Understanding the Benefits and Costs of Urban Forest Ecosystems

  • David J. Nowak
  • John F. Dwyer

Abstract

One of the first considerations in developing a strong and comprehensive urban forestry program is determining the desired outcomes from managing and maintaining vegetation in cities. Urban trees offer a wide range of potential benefits to the urban environment and society. However, there also are a wide range of potential costs and, as with all ecosystems, numerous interactions that must be understood if society is to optimize the net benefits from urban vegetation. Inadequate understanding of the wide range of benefits, costs, and expected outcomes of urban vegetation management designs and plans, as well as interactions among them, may drastically reduce the contribution of vegetation toward improving urban life and the environment.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Nowak
    • 1
  • John F. Dwyer
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceNortheastern Research StationNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.USDA Forest ServiceNorth Central Research StationEvanstonUSA

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