Molecular Genetics of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

  • Vandana Gupta
  • T. Satyanarayana


The mycorrhizal associations have evolved as a survival mechanism for both fungi and plants. These associations are as old as land plants. Ectomycorrhizal plants have evolved along with many of their ectomycorrhizal fungal partners (Miller and Walting, 1987; Nicolson, 1975). It is very difficult to find plants without mycorrhiza in natural ecosystems and in disturbed habitats, and forest plantations, agricultural and horticultural crops growing at low phosphate nutrition (Harley and Smith, 1983). From genetics point of view, mycorrhizal fungi are very different than other biotrophic fungi in that most species of ectomycorrhizal fungi have evolved to have a wide host range in contrast to the narrow range for pathogenic biotrophic fungi.


Internal Transcribe Spacer Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Mycorrhizal Fungus Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Ectomycorrhizal Fungus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adwell, F.E.B., Hall, I.R. and Smith, J.M.B. 1985, Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay as an aid to taxonomy of the EndogonaceaeTrans. Bri. Mycol. Soc.84: 399–402.Google Scholar
  2. Agerer, R. 1996, Studies on ectomycorrhizae, III, Mycorrhizae formed by four fungi in the generaLactariusandRussulaon spruce,Mycotaxon27: 1–59.Google Scholar
  3. Agerer, R. 1995, Anatomical characteristics of identified ectomycorrhizas: an attempt towards a natural classification, in:Mycorrhiza: Structure Function,Molecular Biology and BiotechnologyA. Varma and B. Hock, eds., Berlin, Heidelberg, New York Springer-Verlag, pp. 605–734.Google Scholar
  4. Alice, M., Komegay, J.R., Pribnow, D. and Gold, M.H. 1989, Transformation of complementation of an adenine auxotroph of lignin-degrading basidiomycetePhanerochaete chrysosporium App. Environ. Microbiol. 55:406–411.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, I.C., Chambers, S.M. and Cairney, J.W.G. 1998, Molecular determination of genetic variation inPisolithusisolates from a defined region in New South Wales, Australia,NewPhytol.138:151–162.Google Scholar
  6. Armaleo, D.Y.G.N., Klein, T.M., Shark, K.B., Sanford, J.C. and Johnson, S.A. 1990, Biolistic nuclear transformation ofSaccharomyces cereviseaeand other fungi,Curr. Genet. 17:97–103. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong, J.L., Fowles, N.L. and Rygiewiz, P.T. 1989, Restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish ectomycorrhizal fungiPlant Soil116: 1–7.Google Scholar
  8. Barrett, V. 1992, Ectomycorrhizal fungi as experimental organisms, in:Hand Book of Applied Mycology Vo1.ISoil and Plants, D.K. Arora, B. Rai, K.G. Mukerji, and G.R. Knudsen, eds., Mascal Dekker Inc., USA, pp.217–229.Google Scholar
  9. Barrett, V., Dixon, R.K. and Lemke, P.A. 1990, Genetic transformation from selected species of ectomycorrhizal fungiApp. Microbiol. Biotechnol.33:313–316.Google Scholar
  10. Bicknell, J.N. and Dauglas, H.C. 1969, Conservation of ribosomal RNA sequences in yeast, filamentous fungi and plants, Bacteriological Proceedings of 69th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Florida, pp. 39 (Abstr.)Google Scholar
  11. Bills, S.N., Richter, D.L. and Podila, G.K. 1995, Genetic transformation of the ectomycorrhizal fungusPaxillus involutusby particle bombardment,Mycol. Res.99: 557–561.Google Scholar
  12. Binninger, D.M., Skrzynia, C., Pukkila, P.J. and Casselton L.A. 1986, DNA-mediated transformation of the basidiomycetesCoprinus cinereus EMBO J. 6:835–840.Google Scholar
  13. Blanz, P.A. and Gottschalk, M. 1986, Systematic position ofSeptobasidium grophiolaand other basidiomycetes as deduced on the basis of their 5S ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequence systemApp. Microbiol.8:121–127.Google Scholar
  14. Bonfante-Fasolo, P. 1994, Ultrastructural analysis reveals the complex interactions between root cell and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in:Impact ofArbuscular Mycorrhizas on Sustainable Agriculture and Natural EcosystemsS. Gianinazzi and H. Schuepp, eds., Birkhauser, Basel, pp. 73–87.Google Scholar
  15. Bonfante, P., Lanfranco, L.O., Cometti, V. and Gure, A. 1997, Inter-and intraspecific variability in strains of the ectomycorrhizal fungusSuillusas revealed by molecular techniques,Microbiol Res.152:287–292.Google Scholar
  16. Brand, F. 1991, Ektomykorrhizen anFagus sylvaticaCharakterisieung und Identifuzierung, okologische Kennzeichnung und unsterile Kultivierung, Libri Botanici 2, Eching: IHW- Verlag, 1–229.Google Scholar
  17. Bruns, T.D. and Gardes, M. 1993, Molecular tools for the identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi - taxon specific oligonucleotide probes for Suilloid fungiMole. Ecol.2:233–242.Google Scholar
  18. Bruns, T.D., White, T. J. and Taylor, J.W. 1991, Fungal molecular systematicsAnn. Rev. Ecol. Syst.22: 525–564.Google Scholar
  19. Burdon, J.J. and Marshall, D.R. 1983, The use of isozymes in plant disease research, in:Isozymes in Plant Genetics and BreedingS.D. Tanksley and T.J. Orton, eds., Vol. A., Elsevier, New York, pp. 401–412.Google Scholar
  20. Burgess, T., Laurent, P., Dell, B., Malajczuk, N. and Martin, F. 1995a, Effect of the fungal isolate aggrresivity on the biosynthesis of symbiosis-related polypeptides in differentiating eucalypt ectomycorrhizaPlanta196: 408–417.Google Scholar
  21. Burgess, T., Malajczuk, N. and Dell, B. 1995b, Variation inPisolithusbased on basidiome and basidiospore morphology; Cultural characteristics and analysis of polypeptides using ID SDS PAGE,Mycol. Res.99: 1–13.Google Scholar
  22. Buxton, F.P., Gwynne, D.I. and Davies, R.W. 1989, Cloning of a new bidirectionally selectable marker forAspergillusstrains,Gene84:329–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cameleyre, I. and Olivier, J.M. 1983, Evidence for intraspecific isozyme variations among French isolates ofTuber melanosporum (Vitt.) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 110: 159–162.Google Scholar
  24. Chakraborty, B.N. and Kapoor, M. 1990, Transformation of filamentous fungi by electroporationNuc. Acids Res.18:6737Google Scholar
  25. Cleyet-Marel, J.C., Bausquet, N. and Mousain, D. 1989, The immunochemical approach for the characterization of ectomycorrhizal fungiAgri. Ecosy. Environ.28: 79–83.Google Scholar
  26. Doudrick, R.L., Raffle, V.L., Nelson, C.D. and Fumier, G.R. 1995, Genetic analysis of homokaryones from a basidiome ofLaccaria bicolorusing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers,Mycol. Res.99:1361–1366.Google Scholar
  27. Duchesne, L.C. 1989, Protein synthesis inPints resinosaand the ectomycorrhizal fungusPaxillus involutusprior to ectomycorrhiza formation,Trees3: 73–77.Google Scholar
  28. Erland, S. 1995, Abundance ofTylospora fibrillosaectomycorrhizas in a South Swedish spruce forest measured by RFLP analysis of the RCR- amplified rDNA ITS region,Mycol. Res.99:1425–1428.Google Scholar
  29. Erland, S., Henrion, B., Martin, F., Glover, L.A. and Alexander, I.J. 1994, Identification of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomyceteTylospora fibrillosaDonk by RFPL analysis of PCR amplified ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA,New Phytol.126:525–532.Google Scholar
  30. Fries, C.F. and Allen, M.F. 1991, Tracking the fates if exotic and local VA mycorrhizal fungi: methods and patternsAgricul. Ecosys. Environ.34: 87–96.Google Scholar
  31. Gandeboeuf, D., Dupre, C., Roeckel-Drevet, P., Nicolas, P. and Chevalier, G. 1997a, TypingTuberectomycorrhizae by polymerase chain amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA and the sequence characterized amplified region markers,Can. J. Microbiol.43:723–728.Google Scholar
  32. Gandeboeuf, D., Dupre, C., Roeckel-Drevet, P., Nicolas, P. and Chevalier, G. 1997b, Grouping and identification ofTuberspecies using RAPD markers,Can. J. Bot.75:36–45.Google Scholar
  33. Gardes, M. and Bruns, T.D. 1993, ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts, J.Mol. Ecol.30:17–121.Google Scholar
  34. Gardes, M., Fortin, J.A., Mueller, G.M. and Kropp, B.R. 1990, Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of fourLaccariaspp.(L. bicolor,L. laccata,L. proxima,L. amethystina),Phytopathol.80:1312–1317.Google Scholar
  35. Gardes, M., White, T.J., Fortin, J.A., Bruns, T.D. and Taylor, J.W. 1991, Identification of indigenous and introduced symbiotic fungi in ectomycorrhizae by amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNACan. J. Bot.69: 180–190.Google Scholar
  36. Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., Tahiri-Alaoni, A., Antoniw, J.F., Gianinazzi, S. and Duma-Gandot, E. 1992, Weak expression of the pathogenesis related PR-bl gene and localisation of related proteins during symbiotic endomycorrhizal interaction in tobacco rootsEndocytobiosis Cell Res.8: 177–185.Google Scholar
  37. Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. 1995, Morphological compatibility in interactions between roots and arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi: molecular mechanisms, genes and gene expression, in:Pathogenesis and Host Parasite Specificity in Plant DiseaseVol. II., K. Kohmots, R.P. Singh and U.S. Singh, eds., Pergamon Press, Elsevier Science, Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. Giovannetti, M., Shrana, C., Citternesi, A.S., Avio, L., Gollotte, A., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. and Gianinazzi, S. 1994, Recognition and infection process, basis for host specificity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in:Impact ofArbuscular Mycorrhizas on Sustainable Agriculture and Natural EcosystemsS. Gianinazzi, and H. Schuepp, eds., Birkhauser, Basel, pp.61–72.Google Scholar
  39. Glenn, M.G., Chew, F.S. and Williams, P.H. 1988, Influence of glucosinolate content ofBrassica(Cruciferae) roots on growth of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,New Phytol.110:217–225.Google Scholar
  40. Goldman, G.H., Van Montague, M. and Herrera-Estrella, A. 1990, Transformation ofTrichoderma harzianumby high voltage electrical pulse,Curr. Genet.17:169–174.Google Scholar
  41. Gupta, V. and Satyanarayana, T. 1996, Molecular and general genetics of Ectomycorrhizal fungi, in:Concepts in Mycorrhizal ResearchK.G. Mukerji, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp. 343–361.Google Scholar
  42. Guillemaud, T., Raymond, M., Callot, G., Cleyet-Marel, J.C. and Fernandez, D. 1996, Variability of nuclearand mitochondria) ribosomal DNA of a truffle species(Tuber aestivum) Mycol. Res. 100:547–550.Google Scholar
  43. Harley, J.L. and Smith, S.E. 1983Mycorrhizal SymbiosisAcademic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Harrison, M.J. and Dixon, R.A. 1994, Spatial patterns of expression of flavonoid/isoflavonoid pathway genes during interactions between roots ofMedicago trunculataand the mycorrhizal fungusGlomus versiforme,PlantJ. 6: 9–20.Google Scholar
  45. Hasegawa, M., Lida, Y., Yano, T., Takaiwa, F. and Iwabuchi, M. 1985, Phylogenetic relationship among eukaryotic kingdoms inferred from ribosomal RNA sequencesJ. Mol. Evol.22:32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hang, I. and Oberwinkler, F. 1987, Some distinctive types of spruce mycorrhizaeTrees 1:172–188. Google Scholar
  47. Henrion, B., Chevalier, G. and Martin, F. 1994a, Typing truffle species PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA spacersMycol. Res.98: 37–43.Google Scholar
  48. Henrion, B., Di Battista, C., Bouchard, D., Varielles, D., Thompson, B.D., Le Tacon, F. and Martin, F. 1994b, Monitoring the persistence ofLaccaria bicolor asan ectomycorrhizal symbiont of nursery grown Dauglas fir by PCR of the rDNA intergenic spacer,Mol. Ecol.3:571–580.Google Scholar
  49. Henrion, B., LeTacon, F. and Martin, F. 1992, Rapid identification of genetic variation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by amplification of ribosomal RNA genesNew Phytol.122: 289–298.Google Scholar
  50. Hepper, C.M., Sen, R. and Maskall, C.S. 1986, Identification of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of leak(Allium porrumL.) and maize(Zea maysL.) on the basis of enzyme mobility during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,New Phytol.102: 529–539.Google Scholar
  51. Hepper, C.M., Sen, R., Azcon-Aguiliar, C. and Grace, C. 1988, Variation in certain isozymes among different geographical isolates of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiGlomus clarum Glomus monosporum andGlomus mosseae Soil Biol. Biochem. 20: 51–59.Google Scholar
  52. Hilbert, J.L. and Martin, F. 1988, Regulation of gene expression in ectomycorrhizas 1, Protein changes and the presence of ectomycorrhiza specific polypeptides in thePisolithus-Eucalytussymbiosis,New Phytol.110: 339–436.Google Scholar
  53. Hilbert, J.L., Costa, G. and Martin, F. 1991, Regulation of gene expression in ectomycorrhizas, Earlyectomycorrhizas and polypeptide cleansing in eucalypt ectomycorrhizasPlant Physiol.97: 977–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hilbert, J.L., Costa, G. and Martin. F. 1991, Ectomycorrhizin synthesis and polypeptide changes during the early stage of eucalypt mycorrhiza developmentPlant Physiol.97: 977–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ho, I. 1987, Enzyme activity and phytohormone production of a mycorrhizal fungusLaccaria laccata Can. J. For. Res. 17: 855–858.Google Scholar
  56. Ho, I. and Trappe, J.M. 1987, Enzymes and growth substances ofRhizopogonspecies in relation to mycorrhizal hosts and infrageneric taxonomy,Mycologia79:553–558.Google Scholar
  57. Horan, D.P. and Chilvers, G.A. 1990, Chemotropism: the key to ectomycorrhizal formationNew Phytol.116: 297–301.Google Scholar
  58. Hori, H. and Osagawa, S. 1987, Origin and evolution of organisms as deduced from 5S ribosomal RNA sequencesMol. Biol. Evol.4:445–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Karen, O., Hogberg, N., Dahlberg, A., Jonsson, L. and Nylund, J. 1997, Inter-and intraspecific variation in the ITS region of rDNA of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Fennoscandia as detected by endonuclease analysisNew Phytol.136:313–325.Google Scholar
  60. Karkouri, K.E., Cleyet-Marel, J.C. and Mousain, D. 1996, Isozyme variation and somatic incompatibility in populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungusSuillus collinitus New Phytol. 134:143–153.Google Scholar
  61. Kelley, M.K. and Hynes, M.J. 1985, Transformation ofAspergillus nigerbyAmdS gene ofAspergillus nidulans,EMBO J.4:475–497.Google Scholar
  62. Klein, T.M., Wolf, E.D., Wu, R. and Sanford, J.C. 1987, High velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cellsNature327:70–73.Google Scholar
  63. Kolar, M., Punt, P.J., Van Den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. and Schwab, H. 1988, Transformation ofPenicilium chrysogenumusing dominant selection markers and expression of anEscherichia coli LacZ fusion, Gene 62:127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kough, J., Malajczuk, N. and Linderman, R.G. 1983, Use of an indirect immuno-fluorescent technique to studythe vesicular arbuscular fungusGlomus epigaeumand otherGlomusspecies,New Phytol.94: 57–62.Google Scholar
  65. Kraigher, H., Agerer, R. and Javomik, B. 1995, Ectomycorrhizae ofLactarius ligniuotuson Norway spruce characterized by anatomical and molecular tools,Mycorrhiza5:175–180.Google Scholar
  66. Kreuzinger, N., Podeu, R., Gruber, F., Gobl, F. and Kubicek, C.P. 1996, Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their GDP (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genesApp. Environ. Microbiol.62:3432–3438.Google Scholar
  67. Kropp, B.R. and Fortin, J.A. 1987, The incompatibility system and ectomycorrhizal performance ofmonokaryons and reconstituted dikaryons ofLaccaria bicolor Can. J. Bot. 66: 289–294.Google Scholar
  68. Lanfranco, L., Wyss, P., Marzachi, C. and Bonfante, P. 1993, DNA probes for identification of the ectomycorrhizal fungusTuber magnatumPico,FEMS Microbiol. Lett.114: 245–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lambais, M.R. and Mehdy, M.C. 1995, Differential expression of defence-related genes in arbuscular mycorrhizaCan. J. Bot.73: S533–S540.Google Scholar
  70. Lemke, P.A., Barrett, B. and Dixon, R. K. 1991, Procedures and prospects for DNA mediated transformation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, in:Methods in MicrobiologyVol. 23, J.R. Norris, D.J. Read and A.K. Verma, eds., Academic Press, London, pp. 281–293.Google Scholar
  71. Lo Buglio, K.F., Rogers, S.O. and Wang, C.J.K. 1991, Variation in ribosomal DNA among isolates of the mycorrhizal fungusCenococcum geophilum Can. J Bot. 69: 2331–2343.Google Scholar
  72. Longato, S. and Bonfante, P. 1997, Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi by direct amplification of microsatellite regionsMycol. Res.101:425–432.Google Scholar
  73. Lovett, I.S. and Hasselby, J.A. 1971, Molecular weights of the ribosomal RNA of fungiArcheives Microbiol.80:191–204.Google Scholar
  74. Malajczuk, N., Garbay, J. and Lapeyrie, F. 1990, Infectivity of pine and eucalyptus isolates ofPisolithus tinctoriuson roots ofEucalyptus urophilla in vitro,1, Mycorrhiza formation in Model Systems,New Phytol.111: 627–631.Google Scholar
  75. Malardier, L.M., Dadoussi, J., Julian, J., Roussel, F., Scazzocchio, C. and Brygoo, Y. 1989, Cloning of the nitrate reductase gene (nia D) ofAspergillus nidulansand its use for transformation ofFusarium oxysporium,Gene78:147–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Marmeisse, R., Debaud, J.C. and Casselton, L.A. 1992a, DNA probes for species identification in the ectomycorrhizal fungusHebeloma Mycol. Res. 96: 161–165.Google Scholar
  77. Marmeisse, R., Gay, G., Debaud, J.C. and Casselton, L.A. 1992b, Genetic transformation of the ectomycorrhizal fungusHebeloma cylindrosporum Curr. Gene228: 41–45.Google Scholar
  78. Martin, F. and Tagu, D. 1995, Ectomycorrhiza development: a molecular perspective, in:Mycorrhiza: Structure Function Molecular Biology and Biotechnology A.K. Verma and B. Hock, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 29–58.Google Scholar
  79. Martin, F., Zaiou, M., Le Tacon, F. and Rygiewicz, P. 1991, Strain specific difference in ribosomal DNA from the ectomycorrhizal fungiLaccaria bicolor(Maire) Orton andLaccaria laccata(Stop exfr),Brit. Ann. Sci. For.48:133–142.Google Scholar
  80. Martin, F., Tommerup, I.C. and Tagu, D. 1994, Genetics of ectomycorrhizal fungi: progress and prospectsPlant Soil159: 159–170.Google Scholar
  81. Martin, F., Laurent, P., DeCarvalho, D., Burgess, T., Murphy, P., Nehls, U. and Tagu, D. 1995, Fungal gene expression during ectomycorrhiza formationCan. J. Bot.73: S541–S547.Google Scholar
  82. Mehmann, B., Brunner, I. and Braus, G.H. 1994, Nucleotide sequence variation of chitin synthase gene among ectomycorrhizal fungi and its potential use in taxonomyAppl. Environ. Microbiol.60:3105–3111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Micales, J.A., Bonde, M.R. and Peterson, G.L. 1986, The use of isozyme analysis in fungal taxonomy and geneticsMycotaxon27: 404–449.Google Scholar
  84. Miller, O.K. and Waiting, R. 1987, In:Evolutionary Biology of FungiA.D.M. Rayner, C.M. Brasied and D. Moore, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 435–448.Google Scholar
  85. Monroz-Rivas, A.M., Specht, C.A., Drummond, B.J., Froelinger, E., Novotony, C.P. and Ullrich, R.C. 1986, Transformation of the basidiomyceteSchizophyllum commune Mol. Gen. Genet. 205:103–106.Google Scholar
  86. Mouches, C.P., Duthil, N., Poitou, J., Delmas and Bove, J.M. 1981, Characterisation des especes truffieres par analyse de leurs protienes en gel depolyacrylamide et application de ces techniques a la taxonomie des champignonsMushroom Sci. 11:819–831.Google Scholar
  87. Nehls, U. and Martin, F. 1995, Changes in root gene expression in ectomycorrhiza, in:Biotechnology of Eclomycorrhizae: Molecular ApproachesV. Stocchi, P. Bonfante and M. Nuti, eds., Plenum Press, New York, London, pp. 125–137.Google Scholar
  88. Nicolson, T.H. 1975, In:EndomycorrhizasF.E. Sanders, B. Mosse and P.B. Tinkler,eds., Academic Press, London pp. 25–34.Google Scholar
  89. Oramas-Shirey, M. and Morton, J.S. 1990, Immunological stability among different geographical isolates of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungusGlomus occultumAbstracts of the 90th Annual meeting of American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp.311.Google Scholar
  90. Orbach, M.J., Porro, E.B. and Yanafsky, C. 1986, Cloning and characterization of the gene for B-tubulin from a benomyl-resistant mutant ofNeurospora crassaand its use as a dominant selectable marker,Mol. Cell Biol.6:2452–2461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Perotto, S., Brewin, N. J. and Bonfante-Fasolo, P. 1994, Colonization of pea roots by the mycorrhizal fungusGlomus versiformeand by Rhizobium:immunological comparison using monoclonal antibodies as probes for cell surface componentsMol. Plant Microbe Interac.7: 91–112.Google Scholar
  92. Pritsch, K., Boyle, J.C., Munch, J.C. and Buscot, F. 1997, Characterization and identification of black alder ectomycorrhizas by PCR/RFLP analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS)New Phytol.137:357–369.Google Scholar
  93. Pritsch, K. 1996, Untersuchungen zur Diversitat und Okologie von Mycorrhizen der Schwarzerle[Alnus glutinous(L.) Gael-tn.], Dissertation, University of Tuebingen, 1–197.Google Scholar
  94. Pritsch, K. and Buscot, F. 1996, Biodiversity of ectomycorrhizas from morphotypes to species, in:Mycorrhizas in Integrated Systems from Genes to Plant DevelopmentC. Azcon-Aguilar and J.M. Barea, eds., Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium on Mycorrhizas, Europian Commission report 16728, Luxembour: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 9–31.Google Scholar
  95. Scanders, I.R., Ravolanirina, F., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., Gianinazzi, S. and Lemoine, M.C. 1992, Detection of specific antigens in the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiGigaspora margaritaandAcaulospora laevisusing polyclonal antibodies to soluble spore fractions,Mycol. Res.96:477–480.Google Scholar
  96. Scheidegger, C. and Brunner, I. 1995, Electron microscopy of ectomycorrhiza: Methods, applications and findings, in:Mycorrhiza: Structure Function Molecular Biology andBiotechnologyA.K. Verma, and B. Hock, eds., Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin.Google Scholar
  97. Schrunder, J., Debaud, J.C. and Mainhardt, F. 1991, Adenoviral like genetic elements inHebeloma circinansin:Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems-Structure and FunctionAbstracts, 3rd ESM SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  98. U.K. Sen R. and Hepper, C.M. 1986, Characterization of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(Glomusspp.) by selective enzyme staining following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,Soil Biol. Biochem. 18:29–34. Google Scholar
  99. Simon, L., Lalonde, M. and Bruns, T.D. 1992a, Specific amplification of 18S fungal ribosomal genes from vesicular arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi colonizing rootsApp. Environ. Microbiol.58: 291–295.Google Scholar
  100. Simon, L., Levesque, R.C. and Lalonde, M. 1992b, Rapid quantitation by PCR of endomycorrhizal fungi colonizing rootsPCR Methods Application2: 76–80.Google Scholar
  101. Simon, L., Bousquet, J., Levesque, R.C. and Lalonde, M. 1993a, Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plantsNature363:67–69.Google Scholar
  102. Simon, L., Levesque, R.C. and Lalonde, M. 1993b, Identification of endomycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots by fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism-polymerase chain reactionApp. Environ. Microbial.59:4211–4215.Google Scholar
  103. Southern, E.M. 1975, Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresisJ. Mol. Biol.98:503–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sweeney, M., Harmey, M.A. and Mitchell, D.T. 1996, Detection and identification ofLaccariaspecies using a repeated DNA sequence fromLaccaria proximo,Mycol. Res.100:1515–1521.Google Scholar
  105. Tagu, D. and Martin, F. 1996, Molecular analysis of cell wall proteins expressed during the early steps of ectomycorrhiza developmentNew Phytol.133:73–85.Google Scholar
  106. Tagu, D., Nasse, B. and Martin, F. 1996, Cloning and characterization of hydrophobins-encoding cDNAs from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetePisolithus tinctorius Gene 168: 93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tagu, D., Python, M., Cretin, C. and Martin, F. 1993, Cloning symbiosis-related cDNAs from eucalypt ectomycorrhizas by PCR assisted differential screeningNew Phytol.125: 339–343.Google Scholar
  108. Taylor, J.W. 1986, Fungal evolutionary biology and mitochondrial DNAExp. Mycol.10:259–269.Google Scholar
  109. Tigano-Milani, M.S., Samson, R.A., Martin, I. and Sobral, B.W.S. 1995, DNA markers for differentiating isolates ofPaecilomyces lilacinus Microbiology 141: 239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tilbum, J., Scazzocchio, C., Taylor, G.G., Zabicky Zissman, J.H., Mockington, R.A. and Davies, R.W. 1983, Transformation by integration inAspergillus nidulans Gene 26:205–221.Google Scholar
  111. Timonen, S., Tammi, H. and Sen, R. 1997, Characterization of the host genotype and fungal diversity in Scots pine ectomycorrhizal from natural humus microcosms using isozyme and PCR- RFLP analysesNew Phytol.135:313–323.Google Scholar
  112. Tommerup, I.C. 1992, Genetics of eucalypt ectomycorrhizal fungi, in:Internatioanl Symposuum on Recent Topics in Genetics Physiology and Technology of BasidiomycetesM. Miyaji, A. Suzuki and K. Nishimura, eds., Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, pp.74–79.Google Scholar
  113. Tommerup, I.C., Barton, J.E. and O’Brian, P.P. 1992, RAPD fingerprinting ofLaccaria Hydnangium andRhizoctonia isolates, in:International Symposium on Management of Mycorrhizas in Agriculture Horticulture and Forestrythe University of Western Australia, Nedlands (Abstracts), pp.161.Google Scholar
  114. Tommerup, I.C., Barton, J.E. and O’Brian, P.P. 1995, Reliability of RAPD fingerprinting of three basidiomycete fungiLaccaria Hydnangium and Rhizoctonia Mycol. Res. 99: 179–186.Google Scholar
  115. Turgeon, G.G., Garber, R.C. and Yoder, O.C. 1987, Development of a fungal transformation system based on selection of sequences with promoter activityMol. Cell Biol.7:3297–3305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Walker, C., Biggin, P. and Jardine, D. C. 1986, Differences in mycorrhizal status among clones of Sitka spruceFor. Eco. Manag.14: 275–283.Google Scholar
  117. Wilson, J.M., Trinick, M.J. and Parker, C.A. 1983, The identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using immunofluorescenceSoil Biot. Biochem.15:439–445.Google Scholar
  118. Wright, S.F., Morton, J.B. and Sworobuk, J.E. 1987, Identification of a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus by using monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assayApp. Environ. Mircorbiol.53: 2222–2225.Google Scholar
  119. Wyss, P., Mellor, R. B. and Wiemken, A. 1990, Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas of wild type soybean and non-nodulating mutants withGlomus mosseaecontain symbiosis-specific polypeptides (mycorrhizins), immunologically cross-reactive with nodulins,Planta182: 22–26.Google Scholar
  120. Wyss, P. and Bonfante, P. 1992, Identification of mycorrhizal fungi by DNA fingerprinting using short arbitrary primers, in:International Symposium on Management of Mycorrhizas in Agriculture Horticulture and Forestry The University of Western Australia, Nedlands (Abstract). pp. 154.Google Scholar
  121. Van Hartingsveldt, W., Mattem, I.E., Van Zeul, C.M.J., Pouwels, P.H. and VanDen Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. 1987, Development of a homologous transformation system forAspergillus nigerbased on the pyr G gene,Mol. Gen.Genet.206:71–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Yelton, M.M., Hamer, J.E. and Timerlake, W.E. 1984, Transformation ofAspergillus nidulansby using Trp C plasmid,Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. USA, 81:1470–1474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhu, H., Higginbotham, K.O., Dancik, B. and Navratil, S. 1988, Intraspecific genetic variability ofisozynles in the ectomycorrhizal fungusSuillus tomentosus Can. J. Bot. 66: 588–594.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vandana Gupta
    • 1
  • T. Satyanarayana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology South CampusUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations