Water Quality pp 219-249 | Cite as

Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements

  • Claude E. Boyd


Micronutrients are minerals needed in small amounts by living things. The most widely recognized micronutrients are iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt, boron, molybdenum, and iodine. Elements present in water in small concentrations are known as trace elements. All elements in the earth’s crust and atmosphere can dissolve in water, so in addition to micronutrients, water contains small amounts of many other trace elements. Micronutrients are important in water quality because they influence plant productivity. When concentrations of some trace elements are higher than normal because of natural reasons or pollution, toxicity to aquatic organisms may result. Also, excessive concentrations of certain trace elements can cause water to be unsuitable for human use because of possible toxic effects or other unfavorable properties.


Total Alkalinity Calcium Fluoride Public Water Supply Manganese Carbonate Inorganic Complex 
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  1. 1.
    In this and other equations, the (s) notation indicates that a compound is asolid or precipitate.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Note that Equation 13.39 often will be written as Al(OH)3 = Al3+ + 3OH- K = 10-33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claude E. Boyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Department of Fisheries and Allied AquaculturesAuburn UniversityUSA

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