Clinical medicine engages heart failure at the level of the individual. This chapter considers the presentations of heart failure and clinical tools that enable patient evaluation. Greater attention to clinical presentations and tools can be found in Chapter 9, Diagnosis.
KeywordsFatigue Ischemia Respiration Cough Etiol
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- 1.Levine SA. Clinical heart disease. Nature and treatment of congestive heart failure. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1951; 291.Google Scholar