. (1998). Public technology procurement and innovation theory. In C. Edquist & F. Texier (Eds.), ISE: Innovation systems and European integration [CD-ROM]. Linköping, Sweden: Systems of Innovation Research Programme, Department of Technology and Social Change, Linköping University.Google Scholar
  41. Edquist, C., & Hommen, L. (1999). Systems of innovation: Theory and policy for the demand side. Technology In Society, 21, 63–79.Google Scholar
  42. Edquist, C., Hommen, L., Johnson, B., Lemola, T., Malerba, F., Reiss, T., & Smith, K. (1998). The ISE policy statement: The innovation policy implications of the ‘Innovation Systems and European Integration’ research project. Linköping, Sweden: Unitryck (University of Linköping Press).Google Scholar
  43. Edquist, C., Hommen, L., & McKelvey, M. (1998). Innovations and employment in a systems of innovation perspective. In C. Edquist & F. Texier (Eds.), ISE: Innovation systems and European integration [CD-ROM] Linköping, Sweden: Systems of Innovation Research Programme, Department of Technology and Social Change, Linköping University.Google Scholar
  44. Edquist, C., & Johnson, B. (1997). Institutions and organizations in systems of innovation. In C. Edquist (Ed.), Systems of innovation: Technologies, organizations and institutions (pp. 41–63). London: Pinter Publishers/Casell Academic.Google Scholar
  45. Edquist, C., & Lundvall, B.- Å. (1993). Comparing the Danish and Swedish national systems of innovation. In R. Nelson (Ed.), National systems of innovation: A comparative study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Ergas, H. (1987). The importance of technology policy. In S. P. & P. Dasgupta (Eds.), Economic policy and technological performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.Google Scholar
  47. European Commission. (1992). Communication to the Council and European Parliament on the principle of subsidiarity. European Documents, 1804(05),14.Google Scholar
  48. European Commission. (1997). Public procurement in the European Union: Exploring the way forward. Brussels-Luxembourg: DG XV.Google Scholar
  49. Faucher, P. (1990, 27 May). Large scale projects and technological development: An institutional approach. Google Scholar
  50. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Political Science Association, Victoria. Faucher, P., & Fitzgibbons, K. (1993). Public demand and the management of technological risk in large-scale projects. Science and public Policy, 20(3), 173–185.Google Scholar
  51. Finsinger, G. (1988). Non-competitive and protectionist government purchasing behaviour. European Economic Review, 32. Google Scholar
  52. Flamm, K. (1987). Targeting the computer: Government support and international competition. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  53. Flamm, K. (1988). Creating the computer. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  54. Folster, S. (1989). The efficiency of R&D subsidies. Stockholm: Industrial Institute for Social and Economic Research.Google Scholar
  55. Foray, D. (1989). Les modeles de compétition technologique: Un revue de la littérature. Revue d’Économie Industrielle,48. Google Scholar
  56. Foray, D. (1997). Generation and distribution of technological knowledge: Incentive structures, norms and institutions. In C. Edquist (Ed.), Systems of innovation: Technologies,organizations and institutions ((In Press.) ed.,). London: Pinter Publishers/Casell Academic.Google Scholar
  57. Freeman, C. (1991). Networks of innovators: A synthesis of research issues. Research Policy, 20(5), 499–514.Google Scholar
  58. Fridlund, M. (1993). The ‘development pair’ as a link between systems growth and industrial innovation: Cooperation between the Swedish State Power Board and the ASEA company (Trita FIST Working Paper 93/9). Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology, Department of History of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  59. Gelsing, L. (1992). Innovation and the development of industrial networks. In B.- Å. Lundvall (Ed.), National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning (pp. 116–128). London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  60. Geroski, P. A. (1990). Procurement policy as a tool of industrial policy. International Review of Applied Economics, 4(2),182–198.Google Scholar
  61. Glassman, J. (1993, October 8). NAFTA and trade are tiny parts of a job revolution. The Washington Post, pp. Gl.Google Scholar
  62. Goodman, A., & Saunders, W. (1985). US federal regulation of foreign involvement in aviation: Government procurement and national security. Journal of World Trade, 54. Google Scholar
  63. Graham, M. (1988). R&D and competition in England and the United States. Business History Review, 62,261–285.Google Scholar
  64. Granstrand, O. (1984). Technology procurement as a special form of buyer-seller interaction in industrial markets: CIM report no. 84:06 (CIM Report 84:06). Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial Management.Google Scholar
  65. Granstrand, O., & Jacobsson, S. (1983). Innovation economy and business development: A study of innovation take-overs: CIM report no. 83:08 (CIM Report 83:08). Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial Management.Google Scholar
  66. Granstrand, O., & Sigurdson, J. (Eds.). (1985). Technological innovation and industrial development in telecommunications: The role of public buying in the telecommunication sector in the Nordic countries. Lund: Research Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  67. Grant, B., & Gadde, L.-E. (1984). Automotive component supply strategies: CIM report no. 84:03 (CIM Report 84:03). Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Industrial Management.Google Scholar
  68. Grübler, A. (1989, 14–16 June). Diffusion: Long term patterns and discontinuities. Paper presented at the International Conference on Diffusion of Technologies and Social Behavior, Laxenburg.Google Scholar
  69. Ham, R. M., & Mowery, D. C. (1995). Enduring dilemmas in US technology policy and the Clinton administration. California Management Review. Google Scholar
  70. Hansen, R. (1988). Auctions with endogenous quality. Rand Journal of Economics, 29(1),44–58.Google Scholar
  71. Harris, M., & Townsend, R. M. (1985). Allocation mechanisms, asymmetric information and the ‘revelation principle’. In G. Fiewel (Ed.), Issues in contemporary micro-economics and welfare (pp. 379–394). Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  72. Hartley, K. (1987). Public procurement and competitiveness: A Community market for military hardware and technology? Journal of Common Market Studies, XXV(3), 237–247.Google Scholar
  73. Hayek, F. A. (1948). Economics and knowledge and the use of knowledge in society. In F. A. Hayek (Ed.), Individualism and the economic order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  74. Hellman, J.-L. (1993). Supplier-customer interaction in product development: A case study of Nippon Steel’s cooperation with Toyota. Kunitachi, Tokyo: Hitotsubashi University, Institute of Business Research.Google Scholar
  75. Hidefjäll, P. (1997). The pace of innovation: Patterns of innovation in the cardiac pacemaker industry. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.Google Scholar
  76. Holmes, J. (1986). The organization and locational structure of production subcontracting. In A. J. Scott & M. Storper (Eds.), Production, work,territory: The geographical anatomy of industrial capitalism (pp. 80–106). Boston: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  77. Håkansson, H. (Ed.). (1987). Industrial technological development: A network approach. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  78. Håkansson, H. (1989). Corporate technological behaviour: Cooperation and networks. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Håkansson, H. (1990). Technological collaboration in industrial networks. European Management Journal, 8(3), 371–379.Google Scholar
  80. Håkansson, H., & Lundgren, H. (1993). Industrial networks and technological innovation. Uppsala/ Stockholm: Network for Industry and Market Studies.Google Scholar
  81. Jeanrenaud, F. (1984). Marchés publics et politique économique. Annales de l’Économie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative,72(2). Google Scholar
  82. Jeanrenaud, F., & Meyer, L. (1984). L’incidence a moyen et longe terme des commandes de matériel de télecommunication: Deux études de cas. Annales de l’Économie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative, 72(2). Google Scholar
  83. Kamien, M., & Schwartz, N. (1982). Market structure and innovation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Kanz, J. W. (1993). Technology, globalization and defence: Military electronics strategies in a changing world. International Journal of Technology Management, 8(112), 59–76.Google Scholar
  85. Keyzer, M. (1968). L’importance et la politique des achats publics. Hommes et Techniques(278). Google Scholar
  86. Kline, S. J., & Rosenberg, N. (1986). An overview of innovation. In R. Landau & N. Rosenberg (Eds.), The positive sum strategy: Harnessing technology for economic growth (pp. 275–304). Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  87. Levin, R. C. (1982). The semiconductor industry. In R. R. Nelson (Ed.), Government and technical progress - A cross-industry analysis (pp. 9–100). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  88. Lichtenberg, F. (1988). The private R&D investment response to federal design and technical competitions. American Economic Review, 78, 550–559.Google Scholar
  89. Lundvall, B.-A. (1988). Innovation as an interactive process: From user-producer interaction to the national system of innovation. In G. Dosi, C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg, & L. Soete (Eds.), Technical change and economic theory (pp. 349–369). London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. Lundvall, B.-A. (1991). Networking and interaction for innovation: The organized market and the productivity slowdown. In OECD (Ed.), TEP: The challenge for economic policy. Paris: OECD. Lundvall, B.-A. (1985). Product innovation and user producer interaction. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lundvall, B.- Å. (Ed.). (1992). National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  92. Maddock, I. (1983). Civilian exploitation of defence technology. London: National Economic Development Office.Google Scholar
  93. Mansfield, E., & Rapoport, J. (1977). Social and private rates of return from industrial innovations. Quarterly Journal of Economics(May), 221–240.Google Scholar
  94. Martin, J. F. (1996). The EC public procurement rules: A critical analysis. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  95. Mattson, L.-G. (1978). Systemförsä jning. Stockholm: Marknadstekniskt Centrum.Google Scholar
  96. McAfee, R. P., & McMillan, J. (1986). Bidding for contracts: A principal-agent analysis. Rand Journal of Economics, 17(3), 326–338.Google Scholar
  97. McAfee, R. P., & McMillan, J. (1987). Auctions and bidding. Journal of Economic Literature, 15(June), 699–738.Google Scholar
  98. McCrudden, C. (1994). Public procurement and equal opportunities in the European Community: A study of ‘contract compliance’ in the member states in the European Community and under Community law. Brussels: EC.Google Scholar
  99. McKinsey and Company. (1988). Strengthening competitiveness in UK electronics. London: National Economic Development Office.Google Scholar
  100. McLachlan, L. (1985). Discriminatory public procurement, economic integration, and the role of bureaucracy. Journal of Common Market Studies, 23. Google Scholar
  101. Milgrom, P. (1989). Auctions and bidding: A primer. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3(3), 3–22.Google Scholar
  102. Milgrom, P., & Weber, R. J. (1982). A theory of auctions and competitive bidding. Econometrica, 50(5), 1089–1122.Google Scholar
  103. Mowery, D., & Rosenberg, N. (1979). The influence of market demand upon innovation: A critical review of some recent empirical studies. Research Policy, 8, 102–153.Google Scholar
  104. Mowery, D. C. (1995, January 11–12). US postwar technology policy and the creation of new industries. Paper presented at the Conference on Creativity, Innovation and Job-Creation, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  105. Mowery, D. C., & Rosenberg, N. (1982). The commercial aircraft industry. In R. R. Nelson (Ed.), Government and technical progress - A cross-industry analysis (pp. 101–161). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  106. Mowery, D. C., & Rosenberg, N. (1993). The US innovation system. In R. Nelson (Ed.), National systems of innovation: A comparative study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Nelson, R., & Winter, S. (1977). In search of a useful theory of innovation. Research Policy, 6(1), 36–76.Google Scholar
  108. Nelson, R., & Winter, S. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Boston, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Nelson, R. R. (1984). High-technology policies: A five-nation comparison. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
  110. Nilsson, H. (1994). Technology procurement for market transformation - a customer tool for sustainable design and manufacturing (Discussion Paper.). Stockholm: NUTEK.Google Scholar
  111. Nilsson, H. (1996,). Looking inside the black box of market transformation. Paper presented at the ACEEE.Google Scholar
  112. OECD. (1991). Information technology standards: The economic dimension. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  113. OECD. (1996a). Technology, productivity and job creation - Vol.]: Highlights. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  114. OECD. (1996b). Technology,productivity and job creation - Vol.2: Analytical report. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  115. OECD/ICCP. (1996). Mobile cellular communications: Pricing strategies and competition. Paris: OECD. Google Scholar
  116. Parker, P. (1990). The 1988 local government act and compulsory competitive tendering. Urban Studies,5. Google Scholar
  117. Parkinson, S. T. (1982). The role of user in successful new product development. R&D Management, 12(3),123–131.Google Scholar
  118. Parsons, H. (1988). Economic principles in the private and public sectors. Policy and Politics, 16.Google Scholar
  119. Pavitt, K. (1984). Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy, 13,343–373.Google Scholar
  120. Perroux, C. (1969a). Note sur la notion de la pole de croissance. In C. Perroux (Ed.), L ‘economie du XXé siecle (Vol. 3d,). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  121. Perroux, C. (1969b). Les espaces economiques. In C. Perroux (Ed.), L’economie du XXé siecle (Vol. 3d,). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  122. Phillips, A. (1980). Organizational factors in R&D and technological change: Market failure considerations. In D. Sahal (Ed.), Research,development and technological innovation (pp. 105–205). Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  123. Ponssard, J. P., & Pouvourville, G. D. (1982). Marchés publiques et politique industrielle. Paris: Économica.Google Scholar
  124. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  125. Rankine, L. J. (1995). The role of users in information technology standardisation. STI Review(16), 177-194.Google Scholar
  126. Riley, J. G., & Samuelson, W. F. (1981). Optimal auctions. American Economic Review, 71(3),381–392.Google Scholar
  127. Robinson, P., Faris, C., & Wind, Y. (1967). Industrial buying and creative marketing. London: Allyn & Bacon Ltd. and The Marketing Science Institute.Google Scholar
  128. Roll, L. (1982). The mixed economy. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  129. Rosenberg, N. (1972). Factors affecting the diffusion of technology. Explorations in Economic History, 10. Google Scholar
  130. Rosenberg, N. (1976). Perspectives on technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Rothwell, R. (1994). Issues in user-producer relations in the innovation process: The role of government. International Journal of Technology Management, 9(5/6/7), 629–649.Google Scholar
  132. Rothwell, R., & Zegveld, W. (1982). Industrial innovation and public poliçv. London: Frances Pinter.Google Scholar
  133. Rothwell, R., & Zegveld, W. (1985). Reindustrialization and technology. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  134. Sahal, D. (1981). Patterns of technological innovation. New York: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  135. Sahal, D. (1985). Technology guide-posts and innovation avenues. Research Policy, 14,61–82.Google Scholar
  136. Scherer, F. M. (1980). Industrial market structure and economic performance. (Second ed.). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  137. Schmidt, S. (1992). Negotiating technical change through standards: Technical coordination in market and committees. Cologne: Max Planck Institute.Google Scholar
  138. Sheth, J. (1973). A model of industrial buyer behavior. Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 50–56.Google Scholar
  139. Shulman, P. R. (1980). Large scale policy-making. Elsevier: New York.Google Scholar
  140. Silverberg, G. (1987). Technical progress, capital accumulation, and effective demand: A self-organization model. In D. Batten, J. Casti, & B. Johansson (Eds.), Economic evolution and structural adjustment. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  141. Silverberg, G. (1990a). Adoption and diffusion as a collective evolutionary process. In C. Freeman & L. Soete (Eds.), New explorations in the economics of technological change (pp. 177–192). London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  142. Silverberg, G. (1990b). Dynamic vintage models with neo-Keynesian features. In OECD (Ed.), Technology and productivity: The challenge for economic productivity. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  143. Silverberg, G., Dosi, G., & Orsenigo, L. (1988). Innovation, diversity and diffusion: A self-organisation model. Economic Journal, 98, 1032–1054.Google Scholar
  144. Snyder, F. (1990). Ideologies of competition: Two perspectives on the completion of the internal market. In F. Snyder (Ed.), New directions in European Community law. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  145. Stenberg, L. (1987). Utvetlingsblock i förnyelse av svensk industri (Ds I 1987:3). Stockholm: Industridepartementet.Google Scholar
  146. Stigler, G. J. (1964). A theory of oligopoly. Journal of Political Economy, 72(1), 44–61.Google Scholar
  147. Stoneman, P. (1987). The economic analysis of technology policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Teubal, M., Yinnon, T., & Zuscovitch, E. (1991). Networks and market creation. Research Policy, 20, 381–392.Google Scholar
  149. Tovias, S. (1990). The impact of liberalizing government procurement policies of individual EC countries on trade with non-members. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv(722). Google Scholar
  150. Townsend, J. (1976). Innovation in coal mining: The Anderton shearer-loader. Brighton: Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  151. Tushman, M. (1977). Special boundary roles in the innovation process. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 587–605.Google Scholar
  152. Tushman, M., & Anderson, P. (1986). Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 439–465.Google Scholar
  153. Utterback, J., & Abernathy, W. (1975). A dynamic model of process and product innovation. OMEGA, 3(6), 639–656.Google Scholar
  154. Utterback, J. M. (1994). Mastering the dynamics of innovation: How companies can seize opportunities in the face of technological change. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  155. Utterback, J. M., & Suarez, F. F. (1993). Innovation, competition and industry structure. Research Policy, 22, 1-21.Google Scholar
  156. Utterly, J., & Harper, B. (1993). The political economy of competitive tendering. In D. Clarke & H. Pitelis (Eds.), The political economy of privatization. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  157. Vickrey, W. (1961). Counterspeculation, auctions and competitive sealed tenders. Journal of Finance, 16(March), 8–37.Google Scholar
  158. von Hippel, E. (1988). The sources of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Webster, F., & Wind, Y. (1972). A general model of organizational buying behaviour. Journal of Marketing, 36(2), 12–19.Google Scholar
  160. Westling, H. (1996). Cooperative procurement: Market acceptance for innovative energy-efficient technologies (1996–3). Stockholm: NUTEK B.Google Scholar
  161. Williams, R., & Smellie, R. (1985). Public purchasing: An administrative Cinderella. Public Administration, 63(1), 23–39.Google Scholar
  162. Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and hierarchies: Analysis and anti-trust implications. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  163. WS Atkins Management Consultants, & Associates. (1988). The “cost of non-Europe” in public sector procurement. (Vol. 5). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  164. Zysman, J. (1977). Political strategies for industrial order. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Edquist
  • L. Hommen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations