Advertisement

Divergence of Trophic Morphology and Resource Use Among Populations of Plethodon Cinereus and P. Hoffmani in Pennsylvania

A Possible Case of Character Displacement
  • Dean C. Adams

Abstract

Species of the genus Plethodon are widely distributed in the forests of eastern and western North America. They are terrestrial salamanders that have no aquatic larval stage, and live in moist woodland habitats. Many species of Plethodon are believed to be territorial (Hairston, 1951, 1981; Jaeger, 1971, 1972, 1981; Highton 1995; Nishikawa 1985;), and intraspecific competition is thought to be for food resources and for direct access to foraging sites (Jaeger, 1972). Several species of Plethodon often co-inhabit a particular location, with as many as five sympatric species in some southern Appalachian localities (Highton 1995). Therefore, the likelihood of ecological interactions among congeners is high, and competitive exclusion has been suggested as a possible mechanism that affects species distributions (Hairston 1951),(Highton 1995;Jaeger 1971).

Keywords

Small Prey Head Shape Sympatric Population Canonical Variate Analysis Prey Category 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, D. C., and C. D. Anthony. 1996. Using randomization techniques to analyze behavioural data. Animal Behaviour 51:733–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, D. C., and D. J. Funk. 1997. Morphometric inferences on sibling species and sexual dimorphism in Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles: multivariate applications of the thin-plate spline. Systematic Biology 46:180–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bookstein, E L. 1989. “Size and Shape”: a comment on semantics. Systematic Zoology 38:173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brodie, E. D., Jr. 1970. Western salamanders of the genus Plethodon: systematics and geographic variation. Herpetologica 26:468–516.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, W. L., and E. O. Wilson. 1956. Character displacement. Systematic Zoology 5:49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burnaby, T. P. 1966. Growth-invariant discriminant functions and generalized distances. Biometrics 22:96–110.Google Scholar
  7. Burton, T. M. 1976. An analysis of the feeding ecology and the salamanders (Amphibia, Urodela) of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Journal of Herpetology 10:187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caldecutt, W. C., and D. C. Adams. 1998. Morphometrics of trophic osteology in four ecotypes of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Copeia 1998:827–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carr, D. E. 1996. Morphological variation among species and populations of salamanders in the Plethodon glutinosus complex. Herpetologica 52:56–65.Google Scholar
  10. Emerson, S. B. 1985. Skull shape in frogs-correlations with diet. Herpetologica 41:177–188.Google Scholar
  11. Fraser, D. F 1976a. Coexistence of salamanders in the genus Plethodon: a variation of the Santa Rosalia theme. Ecology 57:238–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fraser, D. F. 1976b. Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Ecology 57:459–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grant, P. R. 1975. The classical case of character displacement. Evolutionary Biology 8:237–337.Google Scholar
  14. Grant, P. R. 1986. Ecology and Evolution of Darwin’s Finches. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  15. Grant, P. R. 1994. Ecological character displacement. Science 266:746–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Griffis, M. R., and R. G. Jaeger. 1998. Competition leads to an extinction-prone species of salamander: interspecific territoriality in a metapopulation. Ecology 79:2492–2502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hairston, N. G. 1951. Interspecies competition and its probable influence upon the vertical distribution of Appalachian salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Ecology 32:266–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hairston, N. G. 1981. An experimental test of a guild: salamander competition. Ecology 62:65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hairston, N. G. Sr., 1987. Community Ecology and Salamander Guilds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge U.K.Google Scholar
  20. Highton, R. 1972. Distributional interactions among eastern North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Pp. 139–188. In P. C. Holt (Ed.), The Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians. Part III: Vertebrates. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  21. Highton, R. 1995. Speciation in eastern North American salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:579–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jaeger, R. G. 1970. Potential extinction through competition between two species of terrestrial salamanders. Evolution 24:632–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jaeger, R. G. 1971. Competitive exclusion as a factor influencing the distributions of two species of terrestrial salamanders. Ecology 52:632–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaeger, R. G. 1972. Food as a limited resource in competition between two species of terrestrial salamanders. Ecology 53:535–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jaeger, R. G. 1980. Density-dependent and density-independent causes of extinction of a salamander population. Evolution 34:617–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jaeger, R. G. 1981. Dear enemy recognition and the costs of aggression between salamanders. American Naturalist 117:962–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jungers, W. L., A. B. Falsetti, and C. E. Wall. 1995. Shape, relative size, and size-adjustments in morphometrics. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 38:137–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maglia, A. M. 1996. Ontogeny and feeding ecology of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Copeia 1996:576–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Manly, B. F. J. 1991. Randomization and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  30. Mathis, A., R. G. Jaeger, W. H. Keen, P. K. Ducey, S. C. Walls, and B. W. Buchanan. 1995. Aggression and territoriality by salamanders and a comparison with the territorial behaviour of frogs. Pp. 633–676. In H. Heatwole and B. K. Sullivan (Eds.), Amphibain Biology, Vol. 2, Social Behaviour. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Nishikawa, K. C. 1985. Competition and the evolution of aggressive behavior in two species of terrestrial salamanders. Evolution 39:1282–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robinson, B. W., and D. S. Wilson. 1994. Character release and displacement in fishes: a neglected literature. American Naturalist 144:596–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rohlf, F. J., and E L. Bookstein. 1987. A comment on shearing as a method for “size correction”. Systematic Zoology 36:356–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schluter, D., and J. D. McPhail. 1992. Ecological character displacement and speciation in sticklebacks. American Naturalist 140:85–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schluter, D., T. D. Price, and P. R. Grant. 1985. Ecological character displacement in Darwin’s finches. Science 227:1056–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sokal, R. R., and F. J. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry, 3rd ed., W. H. Freeman and Co., New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dean C. Adams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and EvolutionState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations