• Naim Hamdia Afgan
  • Maria da Graça Carvalho


Energy resources have always played an important role in the development of the human society [1]. Since the industrial revolution the energy has been a driving force for the modern civilization development. Technological development and consumption of energy, along with the increase in the world population, are interdependent. The Industrial Revolution, especially to the momentum created by the change from reciprocal engines to the great horsepower of steam engines in the late nineteenth century, which brought about a revolution in dynamics ‐ began a drastic increase both in consumption and population of the world [2].


Fossil Fuel Energy Resource Natural Capital Coal Tope Proven Reserve 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naim Hamdia Afgan
    • 1
  • Maria da Graça Carvalho
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Superior TécnicoPortugal

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