Citizen Participation and Community Organizations

  • Abraham Wandersman
  • Paul Florin

Abstract

The noted black educator Benjamin Mays said: “nobody is wise enough, nobody is good enough, and nobody cares enough about you, for you to turn over to them your future or your destiny.” Citizen participation creates the potential for schools, neighborhoods, and other institutions, environments, and services responsive to individuals and families. Citizen participation is defined as “a process in which individuals take part in decision making in the institutions, programs, and environments that affect them” (Heller, Price, Reinharz, Riger, & Wandersman, 1984, p. 339; see Churchman, 1987, for definitions of participation in different disciplines)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlbrandt, R. S., Jr. (1984). Neighborhoods, people, and community. New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlbrandt, R. S., & Cunningham, J. V. (1979). A new public policy for neighborhood preservation. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  3. Alford, R. R., & Scoble, H. M. (1986). Community leadership: Education and political behavior. American Sociological Review, 33, 259–272Google Scholar
  4. Alterman, R., & Frenkel, A. (1985). Implementation of project outputs: Services provided and their beneficiaries. In R. Alterman, N. Carmon, & M. Hill (Eds.), Comprehensive evaluation of Israel’s Project Renewal, Vol. 3. Haifa: Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Samuel Neaman Institute for Advanced Studies In Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  5. Babchuk, N., & Thompson, R. (1962). The voluntary association of Negroes. American Sociological Review, 27Google Scholar
  6. Bachelor, L., & Jones, B. (1981). Managed participation: Detroit’s neighborhood opportunity fund. Journal of Applied and Behavioral Science, 17, 518–536Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-HallGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartelt, D., Elesh, D., Goldstein, I., Leon, G., & Yancey, W. (1987). Islands in the stream: Neighborhoods and the political economy of the city. In I. Altman & A. Wandersman (Eds.), Neighborhood and community environ-ments (pp. 163–190). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkowitz, B. (1984). Community dreams. San Luis Obispo, CA: ImpactGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, J. M., Portney, K. E., Bablitch, M., & Mahoney, R. (1984). Public involvement in administration: The structural determinants of effective citizen participation. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 13, 7–23Google Scholar
  11. Blakely, E. J. (1980). Building theory for CD practice. In J. A. Christenson & J. W. Robinson, Jr. (Eds.), Community development in America. Ames: Iowa State University PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyte, H. C. (1980). The backyard revolution: Understanding the new citizen movement. Philadelphia: Temple University PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1960). Personality and participation: The case of the vanishing variables. Journal of Social Issues, 16, 54–63Google Scholar
  14. Can, T., Dixon, M., & Ogles, R. (1976). Perceptions of community life which distinguish between participants and nonparticipants in a neighborhood self-help organization. American Journal of Community Psychology, 4, 357–366Google Scholar
  15. Cassidy, R. (1980). Livable cities. New York: Hold, Rinehart and WinstonGoogle Scholar
  16. Chavis, D. M., Florin, P., Rich, R., & Wandersman, A. (1987). The role of block associations in crime control and community development: The Block Booster Project. Final Report to the Ford Foundation. New York: Citizens Committee for New York CityGoogle Scholar
  17. Chavis, D. M., Florin, P., Wandersman, A., & Rich, R. C. (1986). Organization development for grassroots community development organizations. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  18. Chavis, D. M., & Newbrough, J. R. (1986). The meaning of “community” in community psychology. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 335–340Google Scholar
  19. Chavis, D. M., & Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 55–81Google Scholar
  20. Checkoway, B. (1985). Neighborhood planning organizations: Perspectives and choices. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32, 471–486Google Scholar
  21. Checkoway, B. (1991). Neighborhood needs and organizational resources: New lessons from Detroit. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 20, 173–189Google Scholar
  22. Checkoway, B., & Zimmerman, M. A. (1992). Correlations of participation in neighborhood organizations. Administration in Social Work, 16, 3–4, 45–46Google Scholar
  23. Chinman, M. J., & Wandersman, A. (1999). The benefits and costs of volunteering in community organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28, 46–64Google Scholar
  24. Churchman, A. (1987). Can resident participation in neighborhood rehabilitation programs succeed? Israel’s Project Renewal through a comparative perspective. In I. Altman & A. Wandersman (Eds.), Neighborhood and community environments (pp. 113–162). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  25. Clark, P. B., & Wilson, J. Q. (1961). Incentive systems: A theory of organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 6, 129–166Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, S. (1976). Factors influencing citizen participation and nonparticipation in a community design project. Masters thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  27. Cole, R. L. (1974). Citizen participation and the urban policy process. Lexington, MA: D.C. HeathGoogle Scholar
  28. Cole, R. L. (1981). Participation in community service organizations. Journal of Community Action, 1, 53–60Google Scholar
  29. Craik, K. H., & Appleyard, D. (1980). Streets of San Francisco: Brunswick’s lens model applied to urban inference and assessment. Journal of Social Issues, 36Google Scholar
  30. Crensen, M. A. (1978). Social networks and political processes in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Political Science, 22, 578–594Google Scholar
  31. Crensen, M. A. (1983). Neighborhood politics. Cambridge: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Cunningham, J. V. (1979). Evaluating citizen participation: A neighborhood organizer’s view. Washington: Civic Action InstituteGoogle Scholar
  33. Currie, (1982). Fighting crime. Working PapersGoogle Scholar
  34. Devereaux, E. C., Jr. (1960). Community participation and leadership. Journal of Social Issues, 16, 29–45Google Scholar
  35. Downs, A. (1981). Neighborhoods and urban development. Washington, D.C.: Brookings InstitutionGoogle Scholar
  36. Draisen, M. (1983). Fostering effective citizen participation: Lessons from three urban renewal neighborhood in the Hague. In L. Susskind & M. Elliott (Eds.), Paternalism, conflict and coproduction. New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  37. Duhl, L. J. (1986). Health planning and social change. New York: Human Sciences PressGoogle Scholar
  38. Edelstein, M., & Wandersman, A. (1987). Community dynamics in coping with toxic contaminants. In I. Altman & A. Wandersman (Eds.), Neighborhood and community environments (pp. 69–112). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  39. Edwards, J. M., & White, R. P. (1980). Predictors of social participation: Apparent or real? Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 9, 60–73Google Scholar
  40. Emmons, D. (1979). Neighborhood activities and community, organizations: A critical review of the literature. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Center for Urban AffairsGoogle Scholar
  41. Fellin, P., & Litwak, E. (1963). Neighborhood cohesion under conditions of mobility. American Sociological Review, 28, 364–376Google Scholar
  42. Florin, P., Chavis, D., Wandersman, A., & Rich, R. (1992). A systems approach to understanding and enhancing grassroots organizations. The Block Booster Project. In R. Levine & H. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Analysis of dynamic psychological systems (Vol. II, pp. 215–243). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  43. Florin, P., Friedmann, R., Wandersman, A., & Meier, R. (1989). Cognitive social learning variables and behavior: Cross cultural similarities in person x situation behavior. Unpublished manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  44. Florin, P., Giamartino, G., Kenny, D., & Wandersman, A. (1990). Uncovering climate and group influence by separating individual and group effects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 881–900Google Scholar
  45. Florin, P., Jones, E., & Wandersman, A. (1986). Black participation in voluntary organizations. Voluntary Action Research, 65–86Google Scholar
  46. Florin, P., & Wandersman, A. (1984). Cognitive social learning and participation in community development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 689–708Google Scholar
  47. Frank, S., Cosey, D., Angevine, J., & Cardone, L. (1985). Decision making and job satisfaction among youth workers in community-based agencies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 269–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Friedmann, R., Florin, P., Wandersman, A., & Meier, R. (1988). Local action on behalf of local collectives in the United States and Israel: How different are leaders from members in voluntary associations. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 17, 36–54Google Scholar
  49. Giamartino, G., & Wandersman, A. (1983). Organizational climate correlates of viable urban block organizations. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 529–541Google Scholar
  50. Gittell, M. (1980). Limits of citizen participation: The decline of community organizations. Beverly Hills, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  51. Godschalk, D., & Zeisel, J. (1983). Coproducing urban renewal in the Netherlands. In L. Susskind, M. Elliott, et al. (Eds.), Paternalism, conflict, and coproduction. New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  52. Goetze, R. (1979). Understanding neighborhood change: The role of expectations in urban revitalization. Cambridge, MA: BallingerGoogle Scholar
  53. Gough, H. G. (1952). Predicting social participation. Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 227–233Google Scholar
  54. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380Google Scholar
  55. Granovetter, M. S. (1974). Granovetter replies to Gans. American Journal of Sociology, 80, 527–529Google Scholar
  56. Granovetter, M. S. (1982). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. In P. V. Marsden & N. Lin (Eds.), Social structure and network analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  57. Gurin, P., Gurin, G., Lao, R., & Beattie, M. (1969). Internal-external control in the motivational dynamics of Negro youth. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 29–54Google Scholar
  58. Hallman, H. W. (1984). Neighborhoods: Their place in urban life. Beverly Hills, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  59. Harris, I. M. (1984). The citizens coalition in Milwaukee. Social Policy, 15, 9–16Google Scholar
  60. Heller, K., Price, R., Reinharz, S., Riger, S., & Wandersman, A. (1984). Psychology and community change: Challenges of the future. Homewood, IL: DorseyGoogle Scholar
  61. Henig, J. (1982). Neighborhood mobilization: Redevelopment and response. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  62. Hirlinger, M. W. (1992). Citizen-initiated contacting of local government officials: A multivariate explanation. Journal of Politics, 54, 552–563Google Scholar
  63. Hunter, A. (1974). Symbolic communities. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  64. Hyman, H., & Wright, C. (1971). Trends in voluntary association membership of American adults: Replication based on secondary analysis of national sample surveys. American Sociological Review, 36, 191–206Google Scholar
  65. Katz, J. (1984). The silent world of doctor and patient. New York: The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaufman, S., & Poulin, J. (1994). Citizen participation in prevention activities: A path model. Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 359–374Google Scholar
  67. Kenny, D. A., & LaVoie, L. (1985). Separating individual and group effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 339–348Google Scholar
  68. Kenny, D. A., & Stigler, J. (1983). PROGRAM LEVEL: A FORTRAN program for group-individual analysis. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 606Google Scholar
  69. Kerman, B. D. (1996). Towards an integrated model of participation in community based alcohol and other drug problem prevention coalitions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Kingston: The University of Rhode IslandGoogle Scholar
  70. Keys, C. B., & Frank, S. (1987). Community psychology and the study of organizations: A reciprocal relationship. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 239–251Google Scholar
  71. Kieffer, C. H. (1984). Citizen empowerment: A developmental perspective. In J. Rappaport & R. Hess (Eds.), Studies in empowerment. New York: HaworthGoogle Scholar
  72. Knoke, D., & Wood, J. R. (1981). Organized for action: Commitment in voluntary associations. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  73. Kweit, M., & Kweit, R. (1981). Implementing citizen participation in a bureaucratic society. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  74. Lamb, C. (1975). User design. Presented at the EDRA 6 Conference, Lawrence, KSGoogle Scholar
  75. Langton, S. (Ed.). (1978). Citizen participation in America. Lexington, MA: HeathGoogle Scholar
  76. Latessa, E. J., & Allen, H. F. (1980). Using citizens to prevent crime: An example of deterrence and community involvement. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 8, 69–74Google Scholar
  77. Lavrakas, P. J., & Herz, E. J. (1979). An investigation of citizen participation in crime prevention meetings and other anti-crime activities (working paper CP-20F). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Center for Urban AffairsGoogle Scholar
  78. Lavrakas, R. J., Normoyle, J., Skogan, W. G., Herz, E. J., Salem, G., & Lewis, D. (1980). Factors related to citizen involvement in personal, household, and neighborhood anti-crime measures (Executive Summary) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of JusticeGoogle Scholar
  79. Lawler, E. E. (1987). High-involvement management. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  80. Levens, H. (1968). Organizational affiliation and powerlessness: A case study of the welfare poor. Social Problems, 16, 18–32Google Scholar
  81. Lewis, D. A., & Maxfield, M. G. (1980). Fear in the neighborhoods: An investigation of impact of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17, 160–189Google Scholar
  82. Litwak, E. (1961). Voluntary associations and neighborhood cohesion. American Sociological Review, 26, 258–271Google Scholar
  83. Mamalis, M. (1983). Housing “the co-op” way. Architectural Psychology Newsletter, 13, 22–25Google Scholar
  84. Maton, K. I., & Rappaport, J. (1984). Empowerment in a religious setting: A multivariate investigation. In J. Rappaport & R. Hess (Eds.), Studies in empowerment. New York: HaworthGoogle Scholar
  85. Maxfield, M. G. (1977). Reactions to fear: Indirect costs and adaptive behavior. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University PressGoogle Scholar
  86. May, J. (1973). Two model cities: Negotiations in Oakland. In G. Frederickson (Ed.), Neighborhood control in the 1970s (pp. 217–246). New York: ChandlerGoogle Scholar
  87. Mayer, N. S. (1984). Neighborhood organizations and community development: Making revitalization work. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute PressGoogle Scholar
  88. McClure, L., & Depiano, L. (1983). School advisory council participation and effectiveness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 687–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McMillan, B., Florin, P., Stevenson, J., Kerman, B., & Mitchell, R. E. (1995). Empowerment praxis in community coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 699–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Milbrath, L. W. (1965). Political participation: How and why do people get involved in politics? Chicago: Rand McNallyGoogle Scholar
  91. Milburn, N. G., & Barbarin, O. A. (1987). Functional and structural aspects of neighborhood associations: Their effects on citizen participation. Unpublished manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  92. Miller, F. D., Malia, G., & Tsembersis, S. (1979, September). Community activism and the maintenance of urban neighborhoods. Paper presented to the 87th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Milofsky, C. (1987). Neighborhood-based organizations: A market analogy. In W. W. Powell (Ed.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook. New Haven, CT: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  94. Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 80, 252–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mischel, W. (1977). The interaction of person and situation. In D. Magnusson & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology (pp. 333–352). Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  96. Moe, T. M. (1980). The organization of interests: Incentives and the internal dynamics of political interest groups. Chicago: The University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  97. Moos, R. (1979). Evaluating educational environments: Procedures, methods, findings and policy implications. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  98. Moos, R. (1984). Context and coping: Toward a unifying conceptual framework. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 5–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Moos, R. (1987). Learning environments in context: Links between school, work, and family settings. In B. J. Fraser (Ed.), The study of learning environments. Perth, Western Australia, Curtin University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  100. National Commission on Neighborhoods (1979). Neighborhoods: People building neighborhoods. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  101. Oliver, P. (1984). If you don’t do it, nobody else will: Active and token contributors to local collective action. American Sociological Review, 49, 601–610Google Scholar
  102. Olson, M. (1965). The logic of collective action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  103. O’Neill, P. (1981). Cognitive community psychology. American Psychologist, 36, 457–469Google Scholar
  104. Orum, A. M. (1966). A reappraisal of the social and political participation of the Negroes. American Journal of Sociology, 72, 32–46Google Scholar
  105. Parkum, K., & Parkum, V. (1980). Citizen participation in community planning and decision making. In D. H. Smith (Ed.), Participation in social and political activities. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  106. Pate, A., McPherson, M., & Silloway, G. (1987). The Minneapolis community crime prevention experiment: Draft evaluation report. Washington, D.C.: Police FoundationGoogle Scholar
  107. Perkins, D. D., Brown, B. B., & Taylor, R. B. (1996). The ecology of empowerment: Predicting participation in community organizations. Journal of Social Issues, 52, 85–110Google Scholar
  108. Perkins, D. D., Florin, P., Rich, R. C., Wandersman, A., & Chavis, D. M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83–115Google Scholar
  109. Perlman, J. (1979). Grassroots empowerment and government response. Social Policy, 10, 16–21Google Scholar
  110. Perlman, J. (1983). Citizen action and participation in Madrid. In L. Susskind & M. Elliott (Eds.), Paternalism, conflict and coproduction (pp. 207–238). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  111. Perlman, J. E. (1978). Grassroots participation from neighborhood to nation. In S. Langton (Ed.), Citizen participation in America. Lexington, MA: Lexington BooksGoogle Scholar
  112. Pierce, N. R., & Steinbach, C. F. (1987). Corrective capitalism: The rise of America’s community development corporations. New York: Ford FoundationGoogle Scholar
  113. Piven, F. (1968). Participation of residents in neighborhood community-action programs. In H. B. Spiegel (Ed.), Citizen participation in urban development, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: NTL InstituteGoogle Scholar
  114. Podolefsky, A., & DuBow, F. (1980). The reactions to crime papers: Vol. II: Strategies for community crime prevention. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Center for Urban AffairsGoogle Scholar
  115. Prestby, J. E. (1984). Leaders and members in voluntary organizations. Working paper, Department of Psychology, University of South CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  116. Prestby, J. E., Wandersman, A., Florin, P., Rich, R., & Chavis, D. M. (1990). Benefits, costs, incentive management and participation in voluntary organizations: A means to understanding and promoting empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 117–149Google Scholar
  117. Prestby, J. E., & Wandersman, A. (1985). An empirical exploration of framework of organizational viability: Maintaining block organizations. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21, 287–305Google Scholar
  118. Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 121–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rich, R. C. (1980). The dynamics of leadership in neighborhood organizations. Social Science Quarterly, 60, 570–587Google Scholar
  120. Rohe, W., & Gates, L. (1981). Neighborhood planning: Promise and product. The Urban and Social Change Review, 14, 26–32Google Scholar
  121. Rohe, W., & Gates, L. (1982). Neighborhood planning and citizen influence. Paper presented at the Urban Affairs Association meeting. Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  122. Rohe, W., & Greenberg, S. (1982). Participation in community crime prevention programs. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Department of City and Regional PlanningGoogle Scholar
  123. Rothman, J. (1970). Three models of community organization practice. In F. M. Cox, J. L. Erlich, J. Rothman, & J. E. Tropman (Eds.), Strategies of community organization. Itasca, IL: E E. PeacockGoogle Scholar
  124. Sanger, P., & Alker, H. (1972). Dimensions of internal-external locus of control and the women’s liberation movement. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 115–129Google Scholar
  125. Sarason, S. (1974). The psychological sense of community.: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  126. Schneider, B. (1975). Organizational climates: An essay. Personnel Psychology, 28, 447–479Google Scholar
  127. Schneider, A. L., & Schneider, P. R. (1978). Private and public-minded citizen responses to a neighborhood-based crime prevention strategy. Eugene, OR: Institute for Policy AnalysisGoogle Scholar
  128. Schoenberg, S., & Rosenbaum, P. L. (1980). Neighborhoods that work: Sources of viability in the inner city. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  129. Silberman, C. E. (1978). Criminal violence, criminal justice. New York: Random HouseGoogle Scholar
  130. Skogan, W. G., & Maxfield, M. (1981). Coping with crime: Individual and neighborhood reactions. Beverly Hills, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  131. Skogan, W. G., & Maxfield, M. G. (1980). The reactions to crime papers. Volume I. Coping with crime: Victimization, fear and reactions to crime in three American cities. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Center for Urban AffairsGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith, D. H. (1966). A psychological model of individual participation in formal voluntary organizations: Applications to some Chilean data. American Journal of Sociology, 72, 249–266Google Scholar
  133. Smith, D. H. (1975). Voluntary action and voluntary groups. In A. Inkeles, J. Coleman, & N. Smelser (Eds.), Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 1. Palo Alto, CA: Annual ReviewsGoogle Scholar
  134. Smith, D. H. (1985). Volunteerism: Attracting volunteers and staffing shrinking programs. In G. Tobin (Ed.), Social planning and human service delivery in the voluntary sector. Westport, CT: GreenwoodGoogle Scholar
  135. Spiegel, H. (1987). Coproduction in the context of neighborhood development. Journal of Voluntary Action ResearchGoogle Scholar
  136. Steers, R. M. (1977). Organizational effectiveness: A behavioral view. Santa Monica, CA: GoodyearGoogle Scholar
  137. Sundeen, R. A. (1988). Explaining participation in coproduction: A study of volunteers. Social Science Quarterly, 69, 547–568Google Scholar
  138. Susskind, L., & Elliott, M. (1983). Paternalism, conflict and coproduction. In L. Susskind & M. Elliott (Eds.), Paternalism, conflict and coproduction (pp. 3–34). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  139. Swift, C., & Levin, G. (1987). Empowerment: An emerging mental health technology. Journal of Primary Prevention, 8, 71–94Google Scholar
  140. Toch, H., & Grant, J. D. (1982). Reforming human services: Change through participation. Beverly Hills, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  141. Tomeh, A. K. (1974). Formal voluntary organizations: Participation correlates and interrelationships. Sociological Inquiry, 43, 89–122Google Scholar
  142. Unger, D., & Wandersman, A. (1983). Neighboring and its role in block organizations: An exploratory report. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 291–300Google Scholar
  143. Unger, D., & Wandersman, A. (1985). The importance of neighbors: The social cognitive, and effective components of neighboring. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 139–169Google Scholar
  144. Vassar, S. (1978). Community participation in a metropolitan area: An analysis of the characteristics of participants. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  145. Verba, S., & Nie, N. H. (1972). Participation in America. New York: Harper & RowGoogle Scholar
  146. Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., Brady, H., & Nie, N. H. (1993). Citizen activity: Who participates? What do they say? American Political Science Review, 87, 303–315Google Scholar
  147. Voth, D. E. (1979). Problems in the evaluation of community development efforts. In E. J. Blakely (Ed.), Community development research: Concepts, issues, and strategies. New York: Human Sciences PressGoogle Scholar
  148. Wandersman, A. (1979a). User participation: A study of types of participation, effects, mediators and individual differences. Environment and Behavior, 11, 185–208Google Scholar
  149. Wandersman, A. (1979b). User participation in planning environments: A conceptual framework. Environment and Behavior, 11, 465–482Google Scholar
  150. Wandersman, A. (1981). A framework of participation in community organizations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 17, 27–58Google Scholar
  151. Wandersman, A., & Florin, P. (Eds.). (1990). Citizen participation, voluntary community organizations and commu-nity development: Insights for empowerment through research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18Google Scholar
  152. Wandersman, A., Chavis, D., & Stucky, P. (1983). Involving citizens in research. In R. Kidd & M. Saks (Eds.), Advances in applied social psychology, Vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  153. Wandersman, A., Florin, P., Chavis, D., Rich, R., & Prestby, J. (1985). Getting together and getting things done. Psychology Today, 19, 64–71Google Scholar
  154. Wandersman, A., Florin, P., Friedmann, R., & Meier, R. (1987). Who participates, who does not, and why? An analysis of voluntary neighborhood organizations in the United States and Israel. Sociological Forum, 2, 534–555Google Scholar
  155. Wandersman, A., Jakubs, J., & Giamartino, G. (1981). Participation in block organizations. Journal of Community Action, 1, 40–47Google Scholar
  156. Wandersman, A., Kimbrell, D., Wadsworth, J. C., Livingston, G., Myers, D., & Braithwaite, H. (1982). Assessing citizen participation in a community mental health center. In A. Jeger & R. Slotnick (Eds.), Community mental health: A behavioral-ecological perspective (pp. 373–388). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  157. Wandersman, A., Unger, D., & Florin, P. (1991). The effects of block associations. Unpublished manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  158. Warren, D. I. (1981). Helping networks: How people cope with problems in the urban community. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame PressGoogle Scholar
  159. Warren, R. (1963). The community in America. Chicago: Rand McNallyGoogle Scholar
  160. Washnis, G. T. (1976). Citizen involvement in crime prevention. Lexington, MA: HeathGoogle Scholar
  161. Whisenand, P. M. (1977). Crime prevention. New York: Harper and RowGoogle Scholar
  162. Whitworth, D. (1993). A structural equation model of a set of operationalized cognitive social learning variables and citizen participation in community organizations. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Rhode Island, KingstonGoogle Scholar
  163. Widmer, C. (1984). An incentive model of citizen participation applied to a study of human service agency boards of directors. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  164. Williams, J., Babchuk, N., & Johnson, D. (1973). Voluntary associations and minority status: A comparative analysis of Anglos, Blacks, and Mexican Americans. American Sociological Review, 38, 637–646Google Scholar
  165. Williams, J., & Ortega, S. (1986). The multidimensionality of joining. Journal of Voluntary Action Research, 15, 35–44Google Scholar
  166. Williams, M. C. (1985). Neighborhood organizations: Seeds of a new urban life. Westport, CT: GreenwoodGoogle Scholar
  167. Wooley, T. (1985). Community architecture: An assessment of the case for user participation in design. In S. Klein, R. Wener, & S. Lehman (Eds.), EDRA 16/1985. Washington, D.C.: EDRAGoogle Scholar
  168. Yates, D. (1973). Neighborhood democracy. Lexington, MA: HeathGoogle Scholar
  169. Yin, R. K., & Yates, D. (1974). Street-level governments: Assessing decentralization and urban services. Santa Monica, CA: RandGoogle Scholar
  170. Zehner, R. B. (1972). Neighborhood and community satisfaction: A report on new towns and less planned suburbs. In J. F. Wohlwill & D. H. Carson (Eds.), Environment and the social sciences: Perspectives and applications. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  171. Zimmerman, M. (1990). Toward a theory of learned hopefulness: A structural model analysis of participation and empowerment. Journal of Research in Personality, 24, 71–86Google Scholar
  172. Zimmerman, M. A., & Rappaport, J. (1988). Citizen participation, personal control and psychological empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 725–750PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Wandersman
    • 1
  • Paul Florin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbia, SouthUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA

Personalised recommendations