Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Influences in Research with Child Clinical and Pediatric Psychology Populations

  • Natalie Walders
  • Dennis Drotar
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

It is becoming increasingly necessary for child clinical and pediatric psychologists to possess the skills and knowledge necessary to conduct research and clinical work with ethnically diverse populations (Hall, 1997). Despite increasing demographic diversity within the United States, psychological research has been largely restricted to mainstream, homogeneous samples (Foster & Martinez, 1995). Consequently, the knowledge base concerning both normative and problematic developmental processes within ethnic minority child clinical and pediatric populations remains limited. Graduate and professional level training opportunities for conducting ethnically diverse research are also limited in scope and availability (Ponterotto & Cases, 1987).

Keywords

Ethnic Minority Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Ethnic Identity Ethnic Minority Population Multicultural Counseling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvidrez, J., Azocar, F., & Miranda, J. (1996). Demystifying the concept of ethnicity for psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 903–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, D.R., Casas, A. & Neville, H. (1994). Ethnic minority psychologists: Whom them mentor and benefits they derive from the process. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 22, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aylward, E. H., Butz, A. M., Hutton, N., Joyner, M. D., & Vogelhut, J. W. (1992). Cognitive and motor development in infants at risk for human immunodeficiency virus. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146, 218–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Azibo, D. (1988). Understanding the proper and improper usage of the comparative research framework. Journal of Black Psychology, 15, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachman, J. G. & O’Malley, P. M. (1984). Yea-saying, nay-saying, and going to extremes: Black-white differences in response styles. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, J. A., & Bell, Y. R. (1985). The African self-consciousness Scale: An Africentric personality questionnaire. Western Journal of Black Studies, 9, 61–68.Google Scholar
  7. Bauman, L. J., & Adair, E. G. (1992). The use of ethnographic interviewing to inform questionnaire construction. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 9–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bayley, N. (1969). Bayley Scale of Mental Development. New York: Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  9. Belman, A. I. (1990). AIDS and pediatric neurology. Neurologic Clinics, 6, 571–603.Google Scholar
  10. Bernal, M. E., & Castro, F. G. (1994). Are clinical psychologists prepared for service and research with ethnic minorities? Report of a decade of progress. American Psychologist, 49, 797–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernal, M. E., & Padilla, A. M. (1982). Status of minority curricula and training in clinical psychology. American Psychologist, 37, 780–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dagen, P. R. (1992). Cross-cultural Psychology. Research and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Betancourt, H., & Lopez, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist, 48, 629–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beutler, L. E., Brown, M. T., Crothers, L., Booker, K., & Seabrook, M. K. (1996). The Dilemma of Factitious Demographic Distinctions in Psychological Research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 892–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1979). Home observation for measurement of the environment. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
  16. Carter, R. T. (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy: Toward a racially inclusive model. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Crews, D. E., & Bindon, J. R. (1991). Ethnicity as a taxonomic tool in biomedical and biosocial research. Ethnicity and Disease, 1, 42–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Drotar, D., Olness, K., Wiznitzer, M., Guay, L., Marum, L., Svilar, M. S., Horn, D., Fagan, J. F., Ndugwa, C., & Kiziri-Mayengo, R. (1997). Neurodevelopmental outcomes of Ugandan infants with human immunodeficiency virus type I infection. Pediatrics, 100, El–E5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elardo, R., & Bradley, R. H. (1981). The Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Scale: A review of research. Developmental Review, 1,113–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, J. L. (1970). Children in Africa. A review of psychological research. New York: Teacher’s College Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fagan, J. F., & Detterman, D. (1992). The Fagan test of infant intelligence: A technical summary. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13,173–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fagan, J. F., Drotar, D., Olness, K., Peterson, N., Kiziri-Mayengo, R., Guay, L., Ndugwa, C., & Berkoff, K. (1991). The Fagan test of infant intelligence: Cross-cultural and racial differences. Paper presented at annual meeting of Society for Behavioral Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD, 1991.Google Scholar
  23. Fagan, J. F., Singer, L. T., Montie, J., & Shepherd, P. A. (1986). Selective screening device for the early detection of normal or delayed cognitive development in infants at risk for later mental retardation. Pediatrics, 78, 1021–1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Flack, J. M., Amaro, H. Jenkins, W., Kunitz, S., Levy, J., Mixon, M., & Yu, E. (1995). Panel I: Epidemiology of minority health. Health Psychology, 14, 592–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flaherty, J. A., Gaviria, G.M., Pathak, D., Mitchell, R., Wintrob, R., Richman, J. A., & Birz, S. (1988). Developing instruments for cross-cultural psychiatric research. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Foster, S. L., & Martinez, C. R., Jr. (1995). Ethnicity: Conceptual and methodological issues in child clinical research. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24, 214–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gay, C. L., Armstrong, D., Cohen, D., Lai, S., Hardy, M. D., Swales, T. P., Morrow, C. J., & Scott, G. B. (1995). The effects of HIV on cognitive and motor development in children born to HIV seropositive women with no reported drug use: Birth to 24 months. Pediatrics, 95, 1078–1082.Google Scholar
  28. Goodgame, R. W. (1990). AIDS in Uganda: Clinical and social features. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 383–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Graham, S. (1992). “Most of the subjects were white and middle class”: Trends in published research on African American in selected APA journals, 1970–1989. American Psychologist, 47, 629–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hall, I. C. (1997). Cultural malpractice: The growing obsolescence of psychology with the changing US population. American Psychologist, 52, 642–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Helms, J. E. (1992). Why is there no study of cultural equivalence in standardized cognitive ability testing? American Psychologist, 47, 1083–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hohmann, A. A., & Parron, D. L. (1996). How the new NIH guidelines on inclusion of women and minorities apply: Efficacy trials, effectiveness trials, and validity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 851–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hines, A. M. (1993). Linking qualitative and quantitative methods in cross-cultural survey research: Techniques from cognitive science. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 729–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hughes D., Seidman, E., & Williams, N. (1993). Cultural phenomena and the research enterprise: Toward a culturally anchored methodology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 687–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hui, H. C., & Triandis, H. C. (1989). Effects of culture and response format on extreme response style. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20, 296–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Iwamasa, G. Y., & Smith, S. K. (1996). Ethnic diversity in behavioral psychology. Behavior Modification, 20, 45–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jenkins, R. R., & Parron, D. (1995). Guidelines for adolescent health research: Issues of race and class. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17, 314–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones, J. H. (1993). Bad blood. The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. New York: Maxwell McMillan International.Google Scholar
  39. Kato, P. M., & Mann, T. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of diversity issues in health psychology. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kawaga-Singer, M., Katz, P. A., Taylor, D. A., & Vanderryn, J. H. M. (1996). Health issues for minority adolescents. Lincoln: University of Nebraska PressGoogle Scholar
  41. Korchin, S. J. (1980). Clinical psychology and minority problems. American Psychologist, 35,262–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krahn, G. L., Hohn, M. F., & Kirne, C. (1995). Incorporating qualitative approaches into clinical child psychology research. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24, 204–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. LaFromboise, T. D. (1988). American Indian mental health policy. American Psychologist, 43, 388–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. LaVeist, T. A. (1994). Beyond dummy variables and sample selection: What health services researchers ought to know about race as a variable. Health Services Research, 29, 1–16.Google Scholar
  45. Lefley, H. P. (1984). Cross-cultural training for mental health professionals: Effects on the delivery of services. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 35, 1227–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lemanek, K. L., Buckloh, L. M., Woods, G., & Butler, R. (1995). Diseases of the circulatory system: Sickle cell disease and hemophilia. In M. C. Roberts (Ed.), Handbook of pediatric psychology (2nd ed., pp. 286–309). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lewis, H. A., & Kliewer, W. (1996). Hope, coping, and adjustment among children with sickle cell disease: Tests of mediator and moderator models. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 25–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li, X., Fang, X., Stanton, B., Feigelman, S., & Dong, Q. (1996). The rate and pattern of alcohol consumption among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 19, 353–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maton, K. I. (1993). A bridge between cultures: Linked ethnographic-empirical methodology for culture anchored research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 747–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McCall, R. B., & Carriger, M. S. (1992). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition performance as a predictor of later IQ. Child Development, 64, 57-59.Google Scholar
  51. McKenry, P. C., Everett, J. E., Ramseur, H. P., & Carter, C. J. (1989). Research on black adolescents: A legacy of cultural bias. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 254–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McLoyd, V. C., & Randolph, S. M. (1983). Secular trends in the study of Afro-American children: A review of child development 1936–1980. Biennial Meeting Society for Research in Child Development, Detroit, 1983.Google Scholar
  53. McLoyd, V. C., & Randolph, S. M. (1984). The content and publication of research on Afro-American children: A content analysis. Human Development, 27, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McNeill, B. W., Horn, K. L., & Perez, J. A. (1995). The training and supervisory needs of racial and ethnic minority students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 23, 246–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miller-Jones, D. (1989). Culture and testing. American Psychologist, 44, 360–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Molina, B. S. G., & Chassin, L. (1996). The parent-adolescent relationship at puberty: Hispanic ethnicity and parent alcoholism as moderators. Developmental Psychology, 32, 675–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. National Institutes of Health. (1994). Guidelines on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research. 59, Fed. Reg. 14,508 (Document no. 94-5435). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  58. National Institutes of Health. (1995). Standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. 60, Fed. Reg. 44,673 (Document no. 95-20787). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  59. Neal, A. M., Lilly, R. S., & Zakis, S. (1993). What are African American children afraid of? A preliminary study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 7,129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neal, A. M., Rich, L. N., & Smucker, W. D. (1994). The presence of panic disorder among African American hypertensives: A pilot study. Journal of Black Psychology, 20, 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Neal, A. M., & Turner, S. M. (1991). Anxiety disorders research with African Americans: Current status. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 400–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Norton, I. M., & Manson, S. M. (1996). Research in American Indian and Alaska Native communities: Navigating the cultural universe of values and process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 856–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ogbu, J. U. (1985). A cultural ecology of competence among inner-city blacks. In M. B. Spencer, G. K. Brookins, & W. R. Allen (Eds.), Beginnings: The social and affective development of black children (pp. 45–66). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  64. Okazaki, S., & Sue, S. (1995). Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities. Psychological Assessment, 7, 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Phinney, J. S. (1991). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: A review and integration. Special issue: Ethnic identity and psychological adaptation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13,193–208.Google Scholar
  67. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7,156–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Phinney, J. S. (1996a). Understanding ethnic diversity: The role of ethnic identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40,143–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Phinney, J. S. (1996b). When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean? American Psychologist, 51, 918–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Phinney, J. S., & Chavira, V. (1992). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: An exploratory longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 15, 271–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Phinney, J. S., & Chavira, V. (1995). Parental ethnic socialization and adolescent coping with problems related to ethnicity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 31–53.Google Scholar
  72. Phinney, J. S., Chavira, V., & Tate, J. D. (1993).The effect of ethnic threat on ethnic self-concept and own-group ratings. Journal of Social Psychology, 133, 469–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Phinney, J. S., Chavira, V., & Williamson, L. (1992). Acculturation attitudes and self-esteem among high school and college students. Youth and Society, 23, 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Phinney, J. S., & Onwughalu, M. (1996). Racial identity and perception of American ideals among African American and African students in the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20,127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ponterotto, J. (1988). Racial/ethnic minority research in the Journal of Counseling Psychology. A content analysis and methodological critique. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 410–418.Google Scholar
  76. Ponterotto, M., & Casas, J. (1987). In search of multicultural competence within counselor education programs. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 430–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reid, P. T., & Kelly, E. (1994). Research on women of color: From ignorance to awareness. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ricardo, I. B., & Holden, E. W. (1994). Multicultural training in pediatric and clinical child psychology predoctoral internship programs. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rizzo, T. A., Corsaro, W. A., & Bates, J. E. (1992). Ethnographic methods and interpretive analysis: Expanding the methodological options of psychologists. Developmental Review, 12,101–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rogers-Wiese, M. R. (1992). Racial/ethnic minority research in school psychology. Psychology in the Schools, 29, 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rogoff, B., & Morelli, G. (1994) Cross-cultural perspectives on children’s development. In P. K. Bock (Ed.), Psychological anthropology (pp. 231–242). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  82. Sabnani, H. B., & Ponterotto, J. G. (1992). Racial/ethnic minority-specific instrumentation in counseling research: A review, critique, and recommendations. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 24,161–187.Google Scholar
  83. Sasao, T., & Sue, S. (1993). Toward a culturally anchored ecological framework of research in ethnic-cultural communities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 705–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sigman, M., Neumann, L., Carter, E., Cattle, D. J. D., Souza, S., & Biwilbo, N. (1989). Home interactions and the development of Embu toddlers in Kenya. Child Development, 59,1251–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sokol-Katz, J. A., & Ulbrich, P. M. (1992). Family structure and adolescent risk-taking behavior: A comparison of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans. International Journal of Addictions, 27, 1197–1209.Google Scholar
  86. Stanton, B., Black, M., Feigelman, S., Ricardo, I., Galbraith, J., Li, X., Kaljee, L., Keane, V., & Nesbitt, R. (1995). Development of a culturally, theoretically and developmentally based survey instrument for assessing risk behaviors among African-American early adolescents living in urban low-income neighborhoods. AIDS Education and Prevention, 7,160–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Stanton, B., Fang, X. Li, X., Feigelman, S., Galbraith, J., & Ricardo, I. (1997). Evolution of risk behaviors over two years among a cohort of urban African American adolescents. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 151, 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stanton, B., & Galbraith, J. (1994). Drug trafficking among African-American early adolescents: Prevalence, consequences, and associated behaviors and beliefs. Pediatrics, 93, 1039–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Stanton, B., Li, X., Black, M., Ricardo, I., & Galbraith, J. (1994a). Anal intercourse among preadolescent and early adolescent low-income urban African-Americans. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 148,1201–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stanton, B., Li, X., Black, M., Ricardo, I., Galbraith, J., Kaljee, L., & Feigelman, S. (1994b). Sexual practices and intentions among preadolescent and early adolescent low-income urban African Americans. Pediatrics, 93, 966–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sturm, L., & Gahagan, S. (1999). Cultural issues in provider-parent relationships. In D. Kessler & P. Dawson (Eds.), Failure to thrive and pediatric undernutrition: A transdisciplinary approach (pp. 351–374). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  92. Sue, D. W. (1993). Confronting ourselves: The white and racial/ethnic-minority researcher. Counseling Psychologist, 21, 244–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Triandis, H. C. (1996). The psychological measurement of cultural syndromes. American Psychologist, 51, 407–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Triandis, H. C., & Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. American Psychologist, 39, 1006–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. US Bureau of the Census. (1995). Population division, release PPL-57, United States population estimates, by age, sex, race, and hispanic origin, 1990 to 1996.Google Scholar
  96. US Bureau of the Census. (1995). Current population reports, Series P23–189, Population profile of the United States: 1995. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  97. Vargas, L. A., & Willis, D. J. (1994). Introduction to the special section: New directions in the treatment and assessment of ethnic minority children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 2–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wyatt, G. E. (1991). Examining ethnicity versus race in AIDS related sex research. Social Science Medicine, 33, 37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yee, A. H., Fairchild, H. H., Weizmann, F., & Wyatt, G. E. (1993). Addressing psychology’s problems with race. American Psychologist, 48,.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zuckerman, M. (1990). Some dubious premises in research and theory on racial differences: Scientific, social, and ethical issues. American Psychologist, 45,1297–1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalie Walders
    • 1
  • Dennis Drotar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsRainbow Babies and Children’s HospitalClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations