Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars

  • Ronald Greeley
  • Nathan T. Bridges
  • David A. Crown
  • Larry Crumpler
  • Sarah A. Fagents
  • Peter J. Mouginis-Mark
  • James R. Zimbelman


Of all of the planets in the solar system, Mars is the most Earth-like in its geologic characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratering and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the solar system.


Lava Flow Magma Chamber Lunar Planet Mars Global Surveyor Shield Volcano 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, C. C., Volcano-ice interactions on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 84. 8048–8059. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. L., The internai composition of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 77. 789–795, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, V. R., G. Komatsu, R. G. Strom, V. C. Gulick. J. S. Kargel. and V. S. Kale, Ancient oceans, ice sheets, and the hydrologic cycle of Mars, Nature, 352, 589–594. 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banin, A., B. C. Clark, and H. Wänke, Surface chemistry and mineralogy, in Mars, edited by H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, and M. S. Matthews, pp. 594–625. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, J. F., Iron, sulfate, carbonate, and hydrated minerals on Mars, in Mineral Spectroscopy: A Tribute to Roger G. Burns, Geochemical Society Special Publication 5, edited by M. D. Dyar, C. McCammon, and M. W. Schaefer, pp. 359–380, 1996.Google Scholar
  6. Blaney, D. L., and T. B. McCord, An observational search for carbonates on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 10159–10166, 1990.Google Scholar
  7. Blaney, D. L., and T. B. McCord, Indications of sulfate minerals in the Martian soil from Earth-based spectroscopy, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14433–14441, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blasius, K. R., and J. A. Cutts, Topography of Martian central volcanoes, Icarus, 45, 87–112, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borgia, A., J. Burr, W. Montero, L. D. Morales, and G. E. Alvarado, Fault propagation folds induced by gravitational failure and slumping of the central Costa Rica volcanic range: Implications for large terrestrial and Martian volcanic edifices, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 14357–14382, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brackenridge, G. R., H. E. Newsom, and V. R. Baker, Ancient hot springs on Mars: Origins and paleoenvironmental significance of small Martian valleys, Geology, 13, 859–862, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bridges, N. T., R. C. Anderson, J. A. Crisp, T. Economou, and R. Reid, Separating dust and rock APXS measurements based on multispectral data at the Pathfinder landing site, EOS (Trans. Am. Geophys. Union), 78, F402–F403, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. Bruno, B. C., G. J. Taylor, S. K. Rowland, P. G. Lucey, and S. Self, Lava flows are fractals, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 305–308, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. BVTP, Basaltic Volcanism on the Terrestrial Planets, Pergamon Press, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. Carr, M. H., Volcanism on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 4049–4062, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carr, M. H., The Surface of Mars, 232 pp, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1981.Google Scholar
  16. Carr, M. H., Water on Mars, 229 pp., Oxford University Press, London, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. Carr, M. H., and F. C. Chuang, Martian drainage densities, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9145–9152, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr, M. H., and R. Greeley, Volcanic Features of Hawaii: A Basis for Comparison with Mars, NASA SP-403, 211 pp., 1980.Google Scholar
  19. Carr, M. H., and G. G. Schaber, Martian permafrost features, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4039–4065, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carr, M. H., and H. Wanke, Earth and Mars: Water inventories as clues to accretional histories, Icarus, 98, 61–71, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carr, M. H., R. Greeley, K. R. Blasius, J. E. Guest, and J. B. Murray, Some Martian volcanic features as viewed from the Viking orbiters, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 3985–4015, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cattermole, P., Linear volcanic features at Alba Patera-Probable spatter ridges, J. Geophys. Res., 91, E159–E165, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cattermole, P., Sequence, rheological properties, and effusion rates of volcanic flows at Alba Patera, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 92, E553–E560, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christensen, P. R., D. L. Anderson, S. C. Chase, R. N. Clark, H. H. Kieffer, M. C. Malin, J. C. Pearl, J. Carpenter, N. Bandiera, F. G. Brown, and S. Silverman, Thermal Emission Spectrometer Experiment: Mars Observer mission, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7719–7734, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Christensen, P. R., D. L. Anderson, S. C. Chase, R. T. Blancy, R. N. Clark, B. J. Conrath, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. C. Malin, J. C. Pearl, T. L. Roush, and M. D. Smith, Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Science, 279, 1692–1698, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christiansen, E. H., Lahars in the Elysium region of Mars, Geology, 17, 203–206, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Christiansen, E. H., and R. Greeley, Megalahars(?) in the Elysium region, Mars, Lunar Planet. Sci., 12, 138–140, 1981.Google Scholar
  28. Clemens, J. D., Water contents of silicic to intermediate magmas, Lithos, 17, 273–287, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clifford, S. M., A model for the hydrologic and climatic behavior of water on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10973–11016, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crown, D. A., and R. Greeley, Volcanic geology of Hadriaca Patera and the eastern Hellas region of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 3431–3451, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crown, D. A., K. H. Price, and R. Greeley, Geologic evolution of the east rim of the Hellas basin, Mars, Icarus, 100, 1–25, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grumpier, L. S., J. W. Head, and J. C. Aubele, Magma chambers associated with calderas on Mars: Significance of long-term magma replenishment rates, Lunar Planet. Sci., 26, 305–306, 1996a.Google Scholar
  33. Crumpler, L. S., J. W. Head, and J. C. Aubele, Calderas on Mars: Characteristics, structural evolution, and associated flank structures, in Volcanic Instability on Earth and Other Planets, Geological Society of London Special Publication, 110, 307–347, 1996b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dreibus, G., and H. Wanke, Mars, a volatile-rich planet, Meteoritics, 20, 367–381, 1985.Google Scholar
  35. Dreibus, G., E. Jagoutz, and H. Wanke, Water in the Earth’s mantle, Geol. Geofiz., 38, 269–275, 1997.Google Scholar
  36. Edgett, K. S., Possible cinder cones near the summit of Pavonis Mons, Mars, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 21, 311–312, 1990.Google Scholar
  37. Edgett, K. S., Aeolian dunes as evidence for explosive volcanism in the Tharsis region of Mars, Icarus, 130, 96–114, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Edgett, K. S., B. J. Butler, and J. R. Zimbelman, Geologic context of the Mars radar “Stealth” region in southwestern Tharsis, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21545–21567. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fagents, S. A., and L. Wilson, Numerical modeling of ejecta dispersal around the sites of volcanic explosions on multiple regression, Icarus, 123, 284–295, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fink, J. H., Surface folding and viscosity of rhyolite flows. Geology: 8, 250–254. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Folkner, W. M., C. F. Yoder, D. N. Yuan, E. M. Standish, and R. A. Preston, Interior structure and seasonal mass redistribution of Mars from radio tracking of Mars Pathfinder. Science. 278. 1749–1752. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Francis, P. W., and G. Wadge, The Olympus Mons aureole: Formation by gravitational spreading, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 8333–8344, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Francis, P. W., and C. A. Wood, Absence of silicic volcanism on Mars: Implications for crustal composition and volatile abundance, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 9881–9889, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frey, H., and M. Jarosewich, Subkilometer Martian volcanoes: Properties and possible terrestrial analogs, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 9867–9879, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frey, H., B. L. Lowry, and S. A. Chase, Pseudocraters on Mars. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 8075–8086, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gill, J., Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics, 390 pp., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glaze, L. S., and S. M. Baloga, Dimensions of Puu Oo lava flows on Mars. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13659–13666, 1998.Google Scholar
  48. Greeley, R., Mariner 9 photographs of small volcanic structures on Mars. Geol. Soc. Am., I, 175–180, 1973.Google Scholar
  49. Greeley, R., Volcanic morphology, in Volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: A Comparative Planetary Geology Guidebook, NASA CR-154621. 1977.Google Scholar
  50. Greeley, R., and D. A. Crown, Volcanic geology of Tyrrhena Patera. Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 7133–7149, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Greeley, R., and J. E. Guest, Geologic map of the eastern equatorial region of Mars. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map, I-1802B, 1987.Google Scholar
  52. Greeley, R., and P. D. Spudis, Volcanism in the cratered terrain hemisphere of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 5, 453–455, 1978.Google Scholar
  53. Greeley, R., and P. D. Spudis, Volcanism on Mars, Rev. Geophys., 19, 13–41, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Greeley, R., and B. D. Schneid, Magma generation on Mars: Amounts, rates, and comparisons with Earth, Moon, and Venus, Science, 254, 996–998, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gregg, T. K. P., and J. H. Fink, Variations in lava flow width related to effusion rates through laboratory simulations, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 28, 461–462, 1997.Google Scholar
  56. Gregg, T. K. P., D. A. Crown, and R. Greeley, Geologic map of MTM quadrangle-20252. Tyrrhena Patera region of Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map, I-2556, 1998.Google Scholar
  57. Gudmundsson, A., Formation of collapse calderas, Geology, 16. 808–810. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gulick, V. C., and V. R. Baker, Origin and evolution of valleys on Martian volcanoes. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 14325–14344, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harris, S. A., The aureole of Olympus Mons, J. Geophys. Res., 82. 3099–3107, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harvey, R. P., and H. Y. McSween, The parent magma of the Nakhlite meteorites: Clues from melt inclusions, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 82, 3099–3107, 1977.Google Scholar
  61. Head, J. W., and L. Wilson, Basaltic pyroclastic eruptions: Influence of gas-release patterns and volume fluxes on fountain structure, and the formation of cinder cones, spatter cones, rootless flows, lava ponds and lava flows, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 37, 261–271. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Head, J. W., M. Settle, and C. A. Wood, Origin of the Olympus Mons escarpment by erosion of pre-volcano substrate, Nature, 263, 667–668, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hodges, C. A., and H. J. Moore, The subglacial birth of Olympus Mons and its aureoles. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 8061–8074, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hodges, C. A., and H. J. Moore, Atlas of volcanic landforms on Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 1534, 61–70, 1994.Google Scholar
  65. Hulme, G., The dependence of the rheological properties and effusion rate of an Olympus Mons lava, Icarus, 27, 207–213, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hviid, S. F., M. B. Madsen, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, W., Goetz, J. M. Knudsen. R. B. Hargraves, P. Smith. D. Britt, A. R. Dinesen, C. T. Mogensen, M. Olsen, C. Pederson, and L. Vistisen. Magnetic properties experiments on the Mars Pathfinder lander: Preliminary results. Science, 278, 1768–1770, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jagoutz, E., H. Palme, H. Baddenhausen, K. Blum, M. Cendales, G. Dreibus, B. Spettel, V. Lorenz, and H. Wanke, The abundance of major, minor, and trace elements in the Earth’s mantle as derived from primitive ultramafic nodules, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., 10, 2031–2050, 1979.Google Scholar
  68. Johnson, M. C., M. J. Rutherford, and P. C. Hess, Chassigny petrogenesis: Melt compositions, intensive parameters, and water contents of Martian (?) magmas, Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, 349–366, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Johnson, M. C., A. T. Anderson, Jr., and M. J. Rutherford, Pre-eruptive volatile contents of magmas, in Volatiles in Magmas, Reviews in Mineralogy, edited by M. R. Carroll and J. R. Holloway, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, 30, 281–330, 1994.Google Scholar
  70. Kieffer, H. H., T. Z. Martin, A. R. Peterfreund, B. M. Jakosky, E. D. Miner, and F. D. Palluconi, Thermal and albedo mapping of Mars during the Viking primary mission, J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4249–4291, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. King, E. A., Geologic map of the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle of Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest Ser. Map, I-1073, 1978.Google Scholar
  72. King, J. S., and J. R. Riehle, A proposed origin for the Olympus Mons escarpment, Icarus, 23, 300–317, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Longhi, J., and V. Pan, The parent magmas of the SNC meteorites, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., 19, 451–464, 1989.Google Scholar
  74. Longhi, J., E. Knittle, J. R. Holloway, and H. Wanke, The bulk composition, mineralogy and internal structure of Mars, in Mars, edited by H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, and M. S. Matthews, pp. 184–208, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1992.Google Scholar
  75. Lopes, R. M. C., and C. R. J. Kilburn, Emplacement of lava flow fields:Application of terrestrial studies to Alba Patera, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 14383–14397, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lopes, R. M. C., J. E. Guest, K. H. Hiller, and G. P. O. Neukum, Further evidence for mass movement origin of the Olympus Mons aureole, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 9917–9928, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Malin, M. C., Comparison of volcanic features of Elysium (Mars) and Tibesti (Earth), Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 88, 909–919, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Malin, M. C., Lengths of Hawaiian lava flows, Geology, 8, 306–308, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Masursky, H., R. M. Batson, J. F. McCauley, L. A. Soderblom, R. L. Wildey, M. H. Carr, D. J. Milton, D. E. Wilhelms, B. A. Smith, T. B. Kirby, J. C. Robinson, C. B. Levoy, G. A. Briggs, T. C. Duxbury, C. H. Acton, B. C. Murray, J. A. Cutts, R. P. Sharp, S. Smith, R. B. Leighton, C. Sagan, J. Veverka, M. Noland, G. De Vaucoulerus, M. Davies, and A. T. Young, Mariner 9 television reconnaissance of Mars and its satellites: Preliminary results, Science, 175, 294–304, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McCauley, J. F., M. H. Carr, J. A. Cutts, W. K. Hartmann, H. Masursky, D. J. Milton, R. P. Sharp, and D. E. Wilhelms, Preliminary Mariner 9 report on the geology of Mars, Icarus, 17, 289–327, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McCoy, T. J., G. J. Taylor, and K. Keil, Zagami: Product of a two-stage magmatic history, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 3571–3582, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McGetchin, T. R., and J. R. Smyth, The mantle of Mars: Some possible geological implications of its high density, Icarus, 34, 512–536, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McGuire, W. J., Volcano instability: A review of contemporary themes, in Volcano Instability on Earth and Other Planets, pp. 1–23, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 1996.Google Scholar
  84. McSween, H. Y., What we have learned about Mars from SNC meteorites, Meteoritics, 29, 757–779, 1994.Google Scholar
  85. McSween, H. Y., and R. P. Harvey, Outgassed water on Mars: Constraints from melt inclusions in SNC meteorites, Science, 259, 1890–1892, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McSween, H. Y.,Jr., S. L. Murchie, J. A. Crisp, N. T. Bridges, R. C. Anderson, J. F. Bell III, D. T. Britt, J. Bruckner, G. Dreibus, T. Economou, A. Ghosh, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Greenwood, J. R. Johnson, H. J. Moore, R. V. Morris, T. J. Parker, R. Rieder, R. Singer, and H. Wanke, Chemical, multispectral, and textural constraints on the composition and origin of rocks at the Mars Pathfinder landing site, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 8679–8715, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moore, H. I, D. W. G. Arthur, and G. G. Schaber, Yield strengths of flows on the Earth, Mars, and Moon, Proc. Lunar Planet Sci., 9, 3351–3378, 1978.Google Scholar
  88. Moore, J. G., D. A. Clauge, R. T. Holcomb, P. W. Lipman, W. R. Normark, and M. E. Torresan, Prodigious submarine landslides on the Hawaiian ridge, J. Geophys, Res., 94, 17465–17484, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Morgan, J. W., and E. Anders, Chemical composition of Mars, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 43, 1601–1610, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Morris, E. C., Aureole deposits of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1164–1178, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., Volcano/ground ice interactions in Elysium Planitia, Mars, Icarus, 64, 265–284, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., The influence of oceans on Martian volcanism, Lunar Planet. Sci., 24, 1021–1022, 1993.Google Scholar
  93. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., and M. S. Robinson, Evolution of the Olympus Mons caldera, Mars, Bull. Volcanol., 54, 347–360, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., and M. Tatsumura-Yoshioka, The long lava flows of Elysium Planitia, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 19389–19400, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., L. Wilson, and J. W. Head, Explosive volcanism on Hecates Tholus, Mars; Investigation of eruption conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 87. 9890–9904, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., L. Wilson, J. W. Head, H. Brown-Steven, J. L. Hall, and K. D. Sullivan, Elysium Planitia, Mars: Regional geology, volcanology, and evidence for volcano-ground ice interactions, Earth Moon Planets, 30, 149–173, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mouginis-Mark, P. J., L. Wilson, and J. R. Zimbelman. Polygenic eruptions on Alba Patera, Mars, Bull. Volcanol., 50, 361–379, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Muhleman, D. O., A. W. Grossman, B. J. Butler, and M. A. Slade. Radar images of Mars, Science, 253, 1508–1513, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Neukum, G., and K. Hiller, Martian ages, J. Geophys. Res., 86. 3097–3121, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Owen, T., The composition and early history of the atmosphere of Mars, in Mars, edited by H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W Snyder, and M. S. Matthews, pp. 818–834, university of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1992.Google Scholar
  101. Parker, T. J., D. S. Gorsline, R. S. Saunders, D. C. Pieri. and D. M. Schneeberger, Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 11061–11078, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Peterson, J. E., Geologic map of the Noachis quadrangle of Mars. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map, 1-910, 1977.Google Scholar
  103. Peterson, J. E., Volcanism in the Noachis-Hellas region of Mars, 2. Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., 9, 3411–3432, 1978.Google Scholar
  104. Plescia, J. B., The Tempe volcanic province of Mars and comparisons with the Snake River Plains of Idaho, Icarus, 45, 586–601, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Plescia, J. B., An assessment of volatile release from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars, Icarus, 104, 20–32, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Plescia, J. B., and R. S. Saunders, The chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., 10, 2841–2859, 1979.Google Scholar
  107. Pollack, J. B., T. Roush, F. Witteborn, J. Bregman, D. Wooden, C. Stoker. O. B. Toon, D. Rank, B. Dalton, and R. Freedman, Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4–10.5 μn): Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 14595–14628, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Popp, R. K., D. Virgo, and W Phillips-Michael, H deficiency in kaersutitic amphiboles: Experimental verification, Am. Mineral., 80,. 1347–1350. 1995.Google Scholar
  109. Potter, D. B., Geologic map of the Hellas quadrangle of Mars. U.S. Geol. Surv Misc. Invest. Ser. Map, 1-941, 1976.Google Scholar
  110. Reimers, P. E., and P. D. Komar, Evidence for explosive volcanic density currents on certain Martian volcanoes, Icarus, 39, 88–110, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rieder, R., T. Economou, H. Wänke, A. Turkevich, J. Crisp, J. Brückner, G. Dreibus, and H. Y. McSween, Jr., The chemical composition of Martian soil and rocks returned by the mobile alpha proton X-ray spectrometer: Preliminary results from the X-ray mode, Science. 278, 1771–1774, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Robinson, M. S., and S. K. Rowland, Evidence for large scale sector collapse at Tharsis Tholus, in Conf. Volcano Instability Earth and Other Planets, p. 44, Geological Society of London. 1994.Google Scholar
  113. Robinson, M. S., P. J. Mouginis-Mark, J. R. Zimbelman, S. S. C. Wu. K. K. Ablin, and A. E. Howtington-Kraus, Chronology, eruption duration, and atmospheric contribution of the Martian volcano Apollinaris Patera, Icarus, 104, 301–323, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rubin, A. M., and D. D. Pollard, Origins of blade-like dikes in volcanic rift zones, in Volcanism in Hawaii, edited by R. W. Decker, T L. Wright, and P. H. Stauffer, pp. 1449–1470. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 1350, 1987.Google Scholar
  115. Schneeberger, D. M., and D. C. Pieri, Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 1907–1930, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schubert, G., S. C. Solomon, D. L. Turcotte, M. J. Drake, and N. H. Sleep, Origin and thermal evolution of Mars, in Mars, edited by H. H. Kieffer, B. M. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, and M. S. Matthews, pp. 147–183, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1992.Google Scholar
  117. Scott, D. H., Volcanoes and volcanic provinces: Martian western hemisphere, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 9839–9851, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Scott, D. H., and K. L. Tanaka, Mars: A large highland volcanic province revealed by Viking images, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., 12, 1449–1458, 1981.Google Scholar
  119. Scott, D. H., and K. L. Tanaka, Geologic map of the western equatorial region of Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Map, I-1802-A, 1986.Google Scholar
  120. Smith, D. E., M. T. Zuber, H. V. Frey, J. B. Garvin. J. W. Head, D. O. Muhleman, H. J. Zwally, W. B. Banerdt, T. C. Duxbury, G. H. Pettengill, R. O. Phillips, and S. C. Solomon. Topography of the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, Science. 279, 1686–1692, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Smith, P. H., J. F. Bell III, N. T Bridges. D. T. Britt, L. Gaddis, R. Greeley. H. Kueller, K. E. Herkenhoff, R. Jaumann, J. R. Johnson, R. L. Kirk, M. Lemmon, J. N. Maki. M. C. Malin. S. L. Murchie, J. Oberst, T. J. Parker, R. J. Reid, R. Sablotny, L. A. Soderblom, C. Stoker, R. Sullivan, N. Thomas, M. G. Tomasko, W. Ward, and E. Wegryn, Results from the Mars Pathfinder camera, Science, 278. 1758–1765, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Soderblom, L. A., Historical variations in the density and distribution of impacting debris in the inner solar system: Evidence from planetary imaging, in Impact and Explosion Cratering, edited by D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill, pp. 629–633, Pergamon Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  123. Soderblom, L. A., The composition and mineralogy of the Martian surface from spectroscopic observations: 0.3 mm to 50mm, in Mars, edited by H. H. Kieffer, B. J. Jakosky, C. W. Snyder, and M. S. Matthews, pp. 557–593, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1992.Google Scholar
  124. Sparks, R. S. J., The dynamics of bubble generation and growth in magmas: A review and analysis, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 3, 1–37, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Squyres, S. W., D. E. Wilhelms, and A. C. Moosman, Large-scale volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars, Icarus, 70, 385–408, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tanaka, K. L., Ice-lubricated gravity spreading of the Olympus Mons aureole deposit, Icarus, 62, 191–206, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tanaka, K. L., and D. H. Scott, Geologic map of the polar regions of Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map, I-1802-C, 1987.Google Scholar
  128. Tanaka, K. L., N. K. Isbell, D. H. Scott, R. Greeley, and J. E. Guest, The resurfacing history of Mars: A synthesis of digitized, Viking-based geology, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci., 18, 665–678, 1988.Google Scholar
  129. Treiman, A. H., The parent magma of the Nakhla (SNC) meteorite, inferred from magmatic inclusions, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 4753–4767, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Walker, G. P. L., Lengths of lava flows, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 274, 107–118, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weidenschilling, S. I, Accretion of the terrestrial planets. II, Icarus, 27, 161–170, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Whitford-Stark, J. L., Factors influencing the morphology of volcanic landforms: An Earth-Moon comparison, Earth Sci. Rev., 18, 109–168, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wilson, L., and J. W. Head, A comparison of volcanic eruption processes on Earth, Moon, Mars, Io, and Venus, Nature, 302, 663–669, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wilson, L., and J. W. Head, Factors controlling the structures of magma chambers in basaltic volcanoes, Lunar Planet. Sci., 21, 1343–1344, 1990.Google Scholar
  135. Wilson, L., and J. W. Head, Mars: Review and analysis of volcanic eruption theory and relationships to observed landforms, Rev. Geophys., 32, 221–263, 1994.Google Scholar
  136. Wilson, L., S. J. Sparks, T. C. Huang, and N. D. Watkins, The control of volcanic column heights by eruption energetics and dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1829–1836, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wilson, L., J. W. Head, and P. J. Mouginis-Mark, Theoretical analysis of Martian volcanic eruption mechanisms, in The Planet Mars, ESA SP-185, pp. 107–113, Leeds, UK, 1982.Google Scholar
  138. Wise, D. U., Geologic map of the Arcadia quadrangle of Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map, 1-1154, 1979.Google Scholar
  139. Wood, B. J., A. Pawley, and D. R. Frost, Water and carbon in the Earth’s mantle, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 354, 1495–1511, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wood, C. A., Monogenetic volcanoes of the terrestrial planets, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 10, 2815–2840, 1979.Google Scholar
  141. Wood, C. A., Calderas: A planetary perspective, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 8391–8406, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zimbelman, J. R., Estimates of rheologie properties for flows on the Martian volcano Ascraeus Mons, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 16, in J. Geophys. Res., 90 (suppl.), D157–D162, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Zuber, M. T., and P. J. Mouginis-Mark, Caldera subsidence and magma chamber depth of the Olympus Mons volcano, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18295–18307, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Greeley
  • Nathan T. Bridges
  • David A. Crown
  • Larry Crumpler
  • Sarah A. Fagents
  • Peter J. Mouginis-Mark
  • James R. Zimbelman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations