Advertisement

Abstract

Although first discovered in the late 1700s, health effects resulting from beryllium (Be) exposure are diseases of the 20th Century. This Chapter reviews current information regarding the health effects of Be, with emphasis on chronic beryllium disease (CBD), the principal adverse health risk from inhaled Be today. This disease is immunologically mediated through a T-lymphocyte-dependent response to inhaled Be particles, resulting in a persistent granulomatous lung disease with pulmonary debilitation.

Keywords

Beryllium Oxide Threshold Limit Value Chronic Beryllium Disease Governmental Industrial Hygienist Granulomatous Lung Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, U.S. DHHS. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium. ATSDR/TP-92/04. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 1993.Google Scholar
  2. ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Annual Reports of the Threshold Limit Value and Biological Exposure Indices Committees. Cincinnati, OH, 1998a.Google Scholar
  3. ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 1998b. Balkissoon R, Newman LS. Beryllium copper alloy (2%) causes chronic beryllium disease. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 1999;41:304–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barna BP, Chiang T, Pillarisetti SG, Deodhar SD. Immunologic studies of experimental beryllium lung disease in the guinea pig. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 1981;20:402–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barna BP, Deodhar SD, Chiang T, Gautam S, Edinger M. Experimental beryllium-induced lung disease. I. Differences in immunologic responses to beryllium compounds in Strain 2 and 13 guinea pigs. Intl. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 1984a;73:42–48.Google Scholar
  6. Barna BP, Deodhar SD, Gautam S, Edinger M, Chiang T, McMahon JT. Experimental beryllium-induced lung disease. II. Analyses of bronchial lavage cells in Strains 2 and 13 guinea pigs. Intl. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 1984;6;73:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard AE, Torma-Krajewski J, Viet SM. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 1996;57:804–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benson JM, Barr EB, Nikula KJ. Role of the Major Histocompatibility II complex in mediating beryllium-induced pulmonary lesions in mice. The Toxicologist, 1998;42:350.Google Scholar
  9. Bost TW, Riches DW, Schumacher B, Carre PC, Khan TZ, Martinez JA, Newman LS. Alveolar Macrophages from patients with beryllium disease and sarcoidosis express increased levels of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 but not interleukin-1 beta. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 1994;10:506–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke SM. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of beryllium antibodies. J. Immunol. Meth., 1991;137:65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke SM, Thurlow SM, Hilmas DE. Application of beryllium antibodies in risk assessment and health surveillance: Two case studies. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 1995;11:399–411.Google Scholar
  12. Comhair SAA, Lewis MJ, Bhathena PR, Hammel JP, Erzurum SC. Increased glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in lungs of individuals with chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1999;159:1824–1829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cotes JE, Gilson JC, McKerrow CB, Oldham PD. A long-term follow-up of workers exposed to beryllium. Br. J. Ind. Med., 1983;40:13–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cullen MR, Kominsky JR, Rossman MD, Chemiack MG, Rankin JA, Balmes JR, Kern JA, Daniele RP, Palmer L, Naegel GP, McManus K, Cruz R. Chronic beryllium disease in a precious metal refinery: Clinical epidemiologic and immunologic evidence for continuing risk from exposure to low level beryllium fumes. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1987;135:201–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Daniloff E, Barnard J, Barker E, Solida M, Newman LS. Methotrexate treatment in chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1998;157:A146.Google Scholar
  16. Deodhar SD, Barna B, Van Ordstrand HS. A study of the immunological aspects of chronic berylliosis. Chest, 1973;63:309–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenbud M, Wanta RC, Dustan C, Steadman LT, Hams WB, Wolf BS. Non-occupational berylliosis. J. Ind. Hyg. Assoc., 1949;31:282–294.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenbud M. Origins of the standards for control of beryllium disease (1947–1949). Environ. Res., 1982;27:79–88.Google Scholar
  19. Eisenbud M. An Environmental Odyssey: People, Pollution, Politics in the Life of a Practical Scientist. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, 1990.Google Scholar
  20. Eisenbud M. The standard for control of chronic beryllium disease. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 1998;13:25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eisenbud M, Lisson J. Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: A 30-year update. J. Occup. Med., 1983;25:196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finch GL, Mewhinney JA, Hoover MD, Eidson AF, Haley PJ. Clearance, translocation, and excretion of beryllium following inhalation of beryllium oxide by beagle dogs. Fundam. Appl. Toxico.,1 1990;15:231–241.Google Scholar
  23. Finch GL, Hoover MD, Hahn FF, Nikula KJ, Belinsky SA, Haley PJ, Griffith WC. Animal models of beryllium-induced lung disease. Environ. Health Perspect., 1996;104(Suppl 5):973–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finch GL, Nikula KJ, Hoover MD. Dose-response relationships between inhaled beryllium metal and lung toxicity in C3H mice. Toxicol. Sci., 1998;42:36–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fontenot AP, Kotzin BL, Comment CE, Newman LS. Expansions of T-cell subsets expressing particular T-cell receptor variable regions in chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 1998;18:581–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Freiman DG, Hardy HL. Beryllium Disease. The relation of pulmonary pathology to clinical course and prognosis based on a study of 130 cases from the U.S. Beryllium Case Registry. Human Pathol., 1970;1:25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Galbraith GM, Pandey JP, Schmidt MG, Arnaud P, Goust JM. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium. Arch. Environ. Health, 1996;51:29–33.Google Scholar
  28. Haley PJ, Finch GL, Mewhinney JA, Harmsen AG, Hahn FF, Hoover MD, Bice DE. A canine model of beryllium-induced granulomatous lung disease. Lab. Invest., 1989;61:219–227.Google Scholar
  29. Haley PJ. Mechanisms of granulomatous lung disease from inhaled beryllium: The role of antigenicity in granuloma formation. Toxicol. Pathol., 1991;19:514–525.Google Scholar
  30. Haley PJ, Finch FL, Hoover MD, Mewhinney JA, Bice DE, Muggenburg BA. Beryllium-induced lung disease in the dog following repeated BeO exposure. Environ. Res., 1992;59:400–415.Google Scholar
  31. Haley PJ, Pavia KF, Swafford DS, Davila DR, Hoover MD, Finch GL. The comparative pulmonary toxicity of beryllium metal and beryllium oxide in cynomolgus monkeys. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 1994;16:627–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haley PJ, Swafford DS, Finch GL, Hoover MD, Muggenburg BA, Johnson NF. Immunologic specificity of lymphocyte cell lines from dogs exposed to beryllium oxide. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 1997;19:459–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hardy HL, Tabershaw IR. Delayed chemical pneumonitis occurring in workers exposed to beryllium compounds. J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol., 1946;28:197–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hardy H. Beryllium disease: A clinical perspective. Environ. Res., 1980;21:1–9.Google Scholar
  35. Harris J, Bartelson BB, Barker E, Balkissoon R, Kriess K, Newman LS. Serum neopterin in chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Ind. Med., 1997;32:21–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang H, Meyer KC, Kubai L, Auerbach R. An immune model of beryllium-induced pulmonary granulomata in mice: Histopathology, immune reactivity, and flow-cytometric analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage-derived cells. Lab. Invest., 1992;67:138–146.Google Scholar
  37. Hyslop F, Palmes ED, Alford WC, Monaco AR, Fairhall LT. The Toxicology of Beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service, Washington, DC, National Institute of Health - Bulletin No. 181, 1943.Google Scholar
  38. Infante PF, Wagoner JK, Sprince NL. Mortality patterns from lung cancer and non-neoplastic respiratory disease among white males in the Beryllium Case Registry. Environ. Res., 1980;21:35–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson NR. Beryllium disease among workers in a spacecraft-manufacturing plant - Califomia, MMWR, 1983;32:419–420,425.Google Scholar
  40. Kotloff RM, Richman PS, Greenacre JK, Rossman MD. Chronic beryllium disease in a dental laboratory technician. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1993;147:205–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kriebel D, Brain JD, Sprince NL, Kazemi H. The pulmonary toxicity of beryllium. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1988;137:464–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kriess K, Newman LS, Mroz MM, Campbell PA. Screening blood test identifies subclinical beryllium disease. J. Occup. Med., 1989;31:603–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Martyny JW, Newman LS. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1993a;148:985–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kriess K, Wasserman S, Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in the ceramics industry. J. Occup. Med., 1993b;35:267–274.Google Scholar
  45. Kriess K, Miller F, Newman LS, Ojo-Amaize EA, Rossman MD, Saltini C. Chronic beryllium disease: From the workplace to cellular immunology, molecular immunogenetics, and back. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 1994;71:123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Newman LS, Martyny J, Zhen B. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 pg/m3. Am. J. Ind. Med., 1996;30:16–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kriess K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Wiedemann H, Barna B. Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy and oxide production plant. Occup. Environ. Med., 1997;54:605–612.Google Scholar
  48. Levin L. Letter to the Editor. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 1991;6:5–67.Google Scholar
  49. Lympany PA, Petrek M, Southcott AM, Newman-Taylor AJ, Welsh KI, du Bois RM. HLA-DPB polymorphisms: GIu69 association with sarcoidosis. Eur. J. Immunogenet., 1996;23:353–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. MacMahon B. The epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of beryllium in humans. J. Occup. Med., 1994;36:15–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McConnochie K, Williams WR, Kilpatrick GS, Jones-Williams W. Chronic beryllium disease in identical twins. Br. J. Dis. Chest, 1988;82:431–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maier LA, Kittle LA, Tinkle SS, Newman LS. IL-4 regulation of cytokine production and gene expression in chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1998;157:A30.Google Scholar
  53. Maier LA, Raynolds MV, Young DA, Barker EA, Newman LS. Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme polymorphisms in chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1999;159:1342–1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mancuso TF. Mortality study of beryllium industry worker’s occupational lung cancer. Environ. Res., 1980;21:48–55.Google Scholar
  55. Marshall, E. Beryllium screening raises ethical issues. Science, 1999;285:178–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Newman LS, Campbell PA. Mitogenic effect of beryllium sulfate on mouse B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes in vitro. Intl. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 1987;84:223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Newman LS, Kreiss K, King TE, Seay S, Campbell PA. Pathologic and immunologic alterations in early stages of beryllium disease: Re-examination of disease definition and natural history. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1989;139:1479–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Newman LS, Kreiss K. Nonoccupational beryllium disease masquerading as sarcoidosis: Identification by blood lymphocyte proliferation response to beryllium. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1992a;145:1212–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Newman LS, Mroz MM, Schumacher B, Daniloff E, Kreiss K. Beryllium sensitization precedes chronic beryllium disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., (Suppl) 1992b;145:A324.Google Scholar
  60. Newman LS. “Beryllium.” Chapter 83. In Hazardous Materials Toxicology. 1992c;882–890.Google Scholar
  61. Newman LS. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Environ. Health Perspect., 1996;104(Suppl 5):937–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Newman LS, Balkissoon R, Daniloff E, Solida M, Mroz M. Rate of progression from beryllium sensitization to chronic beryllium disease is 9–19% per year. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1998;157:A145.Google Scholar
  63. Nikula KJ, Swafford DS, Hoover MD, Tohulka MD, Finch GL. Chronic Granulomatous pneumonia and lymphocyte responses induced by inhaled beryllium metal in All and C3H/HeJ mice. Toxicol. Pathol., 1997;25:2–12.Google Scholar
  64. NIOSH:National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare] Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Washington, DC: Health Services and Mental Health Administration- NIOSH, HSM 72–10268, 1972.Google Scholar
  65. NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare] Health Hazard Evaluation Determination, Report No. 78–28–480 Persolite Products Inc.: Florence, Colorado. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH, NIOSH-TR-HHE-78–028–480, 1978.Google Scholar
  66. Ojo-Amaize EA, Agopian MS, Peter JB. Novel in vitro method for identification of individuals at risk for beryllium hypersensitivity. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 1994;1:164–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Powers MB. “History of Beryllium.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991, pp. 9–24.Google Scholar
  68. Preuss OP. “Assessment of Risk Potential.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Enviromental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991, pp. 263–273.Google Scholar
  69. Reeves AL. “Experimental Pathology.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991a, pp. 59–76.Google Scholar
  70. Reeves AL. “Toxicokinetics.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 199lb, pp. 77–86.Google Scholar
  71. Reeves AL. “Toxicodynamics.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991c, pp. 87–93.Google Scholar
  72. Richeldi L, Sorrentino R, Saltini C. HLA-DPB 1 glutamate 69: A genetic marker of beryllium disease. Science, 1993;262:242–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Richeldi L, Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Tartoni P, Saltini C. Interaction of genetic and exposure factors in the prevalence of berylliosis. Am. J. Ind. Med., 1997;32:337–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ridenour PK, Preuss OP. “Acute Pulmonary Beryllium Disease.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991, pp.. 103–112.Google Scholar
  75. Rossman MD, Kern JA, Elias JA, Cullen MR, Epstein PE, Preuss OP, Markham TN, Daniele RP. Proliferative response of bronchoalveolar lymphocytes to beryllium. Ann. Intern. Med., 1988;108:687–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rossman MD, Jones-Williams W. “Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Beryllium Disease.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991, pp. 121–132.Google Scholar
  77. Saltini C, Winestock K, Kirby M, Pinkston P, Crystal RG. Maintenance of alveolitis in patients with chronic beryllium disease by beryllium-specific helper T-cells. N. Engl. J. Med., 1989;320:1103–1109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stange AW, Hilmas DE, Furman FJ. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium. Toxicology, 1996;1 11:213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Steenland K, Ward E. Lung cancer incidence among patients with beryllium disease: A cohort mortality study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1991;83:1380–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sterner JH, Eisenbud M. Epidemiology of beryllium intoxication. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med., 1951;4:123–151.Google Scholar
  81. Stonehouse AJ, Zenczak S. “Properties, Production Processes, and Applications.” In Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects, MD Rossman, OP Pruess, MB Powers, eds. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991, pp. 27–58.Google Scholar
  82. Stubbs J, Argyris E, Lee CW, Monos D, Rossman M. Genetic markers in beryllium hypersensitivity. Chest, 1996;109(3 Suppl):45S.Google Scholar
  83. Tabershaw IR. The Toxicology of Beryllium, Rockville, MD: U.S. Public Health Service, PHS-PUB2173, 1972.Google Scholar
  84. Thomassen MJ, Dweik RA, Buhrow LT, Jacobs BS, Saltini C, Deubner DC, Wiedemann HP, Barna BP. Beryllium-induced interferon-gamma production by bronchoalveolar lavage cells is diagnostic for berylliosis in beryllium-exposed workers. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1998;157:A145.Google Scholar
  85. Tinkle SS, Little LA, Schumacher BA, Newman LS. Beryllium induces IL-2 and IFN-gamma in berylliosis. J. Immunol., 1997;158:518–526.Google Scholar
  86. Tinkle SS, Newman LS. Beryllium-stimulated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and their soluble receptors in chronic beryllium disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997;156:1884–1891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Tinkle SS, Kittle LA, Newman LS. Partial IL-10 inhibition of the cell-mediated immune response in chronic beryllium disease. J. Immunol., 1999;163:2747–2753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. U.S. DOE: United States Department of Energy, Environment Health & Safety EH2. Case of berylliosis confirmed. Serious Accidents, 1985;9:1–3.Google Scholar
  89. USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health Assessment Document for Beryllium. Washington, DC: EPA, EPA/600/8–84/026F, 1987.Google Scholar
  90. USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information Systems: Beryllium and Compounds. EPA, IRIS Database, April 3, 1998.Google Scholar
  91. Van Ordstrand HS, Hughes R, Carmody MG. Chemical Pneumonitis in workers extracting beryllium oxide: Report of 3 cases. Cleveland Clin. Quart., 1943;10:10.Google Scholar
  92. Vorwald AJ, ed. Pneumoconiosis (Sixth Saranac Symposium). 1950. New York: Paul B. Hoeber Publishing, 1950.Google Scholar
  93. Votto JJ, Barton RW, Gionfriddo MA, Cole SR, McCormick JR, Thrall RS. A model of pulmonary granulomata induced by beryllium sulfate in the rat. Sarcoidosis, 1987;4:71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wagoner JK, Infante PF, Bayliss DL. Beryllium: An etiologic agent in the induction of lung cancer, non-neoplastic respiratory disease, and heart disease among industrially-exposed workers. Environ. Res., 1980;21:15–34.Google Scholar
  95. Wang Z, White PS, Petrovic M, Tatum OL, Newman LS, Maier LA, Marrone BL. Differential susceptibilities to chronic beryllium disease contributed by different Glu69 HLA-DPB1 and —DPAI alleles. J. Immunol., 1999;163:1647–1653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ward E, Okun A, Ruder A, Fingerhut M, Steenland K. A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants. Am J Ind Med 1992;22:885–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. WHO: World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 106: Beryllium, Geneva: World Health Organization, 1990.Google Scholar
  98. WHO: World Health Organization. Beryllium,Cadmium, Mercury, and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. Vol. 58, Lyon, France: WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1993, pp. 41–117.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory L. Finch
    • 1
  1. 1.Inhalation Toxicology LaboratoryLovelace Respiratory Research InstituteAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations