Multicultural Perspectives on the Neuropsychological Assessment and Treatment of Epilepsy

  • Elaine Fletcher-Janzen
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

Rajendra Kale (1997) states that, “The history of epilepsy can be summarized as 4000 years of ignorance, superstition, and stigma followed by 100 years of knowledge, superstition, and stigma” (p. 1). Epilepsy was first recorded in Babylonian times, as far back as 2000 bc. The recordings of that time describe many of the different seizure types that we see today and treatments that were essentially spiritual in manner (WHO, 1997a). In the 5th century Hippocrates believed that epilepsy was not a “sacred disease” but rather a disorder of the brain. The word “epilepsia” is of Greek origin and means to “seize” or “take hold of.” The stigma and superstition associated with this condition was pervasive. It was not until the 19th century, when the field of neurology appeared, that the concept of epilepsy being a disorder of the brain became widespread and the idea of it being a medical condition started to counter the magical thinking to date (WHO, 1997b). However, Rajendra Kale is correct: After 100 years of medical knowledge and learning about epilepsy, most of the world continues to shroud the disorder in mystical and spiritual terms. This means that many who suffer from the disorder do not receive help, those that do receive help are many times discriminated against, and epilepsy stays ”in the shadows“ (WHO, 1997c).

Keywords

Depression Migraine Income Meningitis Stein 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alper, K., Devinsky, O., Perrine, K., Vazquez, B., & Luciano, D. (1993). Nonepileptic seizures and childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neurology, 43, 1950–1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Neurology (1999). New guidelines offer recommendations for women with epilepsy. St. Paul, MN: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Asian American Health Forum. (1990). Asian and Pacific Islander American population statistics (Monograph Series 1). San Francisco: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Baumann, R. J., Wison, J. F., & Wiese, H. J. (1995). Kentuckians’s attitudes toward children with epilepsy. Epilepsia, 36, 1003–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, T. L., & Maile, R. Ho. (1997). The neuropsychology of Pediatric epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs. In C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (2nd ed.; pp. 517–538). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  6. Bharucha, N. E., & Shorvon, S. D. (1997). Epidemiology in developing countries. In J. Engel & T. A. Pedley (Eds.), Epilepsy: A comprehensive textbook (pp. 105–118). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  7. Black, K. C., & Hynd, G. W. (1995). Epilepsy in the school aged child: Cognitive-Behavioral characteristics and effects on academic performance. School Psychology Quarterly, 10, 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boivin, M. J., Chounramany, C., Giordani, B., Xaisida, S., Choulamountry, L., Pholsena, P., Crist, C. L., & Olness, K. (1996). Validating a cognitive ability testing protocol with Lao children for community development applications. American Psychologist, 10, 588–599.Google Scholar
  9. Bourgeois, B. F. D. (1998). Antiepileptic drugs, learning, and behavior in childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia, 39, 913–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carrazana, E., De Toledo, J., Tatum, W., Rivas-Vaszuez, R., Rey, G., & Wheeler, S. (1999). Epilepsy and religious experiences: Voodoo possession. Epilepsia, 40, 239–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1993). Use of race and ethnicity in public health surveillance summary of the CDC/ATSDR workshop. MMWR Weekly (No. RR-10).Google Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Health United States. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1995). Current trends prevalence of self-reported epilepsy—United States, 1986–1990. MMWR Weekly, 43, 810–811.Google Scholar
  14. Chaplin, J. E., & Malmgren, K. (1999). Cross-cultural adaptation and use of the Epilepsy Psychosocial Effects Scale: Comparison between the psychosocial effects of chronic epilepsy in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Epilepsia, 40, 951–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, J., & Gardner, H. (1997). Alternative assessment from a multiple intelligences theoretical perspective. In D. P. Flanagan, J. L. Genshaft, & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary Intellectual Assessment (pp. 105–121). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Cooper, W. O., Federspiel, C. F., Griffin, M. R., & Hickson, G. B. (1997). New use of anticonvulsant medication among children enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid Program. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 151, 1242–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cramer, J. A., Perrine, K., Devinsky, O., Bryant-Comstock, L., Meador, K., & Hermann, B. (1998). Development and cross-cultural translations of a 31-item Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Epilepsia, 39, 2148–2159.Google Scholar
  18. DeBruyn, L. M. (1990). Tewa children who have epilepsy: A health care dilemma. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 4(2), 25–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Devinsky, O., Vicrey, B. G., Cramer, J., Perrine, K., Hermann, B., Meador, K., & Hays, R. D. (1995). Development of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Epilepsia, 36, 1089–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dhanak, M. (1996). Racial differences in leukocyte counts. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 586–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dodrill, C. B. (1978). A neuropsychological battery for epilepsy. Epilepsia, 19, 611–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dodrill, C. B. (1992). Neuropsychological aspects of epilepsy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15, 383–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dodrill, C. B., & Batzel, L. W. (1994). The Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory and quality of life in epilepsy. In M. R. Trimble & W. E. Dodson (Eds.), Epilepsy and quality of life (pp. 109–122). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  24. Dodrill, C. B., Batzel, L. W., Queisser, H. R., & Temkin, N. R. (1980). An objective method for the assessment of psychological and social difficulties among epileptics. Epilepsia, 21, 123–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dodrill, C., & Matthews, C. G. (1992). The role of neuropsychology in the assessment and treatment of persons with epilepsy. American Psychologist, 47, 1139–1142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ellis, B. B., & Kimmel, H. D. (1992). Identification of unique cultural response patterns by means of item response theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Epilepsy Foundation of America (1999a). Epilepsy: A report to the nation. Landover, MD: Author.Google Scholar
  28. Epilepsy Foundation of America (1999b). Epilepsy facts and figures. Landover, MD: Author.Google Scholar
  29. Epilepsy Foundation of America (1999c). Women and epilepsy initiative. Landover, MD: Author.Google Scholar
  30. Epilepsy Ontario (1999). Women and epilepsy. Ontario, Canada: Author.Google Scholar
  31. Everitt, A. D., & Sander, J. W. (1998). Incidence of epilepsy is now higher in elderly people than children. British Medical Journal, 3, 780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fisher, R. S. (1994). Imitators of epilepsy. New York: Demos.Google Scholar
  33. Flack, J. M., Amaro, H., Jenkins, W., Kunitz, S., Levy, J., Mixon, M., & Yu, E. (1995). Epidemiology of minority health. Health Psychology, 14, 592–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greenfield, P. M. (1997). You can’t take it with you: Why ability assessment doesn’t cross cultures. American Psychologist, 52, 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griebel, M. L., Roscoe, A., Dykman, R. A., & Williams, J. (1997). Demographic factors related to treatment compliance in Pediatric patients with new onset seizures. Poster Session at American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, December 7–10, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  36. Hauser, W. A. (1990). Epidemiology of alcohol use and epilepsy: The magnitude of the problem. In R. J. Porter & R. Mattson (Eds.), Alcohol and seizures: Basic mechanisms and clinical concepts (pp. 12–21). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  37. Hauser, W. A. (1994). Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. In A. Martin & J. Knoefel (Eds.), Clinical neurology of aging (2nd ed., pp. 595–610). New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. Hauser, W. A. (1997). Incidence and prevalence. In J. Engel & T. A. Pedley (Eds.), Epilepsy: A comprehensive textbook (pp. 47–57). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  39. Hauser, W. A., & Hesdorffer, D. C. (1990). Epilepsy: Frequency, causes and consequences. New York: Demos.Google Scholar
  40. Hauser, W. A., Morris, M. L., Heston, L. L., & Anderson, V. E. (1986). Seizures and myoclonus in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 36, 1226–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hays, P. (1997). Culturally responsive assessment with diverse older clients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(2), 188–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hermann, B. P., Whitman, S., & Anton, M. (1992). A multietiological model of psychological and social dysfunction in epilepsy. In T. L. Bennett (Ed.), The neuropsychology of epilepsy (pp. 39–57). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  43. Hempal, A. M., Risse, G. L., Frost, M. D., & Ritter, F. (1994). The utility of neuropsychological testing for identifying lateralization of the epileptogenic region in children. Epilepsia, 35(Suppl. 84), 80.Google Scholar
  44. Hubert, T. J. (1992). Classroom performance and adaptive skills in children with Epilepsy. Journal of School Psychology, 30, 331–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. International Epilepsy Commission (1989). Classification of epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsia, 30, 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jones, B. P., Duncan, C. C., Mirsky, A. F., Post, R. M., & Theodore, W. H. (1998). Neuropsychological profiles in bipolar affective disorder and complex partial seizure disorder. American Psychologist, 8, 55–64.Google Scholar
  47. Kale, R. (1997). Bringing epilepsy out of the shadows. British Medical Journal, 3(15), 2–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Klein, P., & Herzog, A. G. (1997). Endocrine aspects of partial seizures. In S. C. Schachter & D. L. Schomer (Eds.), The comprehensive evaluation and treatment of epilepsy (pp. 207–232). Boston: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Krumholz, A., Grufferman, S., Orr, S. T., & Stern, B. J. (1989). Seizures and seizure care in an emergency department. Epilepsia, 30, 175–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lesser, R. P. (1996). Psychogenic seizures. Neurology, 46, 1499–1507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levy, J. E. (1987). Psychological and social problems of epileptic children in four southwestern Indian tribes. Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Levy, J. E., Neutra, R., & Parker, D. (1979). Life careers of Navajo epileptics and convulsive hysterics. Social Science and Medicine, 13B(1), 53–66.Google Scholar
  53. Lin, K.-M., Anderson, D., & Poland, R. E. (1995). Ethnicity and psychopharmacology: Bridging the gap. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18, 635–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Manly, J. J., Jacobs, D. M., Sano, M., Bell, K., Merchant, C. A., Small, S. A., & Stern, Y. (1998). Cognitive test performance among nondemented elderly African Americans and whites. Neurology, 50, 1238–1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McKenzie, K. (1996). Describing race, ethnicity, and culture in medical research. British Medical Journal, 312, 1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McLin, W. M. (1992). Introduction to issues in psychology and epilepsy. American Psychologist, 47, 1124–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Medina, M. T., Rosas, E., Rubio-Donnadieu, F., & Sotelo, J. (1990). Neurocysticercosis as the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in Mexico. Archives of Internal Medicine, 150, 325–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Minh-Thu, T., & Rausch, R., (1996). Stress and employment status among multiple ethnic groups of individuals with epilepsy. Poster Session at American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, December 7–10, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  59. Mitchell, W. G., Scheier, L. M., & Baker, S. A. (1994). Psychosocial, behavioral and medical outcomes in children with epilepsy: A developmental risk factor model using longitudinal data. Pediatrics, 94, 471–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Murphy, J. V., & Dehkharghani, F. (1994). Diagnosis of childhood seizure disorders. Epilepsia, 35(Suppl. 2), S7–S17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Murphy, C. C., Trevathan, E., & Yeargin-Allsopp, M. (1995). Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: Results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia, 36, 866–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (1999). Epilepsy. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison.Google Scholar
  63. Neutra, R., Levy, J. E., & Parker D. (1977). Cultural expectations versus reality in Navajo seizure patterns and sick roles. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 255–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Novelly, R. A. (1992). The debt of neuropsychology to the epilepsies. American Psychologist, 47, 1126–1129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oquendo, M. A. (1995). Differential diagnosis of ataque de nervios. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(1), 60–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pedley, T. A. (1995). Epilepsy and education. Epilepsia, 36(Suppl. 8), S18–S22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Penn, N. E., Kar, S., Kramer, J., Skinner, J., & Zambrana, R. E. (1995). Ethnic minorities, health care systems, and behavior. Health Psychology, 14, 641–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sander, J. W., & O’Donoghue, M. F. (1997). Epilepsy: Getting the diagnosis right. British Medical Journal, 312, 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Serge, P. L. J. C. (1996). Epilepsy in a large urban public hospital in the Midwest. Poster Session at American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, December 7–10, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  70. Shafer, P. O. (1998). Counseling women with epilepsy. Epilepsia, 39(Suppl. 8), S38–S44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shamansky, S. L., & Glaser, G. H. (1979). Socioeconomic characteristics of childhood seizure disorders in the New Haven area: An epidemiologic study. Epilepsia, 20, 457–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simpson, G., Bloom, B., Cohen, R. A., & Parsons, E. (1993). Access to health care Part 1: Children. Vital and Health Statistics Data from the National Health Interview Survey No. 191. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  73. Smith, P. E. M. (1998). The teenager with epilepsy. British Medical Journal, 317, 960–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Snyder, P. J., & McConnell, H. W. (1997). Neuropsychological aspects of epilepsy in the elderly. In P. D. Nussbaum (Ed.), Handbook of neuropsychology of aging (pp. 271–279). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  75. Stauss, E., Hunter, M., & Wada, J. (1995). Risk factors for cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Neuropsychology, 9, 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stein, R. A., & Strickland, T. L. (1998). A review of the neuropsychological effects of commonly used prescription medicine. Archives of Clinical Neurology, 13, 259–284.Google Scholar
  77. Strickland, T. L., Ranganath, V., Lin, K.-M., & Poland, R. E. (1991). Psychopharmacological considerations in the treatment of black American populations. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 27, 441–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different (2nd ed). New York: Wiley. (1981, 1st ed.)Google Scholar
  79. Tohen, M. (1996). Blood dyscrasias with carbamazepine and valproate: A pharmacoepidemiological study of 2, 228 patients at risk: Reply. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 587.Google Scholar
  80. Trostle, J. A., Hauser, W. A., Sharbrough, F. W. (1989). Psychologic and social adjustment to epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota. Neurology, 39, 633–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tucker, R. (1998). Seizure disorders presenting with psychiatric symptomatology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 21, 625–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Watanabe, M., Iwahashi, K., Kugoh, T., & Suwaki, H. (1998). The relationship between phenytoin pharmacokinetics and the CYP2C19 genotype in Japanese epileptic patients. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 21, 122–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Williams, J., Roscoe, D., Griebel, M. L., Lange, B., & Bates, S. (1996). AED effects on cognition and behavior in children. Poster Session at American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, December 7–10, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  84. World Health Organization (1995). Epilepsy demographics. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  85. World Health Organization (1997a). Epilepsy: Historical overview (Fact Sheet N 168). Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  86. World Health Organization (1997b). Epilepsy: Aetiology, epidemiology and prognosis (Fact Sheet N 165). Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  87. World Health Organization (1997c). Bringing epilepsy out of the shadows (Press Release WHO/48). Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
  88. World Health Organization (1997d). Epilepsy: social consequences and economic aspects (Fact Sheet N166). Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Fletcher-Janzen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Northern ColoradoColorado SpringsUSA

Personalised recommendations