Disorders of Elimination

  • Janet E. Fischel
  • Robert M. Liebert


Every one of us began life wetting the bed and making a “mess” of diapers on a daily basis. Our parents and others then imposed some form of toilet training on us. By various means they taught us when to eliminate and when to withhold urine and feces and they insisted that we learn to comply with the mles. We were not alone. In a classic study of 22 cultures Whiting and Child (1953) concluded that toilet training is the most basic and universal target of socialization everywhere. Furthermore virtually every culture appears to succeed in toilet training 80-90% of its new members within the expected time limit. The few who remain untrained or who become trained but then relapse are said to have a disorder of elimination.


Nocturnal Enuresis Special Edition Toilet Training Primary Nocturnal Enuresis Functional Bladder Capacity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet E. Fischel
    • 1
  • Robert M. Liebert
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

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